2,762 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. 2021-10-18

    2. Illari, L., Restrepo, N. J., Leahy, R., Velasquez, N., Lupu, Y., & Johnson, N. F. (2021). Losing the battle over best-science guidance early in a crisis: Covid-19 and beyond. ArXiv:2110.09634 [Nlin, Physics:Physics]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2110.09634

    3. Losing the battle over best-science guidance early in a crisis: Covid-19 and beyond
    4. Ensuring widespread public exposure to best-science guidance is crucial in a crisis, e.g. Covid-19, climate change. Mapping the emitter-receiver dynamics of Covid-19 guidance among 87 million Facebook users, we uncover a multi-sided battle over exposure that gets lost well before the pandemic's official announcement. By the time Covid-19 vaccines emerge, the mainstream majority -- including many parenting communities -- have moved even closer to more extreme communities. The hidden heterogeneity explains why Facebook's own promotion of best-science guidance also missed key audience segments. A simple mathematical model reproduces these exposure dynamics at the system level. Our findings can be used to tailor guidance at scale while accounting for individual diversity, and to predict tipping point behavior and system-level responses to interventions.
    1. 2021-10-19

    2. Thaker, J., & Richardson, L. (2021). COVID-19 Vaccine Segments in Australia: An Audience Segmentation Analysis to Improve Vaccine Uptake [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/y85nm

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/y85nm
    4. Background Knowing your audience is the first step in an effective public health communication campaign. While previous studies provide broad categories of public intentions to get a COVID-19 vaccine, few systematically segment and identify effective ways to engage with distinct publics to improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Methods Using data from a national sample of Australian public (N = 1054) and based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, a latent class analysis of 23 items was undertaken to identify COVID-19 audience segments for potential future message targeting. Findings We found five different segments on COVID-19 vaccine intentions: Vaccine enthusiasts (28%), supporters (26%), socials (20%), hesitant (15%), and sceptics (10%). While the vaccine hesitants have concerns about safety and side-effects of the vaccine, the sceptics hold additional concerns about the need for a vaccine and dismiss the health risks. Vaccine socials hold less favourable attitudes towards a COVID-19 vaccine but are willing to get one to protect others. These audience segments differ on demographic variables and in their level of trust in mainstream media, scientists and health experts, social media, and family and friends. In particular, we found the most vulnerable—the poor and undereducated—may need further help in understanding the need and importance of COVID-19 vaccination. Interpretation Understanding the COVID-19 vaccine attitudinal and information seeking characteristics of these sub-publics will help inform appropriate messaging campaigns to reach out to vaccine hesitant and sceptics for promoting vaccination. It provides insight into what types of message framing may be effective, through which platforms messages should be provided, and by which trusted sources.
    5. COVID-19 Vaccine Segments in Australia: An Audience Segmentation Analysis to Improve Vaccine Uptake
    1. 2021-10-19

    2. Overall, N., Chang, V., Low, R. S. T., Henderson, A. M. E., McRae, C., & Pietromonaco, P. R. (2021). Risk versus Resilience in Parents’ Health and Family Functioning Across the Pandemic [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/np7w8

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/np7w8
    4. Are parents and families struggling with the ongoing demands of the pandemic, or are parents resilient and adjusted to the ‘new normal’? Assessing average risk versus resilience requires examining how parents and families have fared across the pandemic, beyond the initial months examined in prior investigations. The current research examines average levels of risk versus resilience in parents’ health and functioning over the first 1.5 years of the pandemic. Parents (N = 272) who had completed general assessments prior to the pandemic completed reassessments of psychological and physical health, couple and family functioning, and parenting within two lockdowns involving mandatory home confinement: at the beginning of the pandemic (26 March–28 April 2020) and 17 months later (18 August–21 September 2021). On average, parents exhibited declines in psychological and physical health (greater depressive symptoms; reduced well-being, energy and physical health) and in couple and family functioning (reduced commitment and family cohesion; greater problem severity and family chaos). By contrast, parent-child relationship quality and parenting practices were resilient with no average differences across the lockdowns. Declines in health and couple/family functioning generally occurred irrespective of pre-existing vulnerabilities (poor health and functioning prior to the pandemic) and external stress (reported impact of the pandemic). Partner support, however, tended to buffer declines in couple/family functioning. The results emphasize that attending to the challenges parents and couples face in the home will be important targets to mitigate the ongoing risks of the pandemic to parents’ and children’s well-being.
    5. Risk versus Resilience in Parents’ Health and Family Functioning Across the Pandemic
    1. 2021-10-18

    2. Henderson, R. K., & Schnall, S. (2021). Social Threat Indirectly Increases Moral Condemnation via Thwarting Fundamental Social Needs [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/rjzys

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/rjzys
    4. Individuals who experience threats to their social needs may attempt to avert further harm by condemning wrongdoers more severely. Three pre-registered studies tested whether threatened social esteem is associated with increased moral condemnation. In Study 1 (N = 381) participants played a game in which they were socially included or excluded and then evaluated the actions of moral wrongdoers. We observed an indirect effect: Exclusion increased social needs-threat, which in turn increased moral condemnation. Study 2 (N = 428) was a direct replication, and also showed this indirect effect. Both studies demonstrated the effect across five moral foundations, which was most pronounced for harm violations. Study 3 (N= 102) examined dispositional concerns about social needs threat, namely social anxiety, and showed a positive correlation between this trait and moral judgments. Overall, results suggest threatened social standing is linked to moral condemnation, presumably because moral wrongdoers pose a further threat when one’s ability to cope is already compromised.
    5. Social Threat Indirectly Increases Moral Condemnation via Thwarting Fundamental Social Needs
    1. 2021-10-12

    2. Rono, E. K. (2021). Covid-19 genomic analysis reveals clusters of emerging sublineages within the delta variant [Preprint]. Genomics. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.08.463334

    3. 10.1101/2021.10.08.463334
    4. The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants may potentially have enhanced transmissibility and virulence of the virus, and impacts on performance of diagnostic tools and efficacy of vaccines. Genomic surveillance provides an opportunity to detect and characterize new mutations early enough for effective deployment of control strategies. Here, genomic data from Germany and United Kingdom were examined for genetic diversity by assessing gene mutations and inferring phylogeny. Delta variant sublineages were grouped into seven distinct clusters of spike mutations located in N-terminal domain of S1 region (T95I, D138H, *D142G, Y145H and A222V) and S2 region (T719I and *N950D). The most predominant cluster was T95I mutation, with the highest frequencies (71.1% - 83.9%) in Wales, England and Scotland, and the least frequencies (8.9% - 12.1%) in Germany. Two mutations, *D142G and *N950D here described as *reverse mutations and T719I mutation, were largely unique to Germany. In a month, frequencies of D142G had increased from 55.6% to 67.8 % in Germany. Additionally, a cluster of D142G+T719I/T mutation went up from 27.7% to 34.1%, while a T95I+ D142G+N950D/N cluster rose from 19.2% to 26.2%. Although, two distinct clusters of T95I+D138H (2.6% - 3.8%) and T95I+Y145H+A222V (2.5% - 8.5%) mutations were present in all the countries, they were most predominant in Wales and Scotland respectively. Results suggest divergent evolutionary trajectories between the clusters of D142G mutation and those of T95I mutation. These findings provide insights into underlying dynamics of evolution of the delta variant. Future studies may evaluate the epidemiological and biological implications of these sublineages.
    5. Covid-19 genomic analysis reveals clusters of emerging sublineages within the delta variant
  2. Oct 2021
    1. 2021-10-06

    2. John Roberts on Twitter: “154k booster 💉reported today in 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿, bringing the total to 1.58m, out of 4.56m. So that’s another 3m eligible for a jab as soon as they can be scheduled in. 1/ https://t.co/tw1JmrOiUo” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved October 15, 2021, from https://twitter.com/john_actuary/status/1445785517774176262

    3. The 80+ percentage is rising rapidly, up 5% (from 18.3%) in the 3 days since I started reporting these figures. Note many boosters are also being given to H&C workers, which is presumable why the figures below 65 are slightly higher than immediately above it. 2/2
    4. 154k booster reported today in , bringing the total to 1.58m, out of 4.56m. So that's another 3m eligible for a jab as soon as they can be scheduled in. 1/
    1. 2021-10-14

    2. Covid-19 vaccination in children, adolescents, and young adults: How can we ensure high vaccination uptake? - The BMJ. (n.d.). Retrieved October 14, 2021, from https://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2021/10/14/covid-19-vaccination-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-how-can-we-ensure-high-vaccination-uptake

    3. After a rapid start, the pace of the United Kingdom’s (UK) covid-19 vaccination programme has slowed down while the UK still faces high infection, hospitalisation, and death rates, and a more transmissible Delta SARS-CoV-2 variant. Now that vaccination of children aged 12-15 has started, it is essential to achieve a high uptake of vaccination in this group, and also in young adults, to both protect them and to move the UK closer towards population level immunity. [1,2] Despite two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and AstraZeneca vaccines offering good protection against the Delta variant—with Pfizer-BioNTech and AstraZeneca vaccines between 92-96% effective in preventing hospitalisations—many young people remain unvaccinated by choice, raising their risk of infection, hospitalisation, and long-term complications from covid-19. [3-5]
    4. Covid-19 vaccination in children, adolescents, and young adults: how can we ensure high vaccination uptake?
    1. 2021-09-25

    2. Matt Butler on Twitter: “The public’s verdict on SARS-CoV2, the virus causing Covid-19, and the importance this has in Hospitals. Firstly the majority of frontline staff and public surveyed agree #COVIDisAirborne. Yes echo chamber and all but this is the best I have till a big hitter does similar. /1 https://t.co/Yzg9y4NWSM” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved October 10, 2021, from https://twitter.com/mjb302/status/1441580000508092416

    3. The public's verdict on SARS-CoV2, the virus causing Covid-19, and the importance this has in Hospitals. Firstly the majority of frontline staff and public surveyed agree #COVIDisAirborne. Yes echo chamber and all but this is the best I have till a big hitter does similar. /1
    1. 2021-10-07

    2. Dr Nisreen Alwan 🌻 on Twitter: “New @ONS #LongCovid estimates published today: 1.1 MILLION (1.7% of the whole UK population). Up from the summer estimate of 1.5%. 211,000 people with daily activities ‘limited a lot’. Greatest % in working age (35-69y). Rising prevalence in 17-24y. A tsunami of chronic illness.” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved October 10, 2021, from https://twitter.com/Dr2NisreenAlwan/status/1446110337753829379

    3. New @ONS #LongCovid estimates published today: 1.1 MILLION (1.7% of the whole UK population). Up from the summer estimate of 1.5%. 211,000 people with daily activities “limited a lot”. Greatest % in working age (35-69y). Rising prevalence in 17-24y. A tsunami of chronic illness.
    1. EuroPCom. (n.d.). Retrieved October 10, 2021, from https://cor.europa.eu/en/events/Pages/europcom.aspx

    2. EuroPCom 2021 will run as a fully digital event from 10:00 on Monday 8 November until 14:00 on Tuesday 9 November. Under the headline “Changing communication - Communicating change", this year's edition will focus on three main themes: Democracy, Green Deal and Digitalisation, which will include the discussion themes suggested by the applicants.The event will have a strong interactive element, offering opportunities for attendants to participate actively during the EuroPCom Talks, the workshop Q&As and the Ideas Labs. The Virtual Market Place, which will be open throughout the event and during the breaks, will also provide various networking opportunities.The call for applications for EuroPCom 2021 has been very successful and we thank all the applicants. We have received: 120 proposals for workshops and speakers;32 applications for Ideas Labs; and​34 applications for the Market Place​ from the partner EU institutions as well as Regional offices, associations, consultancies, communication agencies, academia and private persons. While our teams are currently concentrating their efforts on the development of the digital platform, the website and the web app, and on the structure and content of the sessions, we can already highlight that during the Opening Session a panel of speakers will look at how the COVID 19 has changed the way we communicate, both externally and internally, and what we can expect for the future.EuroPCom, the European Public Communication Conference, is an annual conference and networking event for communication experts from local, regional, national and European authorities, as well as private communication agencies, NGOs and academia. Since its launch in 2009, EuroPCom has featured high-level speakers from the world of public communication, workshops, participatory ideas labs and training sessions, plus a EuroPCom Market Place for participants to network and engage with exhibitors. The event is organised by the European Committee of the Regions in partnership with the Council of the European Union, the European Parliament, the European Commission, the European Economic and Social Committee, the European Investment Bank and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Each year, a call for proposals is launched to offer the EuroPCom community an opportunity to submit their ideas for interesting workshop topics and speakers, as well as a call for ideas labs organisers and exhibitors to submit their applications to be part of the conference.
    3. EuroPCom 2021: looking forward to seeing you online on 8 and 9 November!
    1. 2021-09-28

    2. Hansmann, R., Fritz, L., Pagani, A., Clément, G., & Binder, C. R. (2021). Activities, Housing Situation and Other Factors Influencing Psychological Strain Experienced During the First COVID-19 Lockdown in Switzerland. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 735293. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.735293

    3. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.735293
    4. Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis and the corresponding first nationwide lockdown from mid-March to 10 May 2020 engendered considerable psychological strain among people in Switzerland. This study analyzes determinants of changes in subjective levels of psychological strain experienced during the lockdown. Methods: An online survey conducted as part of a larger mixed methods study examined the material and emotional aspects of individual reactions to the lockdown from a socio-ecological perspective. Participants (N = 5932) were asked about their personal and employment status, housing features, changes in various activities (e.g., physical activity, watching TV, social media use) and aspects of mental distress and well-being. Results: A substantial share of participants reported to feel depressed (33%) and anxious (43%) more often during the COVID-19 lockdown than before, whereas significantly (p < 0.001) less persons reported a decrease of these negative feelings (depressed 17%; anxious 14%). Women, single people, students and people who lost their jobs or were temporally unemployed due to the lockdown experienced a particularly strong increase of subjective psychological strain. Important residential factors reducing subjective psychological strain were the general comfort of the housing situation and having a private garden or multiple types of outdoor space. Considering leisure activities, the strongest positive psychological effect resulted from increased physical activities, followed by reading and cooking. However, 45% of the participants reported a decreased frequency of physical activity during the lockdown compared to before, whereas significantly less persons (26%) reported a corresponding increase (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Consistent with other studies, the results indicate a substantial reduction of subjective psychological well-being of the population during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Switzerland. The psychological burdens which the participants experienced differ depending on personal characteristics and situational factors. Negative psychological and economic consequences and gender inequalities should accordingly be carefully considered and actively prevented when designing COVID-19 measures. Supportive economic and social, cognitive and behavioral psychological interventions need to be designed and implemented to maintain the well-being of residents during lockdown.
    5. Activities, Housing Situation and Other Factors Influencing Psychological Strain Experienced During the First COVID-19 Lockdown in Switzerland
    1. COVID-19 immunity: Natural infection compared to vaccination | British Society for Immunology. (n.d.). Retrieved October 10, 2021, from https://www.immunology.org/coronavirus/connect-coronavirus-public-engagement-resources/covid-immunity-natural-infection-vaccine

    2. The British Society for Immunology has partnered with the UK Coronavirus Immunology Consortium (UK-CIC) to create an infographic which explains the difference in immunity against COVID-19 gained through natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 compared to vaccination. Scroll down this page to discover more, click the download link to print the graphic or share on social media tagging @britsocimm and @UKCICstudy to help strengthen public understanding. The UK-CIC is looking at what parts of the immune system are involved in generating a protective response against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, as well as after vaccination. It's likely that for most people vaccination against COVID-19 will induce more effective and longer lasting immunity than that induced by natural infection with the virus. Even if you've had COVID-19, you're recommended to get the vaccine because it will boost whatever immunity you have from natural infection. Knowledge of COVID-19 and vaccine immunology will continue to evolve and this infographic is accurate at the time of publishing in June 2021.
    3. COVID-19 immunity: Natural infection compared to vaccination
    1. 2021-10-04

    2. Comirnaty and Spikevax: EMA recommendations on extra doses and boosters | European Medicines Agency. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2021, from https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/news/comirnaty-spikevax-ema-recommendations-extra-doses-boosters

    3. EMA’s human medicines committee (CHMP) has concluded that an extra dose of the COVID-19 vaccines Comirnaty (BioNTech/Pfizer) and Spikevax (Moderna) may be given to people with severely weakened immune systems, at least 28 days after their second dose.The recommendation comes after studies showed that an extra dose of these vaccines increased the ability to produce antibodies against the virus that causes COVID-19 in organ transplant patients with weakened immune systems.1 2Although there is no direct evidence that the ability to produce antibodies in these patients protected against COVID-19, it is expected that the extra dose would increase protection at least in some patients. EMA will continue monitoring any data that emerges on its effectiveness.The product information of both vaccines will be updated to include this recommendation.
    4. Comirnaty and Spikevax: EMA recommendations on extra doses and boosters
    1. 2021-10-06

    2. Timothy Caulfield on Twitter: “Will you fall into the conspiracy theory rabbit hole? Https://t.co/8mLQqSBnqb by @databyler @codingyan Good breakdown on some of the social forces (like ideology) that drive conspiracy theories. Despite the fact I study topic, still amazed how many believe this stuff. Https://t.co/L1T0cpy9kB” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2021, from https://twitter.com/CaulfieldTim/status/1445794723101175818

    3. Will you fall into the conspiracy theory rabbit hole? https://washingtonpost.com/opinions/interactive/2021/conspiracy-theory-quiz/?utm_campaign=wp_post_most&utm_medium=email&utm_source=newsletter&wpisrc=nl_most&carta-url=https%3A%2F%2Fs2.washingtonpost.com%2Fcar-ln-tr%2F34e4a0d%2F615dcde29d2fda9d41004e99%2F5faaf72f9bbc0f331650ee35%2F17%2F70%2F615dcde29d2fda9d41004e99… by @databyler @codingyan Good breakdown on some of the social forces (like ideology) that drive conspiracy theories. Despite the fact I study topic, still amazed how many believe this stuff.
    1. 2021-10-06

    2. Gee, S., Chandiramani, M., Seow, J., Pollock, E., Modestini, C., Das, A., Tree, T., Doores, K. J., Tribe, R. M., & Gibbons, D. L. (2021). The legacy of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection on the immunology of the neonate. Nature Immunology. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-01049-2

    3. 10.1038/s41590-021-01049-2
    4. Despite extensive studies into severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the effect of maternal infection on the neonate is unclear. To investigate this, we characterized the immunology of neonates born to mothers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. Here we show that maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the neonatal immune system. Despite similar proportions of B cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, increased percentages of natural killer cells, Vδ2+ γδ T cells and regulatory T cells were detected in neonates born to mothers with recent or ongoing infection compared with those born to recovered or uninfected mothers. Increased plasma cytokine levels were also evident in neonates and mothers within the recent or ongoing infection group. Cytokine functionality was enhanced in neonates born to SARS-CoV-2-exposed mothers, compared to those born to uninfected mothers. In most neonates, this immune imprinting was nonspecific, suggesting vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is limited, a finding supported by a lack of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM in neonates despite maternal IgG transfer.
    5. The legacy of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection on the immunology of the neonate
    1. 2021-09

    2. O’Brien, T. C., Palmer, R., & Albarracin, D. (2021). Misplaced trust: When trust in science fosters belief in pseudoscience and the benefits of critical evaluation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 96, 104184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104184

    3. 10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104184
    4. At a time when pseudoscience threatens the survival of communities, understanding this vulnerability, and how to reduce it, is paramount. Four preregistered experiments (N = 532, N = 472, N = 605, N = 382) with online U.S. samples introduced false claims concerning a (fictional) virus created as a bioweapon, mirroring conspiracy theories about COVID-19, and carcinogenic effects of GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms). We identify two critical determinants of vulnerability to pseudoscience. First, participants who trust science are more likely to believe and disseminate false claims that contain scientific references than false claims that do not. Second, reminding participants of the value of critical evaluation reduces belief in false claims, whereas reminders of the value of trusting science do not. We conclude that trust in science, although desirable in many ways, makes people vulnerable to pseudoscience. These findings have implications for science broadly and the application of psychological science to curbing misinformation during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    5. Misplaced trust: When trust in science fosters belief in pseudoscience and the benefits of critical evaluation
    1. 2021-08-02

    2. Wang, K., Goldenburg, A., Dorison, C. A. et al. (2021). A multi-country test of brief reappraisal interventions on emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nat Hum Behav, 5, 1089-1110. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01173-x

    3. 10.1038/s41562-021-01173-x
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about a situation. Participants from 87 countries and regions (n = 21,644) were randomly assigned to one of two brief reappraisal interventions (reconstrual or repurposing) or one of two control conditions (active or passive). Results revealed that both reappraisal interventions (vesus both control conditions) consistently reduced negative emotions and increased positive emotions across different measures. Reconstrual and repurposing interventions had similar effects. Importantly, planned exploratory analyses indicated that reappraisal interventions did not reduce intentions to practice preventive health behaviours. The findings demonstrate the viability of creating scalable, low-cost interventions for use around the world.
    5. A multi-country test of brief reappraisal interventions on emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic
    1. 2021-10-02

    2. Karlsson, L. C., Soveri, A., Lewandowsky, S., Karlsson, L., Karlsson, H., Nolvi, S., Karukivi, M., Lindfelt, M., & Antfolk, J. (2022). The behavioral immune system and vaccination intentions during the coronavirus pandemic. Personality and Individual Differences, 185, 111295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.111295

    3. 10.1016/j.paid.2021.111295
    4. The behavioral immune system is considered to be a psychological adaptation that decreases the risk of infection. Research suggests that, in the current environment, this system can produce attitudes with negative health consequences, such as increased vaccine hesitancy. In three studies, we investigated whether two facets of the behavioral immune system—germ aversion (i.e., aversion to potential pathogen transmission) and perceived infectability (i.e., perceived susceptibility to disease)—predicted intentions to accept COVID-19 and influenza vaccination during the pandemic. The behavioral immune system mechanisms were measured before the COVID-19 pandemic in one study, and during the pandemic in two. In contrast to previous research, those with higher germ aversion during the pandemic perceived vaccines to be safer and had higher intentions to accept vaccination. Germ aversion before the pandemic was not associated with vaccination intentions. Individuals who perceived themselves as more susceptible to disease were slightly more willing to accept vaccination. We conjecture that high disease threat reverses the relationship between the behavioral immune system response and vaccination. As the associations were weak, individual differences in germ aversion and perceived infectability are of little practical relevance for vaccine uptake.