271 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2022
    1. Developmental cell death eliminates half of the neurons initially generated in the mammalian brain, and occurs perinatally in many species. It is possible that the timing of neuronal cell death is developmentally programmed, and only coincidentally associated with birth. Alternatively, birth may play a role in shaping cell death. To test these competing hypotheses, we experimentally advanced or delayed birth by 1 d in mice (within the normal range of gestation for the species) and examined effects on the temporal pattern and magnitude (amount) of neuronal cell death, using immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 as a cell death marker. In order to detect effects of subtle changes in birth timing, we focused on brain areas that exhibit sharp postnatal peaks in cell death. We find that advancing birth advances peak cell death, supporting the hypothesis that birth triggers cell death. However, a delay of birth does not delay cell death. Thus, birth can advance cell death, but if postponed, a developmental program governs. Advancing or delaying birth also caused region-specific changes in the overall magnitude of cell death. Our findings shed light on the long-standing question of what controls the timing and magnitude of developmental neuronal cell death, and position birth as an orchestrator of brain development. Because humans across the world now routinely alter birth timing, these findings may have implications for current obstetric practices.
    1. This means that neurons in small children are prepared to commit suicide through apoptosis if they are not used. In the case of a crisis, such as lack of oxygen, the apoptosis program starts up and the cells die and disappear. Instead of being treated with adult drugs, newborn infants must be given treatment specifically designed for them, but research on newborn infants involves many special difficulties and unique infant medicines with low-frequency use are not interesting for pharmaceutical companies.
    1. Neuronal cell death occurs extensively during development and pathology, where it is especially important because of the limited capacity of adult neurons to proliferate or be replaced. The concept of cell death used to be simple as there were just two or three types, so we just had to work out which type was involved in our particular pathology and then block it. However, we now know that there are at least a dozen ways for neurons to die, that blocking a particular mechanism of cell death may not prevent the cell from dying, and that non-neuronal cells also contribute to neuronal death. We review here the mechanisms of neuronal death by intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis, oncosis, necroptosis, parthanatos, ferroptosis, sarmoptosis, autophagic cell death, autosis, autolysis, paraptosis, pyroptosis, phagoptosis, and mitochondrial permeability transition. We next explore the mechanisms of neuronal death during development, and those induced by axotomy, aberrant cell-cycle reentry, glutamate (excitoxicity and oxytosis), loss of connected neurons, aggregated proteins and the unfolded protein response, oxidants, inflammation, and microglia. We then reassess which forms of cell death occur in stroke and Alzheimer’s disease, two of the most important pathologies involving neuronal cell death. We also discuss why it has been so difficult to pinpoint the type of neuronal death involved, if and why the mechanism of neuronal death matters, the molecular overlap and interplay between death subroutines, and the therapeutic implications of these multiple overlapping forms of neuronal death.
  2. Jun 2022
  3. May 2022
    1. What to Do About Teenage Cell Phone AddictionAddiction, Mental Health, Self Esteem, Treatment<img width="845" height="321" src="https://bnitreatment.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/teenage-cell-phone-addiction-845x321.jpg" class="wp-image-30300 avia-img-lazy-loading-not-30300 attachment-entry_with_sidebar size-entry_with_sidebar wp-post-image" alt="teenage cell phone addiction" /> Table of Contents Teenage cell phone addiction disrupts family time, social time, and study time.What is Teenage Cell Phone Addiction?What Are Signs of Teen Cell Phone Addiction SymptomsThe Impact of Teen Social Media Addiction on Mental HealthWhat Do You Do If Your Teenage Is Addicted to Their PhoneBNI Treatment Centers Helps Teens with Mental Health Disorders Teenage cell phone addiction disrupts family time, social time, and study time. For a teen, having a cell phone is like being a kid in a candy store. With app stores offering a never-ending array of options, it is easy to see how teens get addicted to their phones. By design, software companies have found ways to draw people into their digital products, including teens. Social media apps, and there are many, gobble up the most time among teens. Teens are on these social apps for several hours a day. Data show that teens spend about 3 hours a day on social media. An astounding 20% of teens are on these social platforms for more than 5 hours a day. On average, teens are on their phones about 7 hours per day. Smartphone addiction is very real. When teens use the apps, they will receive a dopamine hit that gets logged in the brain’s reward system. This leads to the teen spending ever more time on their phones, as the behavior gets continually reinforced. Keep reading to learn more about teen cell phone addiction and what can be done to curb the problem. What is Teenage Cell Phone Addiction? There is ample research showing how smartphone overuse, especially social media, impacts the brain. In fact, it can cause the same brain chemical responses as a drug. When a teen sees new likes, positive comments, or new followers on their feeds, they receive a burst of dopamine. Similar to a drug’s high, as social app use escalates, the more engagement they crave. The time spent engaging on social feeds will increase more and more as this reward cycle takes hold. The teen may put off other activities they once enjoyed in exchange for spending more time on their phones. Homework is not completed, which affects the teen’s grades. Sleep is forfeited, which impacts their health in many ways. In person social time is traded off for engaging with strangers on their social media feeds. All of these adverse effects caused by excess cell phone use can lead to mental health issues. Anxiety can result due to the time wasted on the phone. This causes stress because the teen now lacks time to complete their schoolwork or chores. Too much time online also results in depression, mainly because the teen begins to feel lonely. What Are Signs of Teen Cell Phone Addiction Symptoms As with other behavioral addictions, there will be certain signs the teen displays. Signs of a teenage cell phone addiction might include: Teen cannot carry on a live conversation. Teen is always scrolling and clicking around on their phone. Teen is not able to be without their phone, even for a few minutes. Teen shows signs of depression the more they are on their phone. Teen becomes obsessed with selfies and their social feels. Teen is having sleep problems. Teen’s grades drop, due to reduced time for studying or homework. Parents might want to think about having a digital time out, where all phones are shelved for a day or a weekend. Taking a break from the cell phones will do the whole family a lot of good. The Impact of Teen Social Media Addiction on Mental Health During the teen years, the brain is still under construction. The teen brain is more vulnerable to things that could lead to an addiction, like video games and social media. A recent study explains how the reward system in the teenage brain works. Call Our Parent Hotline (888) 522-1504 It shows the same type of dopamine release in response to social media likes as one might have to a drug. The study also points out that the teen will show “withdrawal” symptoms, like irritability and anxiety. This happens when they are not allowed to use their cell phone or social media. But anxiety and depression in themselves can be a result of too much cell phone use. Studies show that teens that spend large amounts of time on social platforms suffer from higher levels of mental health issues. This is due to the time spent on social apps, which can fuel low self-esteem, body dysmorphia, and bullying. Also, excess time on smartphones means a lack of in person contact with friends and family. Face-to-face time is traded off for huge amounts of time chatting online with strangers. These interactions are shallow and do not lead to any real human connection. Over time, this can result in feelings of loneliness and depression. What Do You Do If Your Teenage Is Addicted to Their Phone Parent Guidelines to Reduce Teenager Cell Phone Addiction Parents can help limit their teen’s cell phone use in several ways. It is likely a waste of time to forbid them to be on their phones, but you can set rules. Remind the teen that having a phone is a privilege, not a right, and that you are paying for it. Of course, guidelines for a 13 year-old will be different from that of a 17 year-old. Consider these tips for parents: Set limits on time for phone use. Set up screen-free periods during the day, with a place for the phone to be stored during that time. Tell the teen the phone will be shut off if their grades drop. Have your teen shut down their cell phone at a certain time each night. Keep communication open and bring up any concerns if you think they might be bullied on social media. Have clear consequences should the teen break your cell phone rules. Suggest your teen take breaks from their cell phone to enjoy an outdoor activity. Teach the teen about online predators. Limit the types of social media platforms they can use. Because social media isn’t going anywhere, it is best for parents to take the offense and partner with their teen to help them negotiate the challenges and emotional landmines together. Learning ways to reduce the chances for teenage cell phone addiction can help your teen avoid risks to mental health. BNI Treatment Centers Helps Teens with Mental Health Disorders BNI Treatment Centers provides the intensive treatment and support needed for teens with depression or anxiety disorders. Teens who struggle with mental health issues related to smartphone addiction are guided toward making better use of their time. For more details about our program, call BNI today at (888) 522-1504.

      Parent Guidelines to Reduce Teenager addicted to Cell Phone

      Parents can help limit their teen’s cell phone use in several ways. It is likely a waste of time to forbid them to be on their phones, but you can set rules.

    1. DICER1 syndrome is a rare genetic condition predisposing to hereditary cancer and caused by variants in the DICER1

      GeneName: DICER1 PMCID: PMC7859642 HGNCID: Unavailable Inheritance Pattern: Autosomal dominant. Disease Entity: Familial pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), cervix embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, multinodular goiter, nasal chondromesenchymal hemartoma, Ciliary body medulloepithelioma, Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor (SLCT), differentiated thyroid carcinoma, pituitary blastoma, pineoblastoma, cystic nephroma, Wilm's tumor and sarcomas of different sites including, amongst others, the uterine cervix, kidney and brain. Mutation: Germline Zygosity: Heterozygose Variant: No ClinVarID present. Family Information: No family outline Case: No specified information of patients included. CasePresentingHPO's: n/a CasePrevious Testing: n/a gnomAD: n/a Mutation Type: nonsense, frameshift, or splice affected.

  4. Apr 2022
    1. DICER1 syndrome is a rare genetic condition predisposing to hereditary cancer and caused by variants in the DICER1 gene.

      Gene Name: DICER1 PMID:33552988 HGNCID: Unavailable Inheritance Pattern:Autosomal Dominant Disease Entity: familial pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB),cystic nephroma, ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (SLCT), multinodular goiter, cervix embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms’ tumor, nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma, ciliary body medulloepithelioma, differentiated thyroid carcinoma, pituitary blastoma, pineoblastoma, and sarcomas of different sites. Mutation: Nonsense, Frameshift<br /> Zygosity: Heterosygosity Variant:No ClinVar ID present Family Information:no diseases mentioned in family Case: no specified case in this article gnomAD: n/a Mutation type: Nonsense. frameshift

    1. Payne, R. P., Longet, S., Austin, J. A., Skelly, D. T., Dejnirattisai, W., Adele, S., Meardon, N., Faustini, S., Al-Taei, S., Moore, S. C., Tipton, T., Hering, L. M., Angyal, A., Brown, R., Nicols, A. R., Gillson, N., Dobson, S. L., Amini, A., Supasa, P., … Zawia, A. A. T. (2021). Immunogenicity of standard and extended dosing intervals of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Cell, 184(23), 5699-5714.e11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.10.011

    1. Edward Nirenberg 🇺🇦 [@ENirenberg]. (2021, November 30). This is also not limited to the vaccine- any infection we encounter will do the same thing. It’s how we evolved to get around a massive genetic and bioenergetic challenge and it’s brilliant and it’s happening all the time regardless of any vaccines we get. [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/ENirenberg/status/1465698637434933254

  5. Mar 2022
    1. Eric Topol. (2022, February 28). A multimodal #AI study of ~54 million blood cells from Covid patients @YaleMedicine for predicting mortality risk highlights protective T cell role (not TH17), poor outcomes of granulocytes, monocytes, and has 83% accuracy https://nature.com/articles/s41587-021-01186-x @NatureBiotech @KrishnaswamyLab https://t.co/V32Kq0Q5ez [Tweet]. @EricTopol. https://twitter.com/EricTopol/status/1498373229097799680

  6. Feb 2022
  7. Jan 2022
    1. Paolucci, S., Cassaniti, I., Novazzi, F., Fiorina, L., Piralla, A., Comolli, G., Bruno, R., Maserati, R., Gulminetti, R., Novati, S., Mojoli, F., Baldanti, F., Bruno, R., Mondelli, M., Brunetti, E., Matteo, A. D., Seminari, E., Maiocchi, L., Zuccaro, V., … Ferrari, A. (2021). EBV DNA increase in COVID-19 patients with impaired lymphocyte subpopulation count. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 104, 315–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.051

    1. start:使内容在单元格左侧对齐, center:使内容在单元格居中对齐, end:使内容在单元格右侧对齐,
    1. Townsend, L., Dyer, A. H., Naughton, A., Kiersey, R., Holden, D., Gardiner, M., Dowds, J., O’Brien, K., Bannan, C., Nadarajan, P., Dunne, J., Martin-Loeches, I., Fallon, P. G., Bergin, C., O’Farrelly, C., Cheallaigh, C. N., Bourke, N. M., & Conlon, N. (2021). Longitudinal Analysis of COVID-19 Patients Shows Age-Associated T Cell Changes Independent of Ongoing Ill-Health. Frontiers in Immunology, 12. https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2021.676932

  8. Dec 2021
    1. Heitmann, J. S., Bilich, T., Tandler, C., Nelde, A., Maringer, Y., Marconato, M., Reusch, J., Jäger, S., Denk, M., Richter, M., Anton, L., Weber, L. M., Roerden, M., Bauer, J., Rieth, J., Wacker, M., Hörber, S., Peter, A., Meisner, C., … Walz, J. S. (2021). A COVID-19 peptide vaccine for the induction of SARS-CoV-2 T cell immunity. Nature, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04232-5

  9. Nov 2021
  10. Oct 2021
    1. Andreano, E., Paciello, I., Piccini, G., Manganaro, N., Pileri, P., Hyseni, I., Leonardi, M., Pantano, E., Abbiento, V., Benincasa, L., Giglioli, G., De Santi, C., Fabbiani, M., Rancan, I., Tumbarello, M., Montagnani, F., Sala, C., Montomoli, E., & Rappuoli, R. (2021). Hybrid immunity improves B cells and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Nature, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04117-7

  11. Sep 2021
    1. Lee, J. W., Su, Y., Baloni, P., Chen, D., Pavlovitch-Bedzyk, A. J., Yuan, D., Duvvuri, V. R., Ng, R. H., Choi, J., Xie, J., Zhang, R., Murray, K., Kornilov, S., Smith, B., Magis, A. T., Hoon, D. S. B., Hadlock, J. J., Goldman, J. D., Price, N. D., … Heath, J. R. (2021). Integrated analysis of plasma and single immune cells uncovers metabolic changes in individuals with COVID-19. Nature Biotechnology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-021-01020-4

    1. Each cubic cell has 8 atoms in each corner of the cube, and that atom is shared with 8 neighboring cells. In the Body Centered Cubic Cell (BCC) there is an additional atom in the center of the cube, and in the face centered cubic cell, an atom is shared between two unit cells along the face.
    2. Figure12.1.112.1.1\PageIndex{1}: The 7 types of unit cells. In this class we will only look at cubic systems, and will identify 3 types of cubic unit cells (figure. 12.b)
    3. αα\large\alpha = angle in the yz plane ββ\large\beta = angle in the xz plane γγ\large\gamma = angle in the xy plane
    1. John Burn-Murdoch. (2021, August 23). NEW: in the last couple of weeks there have a lot of new studies out assessing vaccine efficacy, many of which have touched on the question of waning immunity. Unsurprisingly, these have prompted a lot of questions. Time for a thread to summarise what we do and don’t know: [Tweet]. @jburnmurdoch. https://twitter.com/jburnmurdoch/status/1429878189011111936

  12. Aug 2021
    1. however, it also led to some level of cell membrane damage

      the merged peptide led to some level of cell membrane damage

    2. Conjugation of our cyclic peptide at the C-terminal with cell penetrating peptide like TAT enabled cell penetrating

      cell penetrating peptide TAT conjugated with a peptide binder

  13. Jul 2021
    1. Keerthivasan, S., Şenbabaoğlu, Y., Martinez-Martin, N., Husain, B., Verschueren, E., Wong, A., Yang, Y. A., Sun, Y., Pham, V., Hinkle, T., Oei, Y., Madireddi, S., Corpuz, R., Tam, L., Carlisle, S., Roose-Girma, M., Modrusan, Z., Ye, Z., Koerber, J. T., & Turley, S. J. (2021). Homeostatic functions of monocytes and interstitial lung macrophages are regulated via collagen domain-binding receptor LAIR1. Immunity, 54(7), 1511-1526.e8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.06.012

  14. Jun 2021
    1. Parry, H. M., Tut, G., Faustini, S., Stephens, C., Saunders, P., Bentley, C., Hilyard, K., Brown, K., Amirthalingam, G., Charlton, S., Leung, S., Chiplin, E., Coombes, N. S., Bewley, K. R., Penn, E. J., Rowe, C., Otter, A., Watts, R., D’Arcangelo, S., … Moss, P. (2021). BNT162b2 Vaccination in People Over 80 Years of Age Induces Strong Humoral Immune Responses with Cross Neutralisation of P.1 Brazilian Variant. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3816840

  15. May 2021
  16. Apr 2021
    1. Trevor Bedford. (2021, January 14). After ~10 months of relative quiescence we’ve started to see some striking evolution of SARS-CoV-2 with a repeated evolutionary pattern in the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern emerging from the UK, South Africa and Brazil. 1/19 [Tweet]. @trvrb. https://twitter.com/trvrb/status/1349774271095062528