3,650 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Adam-Troian, J., & Bagci, S. (2020). The pathogen paradox: Evidence that perceived COVID-19 threat is associated with both pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/948ch

    2. 2020-07-09

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/948ch
    4. COVID-19 pandemic, as a global threat to humanity, is likely to instigate a variety of collective responses in the society. We examined, for the first time, whether COVID-19 threat perception is related to attitudes towards Syrian immigrants in Turkey, theorizing a dual pathway whereby threat caused by the COVID-19 pandemic would relate to both pro- and anti-immigrant feelings. While drawing upon behavioral immune system theory, we expected that pathogen threat would lead to more exclusionary attitudes; relying on the common ingroup identity model, we predicted that pathogen threat would promote inclusionary attitudes through creating a common ingroup in the face of a global threat. Results from two studies using online search volume data at the province-level (N = 81) and self-report measures at the individual level (N = 294) demonstrated that perceived COVID-19 threat was directly associated with more positive attitudes towards immigrants (Study 1 and 2). Study 2 further revealed indirect positive (through a sense of common identity) and negative (through perceptions of immigrant threat) links between COVID-19 threat perception and attitudes towards immigrants. These results highlight the importance of integrating evolutionary and social identity perspectives when assessing pathogen-related threats. We draw attention to managing the public perceptions of COVID-19 threat which may mitigate the social aftermath of the pandemic.
    5. The pathogen paradox: Evidence that perceived COVID-19 threat is associated with both pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes
    1. van Baal, S. T., & Hohwy, J. (2020). Risk perception and personal responsibility during COVID-19: An experimental study of the role of imperative vs reasoning-based communication for self-isolation attitudes [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/s7jeq

    2. 2020-07-08

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/s7jeq
    4. Individual decision-making about social distancing, self-quarantine and self-isolation is crucial in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. In the rapidly evolving pandemic, little is known about how different government communication strategies may systematically affect people’s attitudes to staying home or going out, nor the extent to which people perceive and process the risk of different scenarios. In this study, we report results from a sample of 581 participants (residing in the United Kingdom), and we examine the degree to which participants’ attitudes regarding the permissibility of leaving one’s home are (1) sensitive to different levels of risk of viral transmission in specific scenarios, (2) sensitive to communication framings that are either imperative or that invite reasoning about scenarios, or (3) creating “loopholes” for themselves when scenarios are framed with reference to the participants themselves rather than in general terms. We find that participants’ attitudes to social distancing are sensitive to the level of risk of transmission, and that when scenarios are framed in imperative terms, rather than when their reasoning is encouraged, participants have more impermissive attitudes to going out in Minimal Risk scenarios, with a trend of decreased permissiveness more generally; for self-loopholes, more research is needed to determine if participants make exceptions for themselves. Thus, subject to the limitations of this study, during phases where it is important to promote self-isolation for all scenarios, including those perceived to be low risk, imperative communication may be best.
    5. Risk perception and personal responsibility during COVID-19: An experimental study of the role of imperative vs reasoning-based communication for self-isolation attitudes
    1. Hayes, S., Priestley, J. L., Ishmakhametov, N., & Ray, H. E. (2020). “I’m not Working from Home, I’m Living at Work”: Perceived Stress and Work-Related Burnout before and during COVID-19 [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/vnkwa

    2. 2020-07-08

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/vnkwa
    4. The purpose of the study was to better understand the relationships among stress, work-related burnout, and remote working brought on by social distancing efforts and stay at home orders put in place during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors developed a questionnaire incorporating valid and reliable self-report stress and burnout measures (Perceived Stress Scale & Copenhagen Burnout Inventory), demographic, and work-related questions. The questions were used primarily to determine workers’ levels of stress before and during the pandemic, to assess potential burnout, and to establish the extent of their previous experience with remote work/telecommuting. The questionnaire was open from March 23rd to May 19th 2020 and distributed through a survey link on social media and by Qualtrics research services. Results from the analyses suggest that perceived stress did increase during the COVID-19 restrictions, especially for people that had limited experience working from home and were female. Individuals who worked from home before COVID-19 had higher levels of work-related burnout but did not differ based on gender or part-time work status. The results suggest that working from home may create more stress and result in more burnout, which challenges the current moves by some employers to make working from home a permanent arrangement. The authors believe that having research based on valid and reliable instruments will help employers and schools make better decisions about how to support those who can remain at home to avoid the potential for secondary outbreaks.
    5. “I’m not Working from Home, I’m Living at Work”: Perceived Stress and Work-Related Burnout before and during COVID-19
    1. Fuhrer, J., & Cova, F. (2020). “Quick and dirty”: Intuitive cognitive style predicts trust in Didier Raoult and his hydroxychloroquine-based treatment against COVID-19. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ju62p

    2. 2020-07-08

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/ju62p
    4. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, French public opinion has been divided about Pr. Didier Raoult and his hydroxychloroquine-based treatment against COVID-19. In this paper, our aim is to contribute to the understanding of this polarization of public opinion by investigating the relationship between (analytic vs. intuitive) cognitive style and trust in Didier Raoult and his treatment. Through three studies (total N after exclusion = 950), we found that a more intuitive cognitive style predicted higher trust in Didier Raoult and his treatment. Possible mediators included valorization of scientific method over personal experience, belief that truth is political, belief in conspiracy theories and belief in pseudo-medicines. Additionally, we found that higher trust in Didier Raoult and hydroxychloroquine was linked to higher pseudo-medical and conspiratorial beliefs regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, but not to self-reported behavior, such as lower compliance with official regulations.
    5. “Quick and dirty”: Intuitive cognitive style predicts trust in Didier Raoult and his hydroxychloroquine-based treatment against COVID-19
    1. Miller, J. G., Chahal, R., Kirshenbaum, J. S., Ho, T. C., Gifuni, A. J., & Gotlib, I. (2020). Heart Rate Variability Moderates the Link Between COVID-19 Stress and Emotional Problems in Adolescents: Evidence for Differential Susceptibility [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/mp7wt

    2. 2020-07-07

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/mp7wt
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique period of stress and uncertainty that will have significant implications for adolescent mental health. Nevertheless, stress about COVID-19 may be more consequential for some adolescents’ mental health than for others. We examined whether heart rate variability (HRV) indicated differential susceptibility to mental health difficulties associated with COVID-19 stress. Approximately four years prior to the pandemic, we assessed resting HRV and HRV reactivity to a well-validated stress paradigm in 87 adolescents. During the pandemic, these adolescents (ages 13-19) reported on their health-related stress and concerns about COVID-19 and their recent emotional problems. The association between COVID-19 stress and emotional problems was significantly stronger for adolescents who previously exhibited higher resting HRV or higher HRV reactivity. For adolescents who exhibited lower resting HRV or lower HRV reactivity, COVID-19 stress was not associated with emotional problems. Thus, parasympathetic functioning may reflect differential susceptibility to the effects of COVID-19 stress on mental health during the pandemic.
    5. Heart Rate Variability Moderates the Link Between COVID-19 Stress and Emotional Problems in Adolescents: Evidence for Differential Susceptibility
    1. Chatterjee, A., & Chatterjee, A. (2020). Managing through uncertain times: A study to understand the effects of conducting socio-academic life online during COVID-19. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/vcbrw

    2. 2020-07-07

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/vcbrw
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused uncertainty and disruptions in daily life. It has mandated social distancing and online education. Teens are spending a significant amount of time online and less time on extracurricular activities including team sports, choir/orchestra, and school socials. The cancellation of SAT, the switch to online AP exams, and the Credit/No Credit policy for 2nd-semester all contribute to the uncertainty in teens regarding their future. Our project aims to create a survey that seeks opinions from teens about how they are managing with online socialization, the effectiveness of the online school, and stress levels. Using convenience sampling, adolescents (n = 168) were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Participants were asked about the effectiveness of online socializing, online education, hobbies, and extracurriculars to determine stress levels. We looked at models with two dependent stress variables: “low energy, insomnia and headache” and “forgetfulness and disorganization”. We used descriptive, regression, and correlation analysis to assess what the predictors of anxiety and stress are. Results show that stress levels are highly correlated with online exposure, online schooling, credit/no credit, and home environment. The research focuses on the areas where we can better support teens during lockdown situations by building safer environments for online socialization, and online education.
    5. Managing through uncertain times: A study to understand the effects of conducting socio-academic life online during COVID-19
    1. Rajkumar, R. P. (2020). Warriors, worriers, and COVID-19: An exploratory study of the catechol O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism across populations [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/xrpn8

    2. 2020-07-07

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/xrpn8
    4. Background: Prevalence and mortality rates during COVID-19 pandemic have varied widely across nations. This phenomenon may be partly due to regional variations in health-related behaviours, some of which may be influenced by health anxiety. A functional polymorphism of the catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, designated rs4680 or Val158Met, has been associated with anxiety-related behaviours and the so-called “worrier” phenotype. Methods: In this exploratory study, an analysis of the correlation between the frequencies of the Met allele of the COMT gene across 28 countries, obtained from the public domain Allele Frequency Database (ALFRED), and the COVID-19 prevalence and mortality rates in these countries, obtained from the Johns Hopkins Medical University web-based dashboard, was carried out while controlling for population size and median age in each country. Results: Allele frequencies varied widely across populations. Met allele frequency was positively correlated with COVID-19 prevalence (ρ = 0.527, p = 0.004) and mortality rate (ρ = 0.542) across nations. However, this association was no longer significant after controlling for confounders. Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that there may be a relationship between the COMT rs4680 functional polymorphism and the impact of COVID-19 across nations, which could plausibly be mediated by maladaptive anxiety-related behaviours.
    5. Warriors, worriers, and COVID-19: an exploratory study of the catechol O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism across populations
    1. Jorrat, D. A. (2020). Recruiting experimental subjects using WhatsApp [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/6vgec

    2. 2020-07-06

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/6vgec
    4. The aim of many experiments is to estimate the effect of different interventions on subjects’ decision making. However, obtaining large samples and internal validity is challenging. This paper presents an alternative device at almost no cost that can easily provide a very large number of participants (700 in 5 hours). We asked 14 students to invite their WhatsApp contacts to participate in an online experiment. The students created a total of 80 diffusion groups with 25 contacts each. Using the diffusion groups as clusters, we ran a cluster randomization procedure in order to assign subjects to a framing experiment (treatment + control). We obtained the same level of attrition, duplicates and uninvited subjects across the treatment and control groups. Moreover, the experiment yielded consistent results in line with the framing literature.
    5. Recruiting experimental subjects using WhatsApp
    1. Golding, S. E. (2020). Coronavirus and other pathogens: Reflecting on the relationship between health psychology and infectious disease [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/8r6kf

    2. 2020-07-04

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/8r6kf
    4. I think it is fair to say that the broad focus of health psychology in the UK is on non-communicable disease and lifestyle-related health behaviours. I would like to suggest that perhaps the discipline could devote a little more time to infectious diseases, and not just because we find ourselves in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic. In this reflective piece, I outline some of the assumptions that I held, that I sought to challenge in Stage 1 students, and that I suspect are relatively implicit across health psychology as a discipline.
    5. Coronavirus and other pathogens: Reflecting on the relationship between health psychology and infectious disease
    1. Collins, F. E. (2020, July 6). The Contagion Fear and Threat Scale: Measuring COVID-19 Fear in Australian, Indian, and Nepali University Students. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/4s65q

    2. 2020-07-06

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/4s65q
    4. The present study describes the adaption and scale validation of a brief measure of contagion-related fear and threat in Australian, Indian, and Nepali university students in Australia at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. Adapted from Ho, Kwong-Lo, Mak, and Wong’s (2005) SARS fear scale, the Contagion Fear and Threat Scale (CFTS) was developed rapidly to capture COVID-19 pandemic-related fear. The 10-item scale was administered to 164 Australian, 111 Indian, and 147 Nepali university students studying in Australia in May-June 2020. Factor analysis revealed two 5-item factors in the Australian student sample: Fear of Infection and Existential Threat. These factors were largely reflected in the Indian student sample but substantially different in the Nepali student sample. The convergent and discriminant validity of the full CFTS, Fear, and Threat scales are indicated via correlations with established measures of depression, anxiety, stress, subjective wellbeing, and locus of control. Psychometric variance of the CFTS between the three samples are considered in terms of demographic, sociocultural, and linguistic differences.
    5. The Contagion Fear and Threat Scale: Measuring COVID-19 Fear in Australian, Indian, and Nepali University Students
  2. Jul 2020
    1. Bernabeu, P. (2020). Dutch modality exclusivity norms for 336 properties and 411 concepts. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/s2c5h

    2. 2020-07-03

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/s2c5h
    4. This study is a cross-linguistic, conceptual replication of Lynott and Connell’s (2009, 2013) modality exclusivity norms. Their English properties and concepts were translated into Dutch, then independently tested as follows. Forty-two respondents rated the auditory, haptic, and visual strength of those words. Mean scores were then computed, with a high interrater reliability and interitem consistency. Based on the three modalities, each word also features a specific modality exclusivity, and a dominant modality. The norms also include external measures of word frequency, length, distinctiveness, age of acquisition, and known percentage. Starting with the results, unimodal, bimodal, and tri-modal words appear. Visual and haptic experience are quite related, leaving a more independent auditory experience. These different relations are important because they may correlate with different levels of detail in word comprehension (Louwerse & Connell, 2011). Auditory and visual words tend toward unimodality, whereas haptic words tend toward multimodality. Likewise, properties are more unimodal than concepts. Last, the 'sound symbolism' hypothesis was tested by means of a regression: Auditory strength predicts lexical properties of the words (e.g., frequency, distinctiveness) better than the other modalities do, or else with a different polarity. All the data and analysis code are available at https://osf.io/brkjw/.
    5. Dutch modality exclusivity norms for 336 properties and 411 concepts
    1. America’s stockmarket just had its best quarter in 20 years. (n.d.). The Economist. Retrieved July 3, 2020, from https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2020/07/01/americas-stockmarket-just-had-its-best-quarter-in-20-years?%3Ffsrc%3Dscn%2F=tw/dc

    2. America’s stockmarket just had its best quarter in 20 years
    3. 2020-07-01

    4. OF ALL THE outcomes that might accompany a global pandemic, a historic stockmarket boom seems among the least likely. And yet on June 30th the S&P 500, America's main index, ended the second quarter up by 20% on its March 31st close, its strongest quarterly performance in more than two decades. The rally has puzzled investors. Since March 23rd, the market has soared by 39%, even as the country’s official covid-19 death toll has climbed to more than 127,000. It is now just 8% below its historic peak. Why?
    1. 2007.01043v1
    2. Stochastic epidemic models on networks are inherently high-dimensional and the resulting exact models are intractable numerically even for modest network sizes. Mean-field models provide an alternative but can only capture average quantities, thus offering little or no information about variability in the outcome of the exact process. In this paper we conjecture and numerically prove that it is possible to construct PDE-limits of the exact stochastic SIS epidemics on regular and Erdős-Rényi networks. To do this we first approximate the exact stochastic process at population level by a Birth-and-Death process (BD) (with a state space of O(N)O(N) rather than O(2N)O(2^N)) whose coefficients are determined numerically from Gillespie simulations of the exact epidemic on explicit networks. We numerically demonstrate that the coefficients of the resulting BD process are density-dependent, a crucial condition for the existence of a PDE limit. Extensive numerical tests for Regular and Erdős-Rényi networks show excellent agreement between the outcome of simulations and the numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck equations. Apart from a significant reduction in dimensionality, the PDE also provides the means to derive the epidemic outbreak threshold linking network and disease dynamics parameters, albeit in an implicit way. Perhaps more importantly, it enables the formulation and numerical evaluation of likelihoods for epidemic and network inference as illustrated in a worked out example.
    3. PDE-limits of stochastic SIS epidemics on networks
    4. Di Lauro, F., Croix, J.-C., Berthouze, L., & Kiss, I. (2020). PDE-limits of stochastic SIS epidemics on networks. ArXiv:2007.01043 [Physics, q-Bio]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2007.01043

    5. 2020-07-02

    1. Chan, H., Torgler, B., Brumpton, M., Macintyre, A., Arapoc, J., Savage, D. A., … Stadelmann, D. (2020, July 3). How confidence in health care systems affects mobility and compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/86qxu

    2. 2020-07-03

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/86qxu
    4. Trust in the health care system requires being confident that sufficient and appropriate treatments will be provided if needed. The COVID-19 public health crisis is a significant, global, and (mostly) simultaneous test of the behavioral implications arising from this trust. We explore whether populations reporting low levels of confidence in the health care system exhibit a stronger behavioral reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic. We track the dynamic responses to the COVID-19 pandemic across 38 countries and 621 regions by exploiting a large dataset on human mobility generated between February 15 and June 5, 2020 and a broad range of contextual factors (e.g. deaths or policy implementations). Using a time-dynamic framework we find that societies with low levels of health care confidence initially exhibit a faster response with respect to staying home. However, this reaction plateaus sooner, and after the plateau it declines with greater magnitude than does the response from societies with high health care confidence. On the other hand, regions with higher confidence in the health care system are more likely to reduce mobility once the government mandates that its citizens are not to leave home except for essential trips, compared to those with lower health care system confidence. Regions with high trust in the government but low confidence in the health care system dramatically reduce their mobility, suggesting a correlation for trust in the state with respect to behavioral responses during a crisis.
    5. How confidence in health care systems affects mobility and compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic
    1. 2006.16516v1
    2. The study of network formation is pervasive in economics, sociology, and many other fields. In this paper, we model network formation as a ``choice'' that is made by nodes in a network to connect to other nodes. We study these ``choices'' using discrete-choice models, in which an agent chooses between two or more discrete alternatives. One framework for studying network formation is the multinomial logit (MNL) model. We highlight limitations of the MNL model on networks that are constructed from empirical data. We employ the ``repeated choice'' (RC) model to study network formation \cite{TrainRevelt97mixedlogit}. We argue that the RC model overcomes important limitations of the MNL model and is well-suited to study network formation. We also illustrate how to use the RC model to accurately study network formation using both synthetic and real-world networks. Using synthetic networks, we also compare the performance of the MNL model and the RC model; we find that the RC model estimates the data-generation process of our synthetic networks more accurately than the MNL model. We provide examples of qualitatively interesting questions -- the presence of homophily in a teen friendship network and the fact that new patents are more likely to cite older, more cited, and similar patents -- for which the RC model allows us to achieve insights.
    3. Gupta, H., & Porter, M. A. (2020). Mixed Logit Models and Network Formation. ArXiv:2006.16516 [Physics, Stat]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2006.16516

    4. 2020-06-30

    5. Mixed Logit Models and Network Formation
    1. 2020-07-01

    2. 2007.00432v1
    3. We study the dynamics of opinion formation in the situation where changing opinion involves a cost for the agents. To do so we couple the dynamics of a heterogeneous bounded confidence Hegselmann-Krause model with that of the resources that the agents invest on each opinion change. The outcomes of the dynamics are non-trivial and strongly depend on the different regions of the confidence parameter space. In particular, a second order phase transition, for which we determine the corresponding critical exponents, is found in the region where a re-entrant consensus phase is observed in the heterogeneous Hegselmann-Krause model. For regions where consensus always exist in the heterogeneous Hegselmann-Krause model, the introduction of cost does not lead to a phase transition but just to a continuous decrease of the size of the largest opinion cluster. Finally in the region where fragmentation is expected in the heterogeneous HK model, the introduction of a very small cost paradoxically increases the size of the largest opinion cluster.
    4. Collective effects of the cost of opinion change
    1. 2020-07-01

    2. 2007.00601v1
    3. Baumann, F., Lorenz-Spreen, P., Sokolov, I. M., & Starnini, M. (2020). Emergence of polarized ideological opinions in multidimensional topic spaces. ArXiv:2007.00601 [Physics]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2007.00601

    4. Opinion polarization is on the rise, causing concerns for the openness of public debates. Additionally, extreme opinions on different topics often show significant correlations. The dynamics leading to these polarized ideological opinions pose a challenge: How can such correlations emerge, without assuming them a priori in the individual preferences or in a preexisting social structure? Here we propose a simple model that reproduces ideological opinion states found in survey data, even between rather unrelated, but sufficiently controversial, topics. Inspired by skew coordinate systems recently proposed in natural language processing models, we solidify these intuitions in a formalism where opinions evolve in a multidimensional space where topics form a non-orthogonal basis. The model features a phase transition between consensus, opinion polarization, and ideological states, which we analytically characterize as a function of the controversialness and overlap of the topics. Our findings shed light upon the mechanisms driving the emergence of ideology in the formation of opinions.
    5. Emergence of polarized ideological opinions in multidimensional topic spaces
    1. Ecker, U. K. H., Butler, L. H., Cook, J., Hurlstone, M. J., Kurz, T., & Lewandowsky, S. (2020). Using the COVID-19 Economic Crisis to Frame Climate Change as a Secondary Issue Reduces Mitigation Support [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/zc2q8

    2. 2020-07-02

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/zc2q8
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic has understandably dominated public discourse, crowding out other important issues such as climate change. Currently, if climate change enters the arena of public debate, it primarily does so in direct relation to the pandemic. In two experiments, we investigated (1) whether portraying the response to the COVID-19 threat as a “trial run” for future climate action would increase climate-change concern and mitigation support, and (2) whether portraying climate change as a concern that needs to take a “back seat” while focus lies on economic recovery would decrease climate-change concern and mitigation support. We found no support for the effectiveness of a trial-run frame in either experiment. In Experiment 1, we found that a back-seat frame reduced participants’ support for mitigative action. In Experiment 2, the back-seat framing reduced both climate-change concern and mitigation support; a combined inoculation and refutation was able to offset the drop in climate concern but not the reduction in mitigation support.
    5. Using the COVID-19 Economic Crisis to Frame Climate Change as a Secondary Issue Reduces Mitigation Support
    1. Du, H., Jiang, G., & Ke, Z. (2020). A Bootstrap Based Between-Study Heterogeneity Test in Meta-Analysis [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/de4g9

    2. 2020-07-02

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/de4g9
    4. Meta-analysis combines pertinent information from existing studies to provide an overall estimate of population parameters/effect sizes, as well as quantify and explain the differences between studies. However, testing the between-study heterogeneity is one of the most troublesome topics in meta-analysis research. The existing methods, such as the Q test and likelihood ratio (LR) tests, are criticized for their failure to control the Type I error rate and/or failure to attain enough statistical power. Although better reference distribution approximations have been proposed in the literature, the expression is complicated and the application is limited. We propose a bootstrap based heterogeneity test combining the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) ratio test or Q test with bootstrap procedures, denoted as B-REML-LRT and B-Q respectively. Simulation studies were conducted to examine and compare the performance of the proposed methods with the regular LR tests, the regular Q test, and the improved Q test in both the random-effects meta-analysis and mixed-effects meta-analysis. Based on both Type I error rates and statistical power, B-REML-LRT is recommended when effect sizes are standardized mean differences and Fisher-transformed Pearson's correlations. When effect sizes are natural-logarithm-transformed odds ratios, B-REML-LRT (study-level sample sizes cannot be small) and B-Q are recommended. The improved Q test is recommended when it is applicable. An R package boot.heterogeneity is provided to facilitate the implementation of the proposed method.
    5. A Bootstrap Based Between-Study Heterogeneity Test in Meta-Analysis
    1. Malka, A., Lelkes, Y., Bakker, B. N., & Spivack, E. (2020). Who is Open to Authoritarian Governance within Western Democracies? [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/m8ze5

    2. 2020-07-02

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/m8ze5
    4. Recent events have raised concern about potential threats to democracy within Western countries. If Western citizens who are open to authoritarian governance share a common set of political preferences, then authoritarian elites can attract mass coalitions that are willing to subvert democracy to achieve shared ideological goals. With this in mind we explored which ideological groups are most open to authoritarian governance within Western general publics using World Values Survey data from fourteen Western democracies and three recent Latin American Public Opinion Project samples from Canada and the United States. Two key findings emerged. First, cultural conservatism was consistently associated with openness to authoritarian governance. Second, within half of the democracies studied, including all of the English-speaking ones, Western citizens holding a protection-based attitude package — combining cultural conservatism with left economic attitudes — were the most open to authoritarian governance. Within other countries, protection-based and consistently right-wing attitude packages were associated with similarly high levels of openness to authoritarian governance. We discuss implications for radical right populism and the possibility of splitting potentially undemocratic mass coalitions along economic lines.
    5. Who is Open to Authoritarian Governance within Western Democracies?
    1. Margoni, F., & Surian, L. (2020). Judging Accidental Harm: Due Care and Foreseeability of Side Effects [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/qgxsn

    2. 2020-07-01

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/qgxsn
    4. Both in philosophy and in cognitive psychology, models of moral judgment predict that individuals take into account both agents’ intentions and actions’ outcomes. The present research focused on a third crucial piece of information, agents’ negligence. In Study 1, participants judged the moral wrongness and punishability of agents’ unintended actions that resulted in negative side effects. Whether the agent acted with or without due care and whether she had or did not have information to foresee the negative side effects of her action were manipulated orthogonally in the scenarios. We found that careless agents were condemned more than careful agents, especially when negative side effects could have been prevented. In Study 2, we manipulated due care in acting in non-paradigmatic cases where the agents’ primary intention was to bring about the outcome although not knowing that such outcome was actually negative for others. Here participants judged actions performed with care more wrong and punishable than actions performed without caring, suggesting that the absence of negligence was taken as evidence of the presence of a negative intention in the agents. Together, these findings highlight the need to improve existing processing models of moral judgment to account for people’s evaluation of agents’ intentions and actions’ outcomes in all those cases in which negligence can be attributed.
    5. Judging Accidental Harm: Due Care and Foreseeability of Side Effects
    1. Bai, M. H. (2020). Who Bought All the Toilet Paper? Conspiracy Theorists Are More Likely to Stockpile During the COVID-19 Pandemic. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/z2g34

    2. 2020-07-02

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/z2g34
    4. The current COVID-19 pandemic has changed many people’s lives. Some people have responded to the rising of the pandemic by engaging in panic buying behaviors, a phenomenon that has not been well-understood in the past. People who believe in these conspiracies may experience a heightened sense of powerlessness and vulnerability. As a result, they may be particularly susceptible to palliatively and compensatorily engage in the panic buying behaviors (i.e., stockpiling). Supporting this idea, two studies using data from the U.K. (cross-sectional) and the U.S. (longitudinal) show that people who endorse COVID-19 conspiracy theories are more likely to engage in stockpiling behaviors in the past as well as in the future.
    5. Who Bought All the Toilet Paper? Conspiracy Theorists Are More Likely to Stockpile During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    1. Händel, M., Bedenlier, S., Gläser-Zikuda, M., Kammerl, R., Kopp, B., & Ziegler, A. (2020). Do Students have the Means to Learn During the Coronavirus Pandemic? Student Demands for Distance Learning in a Suddenly Digital Landscape [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/5ngm9

    2. 2020-07-01

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/5ngm9
    4. Across the globe, 2020 terms began under conditions incited by the corona pandemic. Within a relatively short amount of time, universities started to develop and implement online courses for distance learning. These changes in learning and teaching may well have been a challenge for students.The current study is about an online survey at a German full-scale university investigating the unique circumstances under which students began the digital 2020 summer term. Of approximately 38,500 students, N = 5,563 students from across all institutional faculties took part in the survey. Results indicate how well students are equipped with devices for digital learning; what kind of experiences they have already made with online learning; and how competent they reported feeling regarding digital learning. Moreover, group differences between faculties, degrees, and gender were investigated. The study provides important insights into digital higher education during the exceptional pandemic situation. The results are intended to feed into student counselling systems via support by way of access to devices or courses regarding digital key competences, or through counselling for students with special social burdens.
    5. Do Students have the Means to Learn During the Coronavirus Pandemic? Student Demands for Distance Learning in a Suddenly Digital Landscape
    1. Brose, A., Blanke, E. S., Schmiedek, F., Kramer, A. C., Schmidt, A., & Neubauer, A. B. (2020). Change in Mental Health Symptoms During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Appraisals and Daily Life Experiences [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/8cgfh

    2. 2020-07-01

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/8cgfh
    4. Intro: When confronted with major threats such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people often experience (temporary) decline in well-being. The central purpose of this study was to identify mechanisms underlying stability and change of well-being in times of threat like the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined change in mental health symptoms and its relationships with appraisals of the pandemic and daily life experiences during the pandemic, including affective states, stress, and mindfulness. Methods: We conducted a study across 3.5 weeks, including pretest, posttest, and a diary phase in-between. In this report, we worked with a sample of 460 adults, pre- and post-test information, as well as a total of 7189 observations from the diary phase. Results: Results showed that less fortunate change in mental health symptoms across three weeks was predicted by more negative affect and less mindfulness, specifically less attention to the present moment, in daily life. Furthermore, less fortunate change in mental health symptoms was correlated with change towards less fortunate appraisals of the appraisals. Finally, we showed that more general views of the pandemic (i.e., appraisals) were interrelated to experiences in daily life, with more negative appraisals of the pandemic predicting more negative affect and stressor occurrence as well as less mindfulness. Discussion: These findings speak to the dynamic nature of well-being and appraisals in times of threat, and they show how experiences in daily life matter for change in well-being
    5. Change in Mental Health Symptoms During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Appraisals and Daily Life Experiences
    1. Chambon, M., Dalege, J., Elberse, J., & van Harreveld, F. (2020). A psychological network approach to factors related to preventive behaviors during pandemics: A European COVID-19 study [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/es45v

    2. 2020-07-01

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/es45v
    4. Preventive behaviors are crucial in limiting the spread of COVID-19. Given the multifaceted nature of this pandemic, we adopted a complex psychological systems approach to obtain insight into the interplay and mutual dependence of factors related to adopting these behaviors, including attitudes, social norms, trust and health. We therefore conducted a survey study (n=1022) with subsamples from the United Kingdom (n=502) and Netherlands (n=520). The results highlight the importance of people’s support for, and perceived efficacy of, the measures and preventive behaviors, and of the perceived norm of their family and friends adopting these behaviors. The relation of these factors with other factors in the network is also highlighted. Future research should study effects of interventions aimed at these factors, including effects on the network. Finally, while the networks in both countries were largely similar, we observed notable differences that are possibly reflections of the different trajectories of this pandemic.
    5. A psychological network approach to factors related to preventive behaviors during pandemics: A European COVID-19 study
    1. Grasso, D., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Carter, A., Goldstein, B., & Ford, J. D. (2020). A Person-Centered Approach to Profiling COVID-Related Experiences in the United States: Preliminary Findings from the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory (EPII) [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/v36hj

    2. 2020-07-01

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/v36hj
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on individuals, families, and communities around the world. Intensive health precautions have created constraints on mobility, work, education, family life, and interpersonal relationships. Preliminary survey studies have reported an increase in the prevalence and severity of psychosocial impairments in the pandemic’s immediate wake. However, the impact of specific pandemic-related experiences and patterns of experiences has not been systematically assessed and studied. The goal of the present study was to develop and conduct a preliminary empirical test of a novel, comprehensive assessment of pandemic-related experiences, the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory (EPII), using person-centered latent class analysis (LCA). Aims were to (1) test the hypothesis that LCA would identify unique subgroups based on patterns of negative and positive pandemic-related experiences across personal and social domains, and (2) examine whether identified subgroups would significantly differ on sociodemographic characteristics and indicators of mental health and functioning. Results supported hypotheses, with several unique subgroups identified across domains that were differentiated on sociodemographic characteristics and measures of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, PTSD, and perceived social support. Findings support the EPII as an instrument for measuring tangible and meaningful experiences in the context of an unprecedented pandemic disaster. This study, combined with future research with the EPII, may serve to inform public health strategies for supporting families and communities in the current pandemic and under similar mass public health crisis circumstances in the future.
    5. A Person-Centered Approach to Profiling COVID-Related Experiences in the United States: Preliminary Findings from the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory (EPII)
    1. Danckert, J., Boylan, J., Seli, P., & Scholer, A. (2020). Boredom and rule breaking during COVID-19 [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ykuvg

    2. 2020-06-30

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/ykuvg
    4. State boredom presents a conundrum: When bored, we want to engage with something, but we don’t want whatever is currently available. This is exacerbated when external factors impose restrictions on what we can engage in, which is precisely the scenario we are currently facing during the COVID-19 pandemic. We surveyed 924 participants to examine the relation between boredom proneness and responses to social isolation. We provide novel evidence that highly boredom prone people have been more likely to break the rules of social isolation (e.g., fewer hours spent in social isolation, poor adherence to social distancing as evidenced by the increased likelihood of holding a social gathering and coming into proximity with more people than recommended). We further demonstrated that boredom proneness substantially mediates the association between self-control and rule-breaking. These results indicate that boredom proneness is a critical factor to consider when encouraging adherence to social isolation.
    5. Boredom and rule breaking during COVID-19
    1. Rahman, M., Ali, G. G. M. N., Li, X. J., Paul, K. C., & Chong, P. H. J. (2020). Twitter and Census Data Analytics to Explore Socioeconomic Factors for Post-COVID-19 Reopening Sentiment [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/fz4ry

    2. 2020-06-30

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/fz4ry
    4. Investigating and classifying sentiments of social media users (e.g., positive, negative) towards an item, situation, and system are very popular among the researchers. However, they rarely discuss the underlying socioeconomic factor associations for such sentiments. This study attempts to explore the factors associated with positive and negative sentiments of the people about reopening the economy, in the United States (US) amidst the COVID-19 global crisis. It takes into consideration the situational uncertainties (i.e., changes in work and travel pattern due to lockdown policies), economic downturn and associated trauma, and emotional factors such as depression. To understand the sentiment of the people about the reopening economy, Twitter data was collected, representing the 51 states including Washington DC of the US. State-wide socioeconomic characteristics of the people (e.g., education, income, family size, and employment status), built environment data (e.g., population density), and the number of COVID-19 related cases were collected and integrated with Twitter data to perform the analysis. A binary logit model was used to identify the factors that influence people toward a positive or negative sentiment. The results from the logit model demonstrate that family households, people with low education levels, people in the labor force, low-income people, and people with higher house rent are more interested in reopening the economy. In contrast, households with a high number of members and high income are less interested to reopen the economy. The accuracy of the model is good (i.e., the model can correctly classify 56.18\% of the sentiments). The Pearson chi2 test indicates that overall this model has high goodness-of-fit. This study provides a clear indication to the policymakers where to allocate resources and what policy options they can undertake to improve the socioeconomic situations of the people and mitigate the impacts of pandemics in the current situation and as well as in the future.
    5. Twitter and Census Data Analytics to Explore Socioeconomic Factors for Post-COVID-19 Reopening Sentiment
    1. Neill, R., Blair, C., Best, P., McGlinchey, E., & Armour, C. (2020). Media Consumption and Mental Health during COVID-19 lockdown: A UK Cross-sectional study across England, Wales, Scotland and Northern [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/5d9fc

    2. 2020-07-01

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/5d9fc
    4. As individuals adjust to new ‘norms’ and ways of living during the COVID-19 lockdown, there is a continuing need for up-to-date information and guidance. This has elevated the importance of media channels, such as social media and traditional media. Evidence suggests that frequent media exposure is related to a higher prevalence of mental health problems, especially anxiety and depression. The aim of this study is to determine whether COVID-19 related media consumption is associated with changes in mental health outcomes. This paper presents baseline data from the COVID-19 Psychological Wellbeing Study. The results showed a statistically significant correlation between COVID-19 media exposure and increases in anxiety (GAD-7) and depression (PHQ-9). The study suggested that media usage is statistically significantly associated with anxiety and depression on the GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scales with excessive media exposure related to higher anxiety and depression scores.
    5. Media Consumption and Mental Health during COVID-19 lockdown: A UK Cross-sectional study across England, Wales, Scotland and Northern
  3. Jun 2020
    1. Rauschenberg, C., Schick, A., Goetzl, C., Röhr, S., Riedel-Heller, S., Koppe, G., Durstewitz, D., Krumm, S., & Reininghaus, U. (2020). Social isolation, mental health and use of digital interventions in youth during the COVID-19 pandemic: A nationally representative survey [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/v64hf

    2. 2020-06-30

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/v64hf
    4. Background: Public health measures to curb SARS-CoV-2 transmission rates may have negative psychosocial consequences in youth. Digital interventions may help to mitigate these effects. We aimed to investigate the associations between social isolation, COVID-19-related worries/anxieties, objective social risk indicators, psychological distress and use of digital mobile health (mHealth) interventions in youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Data were collected as part of the “Health And Innovation During COVID-19 Survey” —a cross-sectional panel study including a representative sample of individuals aged 16 to 25 years (N=666; Mage 21·3) (assessment period: 07.05.-16.05.2020). Data were collected on social isolation, COVID-19-related worries/anxieties, objective social risk indicators, psychological distress as well as the current use of and attitude towards digital interventions. Outcomes: Social isolation, lack of company, worrying, and objective social risk indicators were associated with psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Dose-response relationships were found. For instance, psychological distress was progressively more likely to occur as levels of reported social isolation increased (very rarely: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2·4,CI 1·0 – 5·7, p=0·041; rarely: aOR 3·6, CI 1·7 – 7·7, p=0·001; occasionally: aOR 8·4, CI 4·0 – 17·5, p<0·001; often: aOR 20·6, CI 9·3 – 45·7, p<0·001; very often: aOR 43·4, CI 14·7 – 128·2, p<0·001). There was evidence that psychological distress, and high levels of social isolation, lack of company, and worrying were associated with a positive attitude towards using digital interventions, whereas only severe levels of psychological distress and worries were associated with actual use (aOR 2·0, CI 1·3 - 3·0, p=0·001; aOR 1·6, CI 1·1 – 2·2, p=0·005, respectively). Interpretation: Public health measures during pandemics may be associated with social isolation and poor mental health outcomes in youth. Digital interventions may help mitigate the negative psychosocial impact without risk for viral infection given there is an objective need and subjective demand.
    5. Social isolation, mental health and use of digital interventions in youth during the COVID-19 pandemic: a nationally representative survey
    1. Gambin, M., Sekowski, M., Woźniak-Prus, M., Wnuk, A., Oleksy, T., Cudo, A., Hansen, K., Huflejt-Łukasik, M., Kubicka, K., Lys, A. E., Gorgol, J., Holas, P., Kmita, G., Łojek, E., & Maison, D. (2020). Generalized anxiety and depressive symptoms in various age groups during the COVID-19 lockdown. Specific predictors and differences in symptoms severity [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/42m87

    2. 2020-06-30

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/42m87
    4. Background. Previous studies carried out in different countries indicated that young adults experience higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms than older age groups during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known about which epidemic-related difficulties and factors may contribute to these forms of emotional distress in various age groups. Purpose. The aim of the current study was to investigate: (i) differences in levels of depressive and generalized anxiety symptoms, as well as perceived difficulties related to pandemic across four age groups in the Polish population; (ii) which factors and difficulties related to pandemic are predictors of generalized anxiety and depressive symptoms in various age groups during the COVID-19 lockdown. Method. A total of 1115 participants (aged 18-85) took part in the study. The group was a representative sample of the Polish population in terms of sex, age, and place of residence. Participants completed online: The Patient Health Questionnaire-9, The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Scale of Perceived Health and Life Risk of COVID-19, Social Support Sale, Scale of Epidemic-Related Difficulties. Results. Younger age groups (18-29 and 30-44) experienced higher levels of depressive and generalized anxiety symptoms than older adults (45-59 and 60-85 years). Difficulties in relationships and at home were amongst the strongest predictors of depressive and generalized anxiety symptoms in all age groups. Fear and uncertainty related to the spread of the virus were one of the most important predictors of emotional distress in all the groups apart from the adults between 18-29 years, whereas difficulties related to external restrictions were one of the most significant predictors of depressive and anxiety symptoms only in the youngest group. Conclusions. Our results indicate that the youngest adults and those experiencing difficulties in relationships among household members were the most vulnerable to depressive and generalized anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown. Thus, it is important to plan preventive and therapeutic interventions to support these at-risk individuals in dealing with the challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
    5. Generalized anxiety and depressive symptoms in various age groups during the COVID-19 lockdown. Specific predictors and differences in symptoms severity
    1. Levita, L., Gibson Miller, J., Hartman, T. K., Murphy, J., Shevlin, M., McBride, O., Mason, L., Martinez, A. P., bennett, kate m, Stocks, T. V. A., McKay, R., & Bentall, R. (2020). Report2: Impact of Covid-19 on young people aged 13-24 in the UK- preliminary findings [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/s32j8

    2. 2020-06-30

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/s32j8
    4. A brief follow on report (from Report 1, see https://psyarxiv.com/uq4rn/). This report presents data on parents and their children's well being as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic from our adult survey study. In addition to presenting additional data showing a potentially significant increase in anxiety and depression in young people aged 13-24, as a consequence of COVID-19. Data collection for our Adult Study (Wave 2) took place between 22nd April and was ended on Friday, May 1st, here we report headline figures for the impact of Covid-19 on parents and their children. We have described our methods in a separate report (https://psyarxiv.com/wxe2n) and released two reports on our mental health outcomes from wave 1 (https://psyarxiv.com/hb6nq, https://psyarxiv.com/ydvc7).
    5. Report2: Impact of Covid-19 on young people aged 13-24 in the UK- preliminary findings
    1. Levita, L., Gibson Miller, J., Hartman, T. K., Murphy, J., Shevlin, M., McBride, O., McKay, R., Mason, L., Martinez, A. P., Stocks, T. V. A., bennett, kate m, & Bentall, R. (2020). Report1: Impact of Covid-19 on young people aged 13-24 in the UK- preliminary findings [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/uq4rn

    2. 2020-06-30

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/uq4rn
    4. COVID-19 has led to an unprecedented disruption of normal social relationships and activities, which are so important during the teen years and young adulthood, and to education and economic activity worldwide. The impact of this on young people’s mental health and future prospects may affect their need for support and services, and the speed of the nation’s social recovery afterwards. This study focused on the unique challenges facing young people at different points during adolescent development, which spans from the onset of puberty until the mid-twenties. Although this is an immensely challenging time and there is a potential risk for long term trauma, adolescence can be a period of opportunity, where the teenagers’ brain enjoys greater capacity for change. Hence, the focus on young people is key for designing age-specific interventions and public policies, which can offer new strategies for instilling resilience, emotional regulation, and self-control. In fact, adolescents might be assisted to not only cope, but excel, in spite of the challenges imposed by this pandemic. Our work will feed into the larger societal response that utilizes the discoveries about adolescence in the way we raise, teach, and treat young people during this time of crisis. Wave 1 data has already been collected from 2,002 young people aged 13-24, measuring their mental health (anxiety, depression, trauma), family functioning, social networks, and resilience, and social risk-taking at the time of the pandemic. Here we present a preliminary report of our findings, (Report 1). Data collected 21/4/20- 29/4/20 - a month after the lockdown started).
    5. Report1: Impact of Covid-19 on young people aged 13-24 in the UK- preliminary findings
    1. Scrivner, C., Johnson, J. A., Kjeldgaard-Christiansen, J., & Clasen, M. (2020). Pandemic Practice: Horror Fans and Morbidly Curious Individuals Are More Psychologically Resilient During the COVID-19 Pandemic [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/4c7af

    2. 2020-06-30

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/4c7af
    4. Conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study (n = 310) tested whether past and current engagement with thematically relevant media fictions, including horror and pandemic films, was associated with greater preparedness for and psychological resilience toward the pandemic. Since morbid curiosity has previously been associated with horror media use during the COVID-19 pandemic, we also tested whether trait morbid curiosity was associated with pandemic preparedness and psychological resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that fans of horror films exhibited greater resilience during the pandemic and that fans of “prepper” genres (alien-invasion, apocalyptic, and zombie films) exhibited both greater resilience and preparedness. We also found that trait morbid curiosity was associated with positive resilience and interest in pandemic films during the pandemic. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to frightening fictions allow audiences to practice effective coping strategies that can be beneficial in real-world situations.
    5. Pandemic Practice: Horror Fans and Morbidly Curious Individuals Are More Psychologically Resilient During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    1. Rauschenberg, C., Schick, A., Hirjak, D., Seidler, A., Apfelbacher, C., Riedel-Heller, S., & Reininghaus, U. (2020). Digital interventions to mitigate the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public mental health: A rapid meta-review [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/uvc78

    2. 2020-06-30

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/uvc78
    4. Background: Digital interventions may be used to mitigate psychosocial consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic but evidence-based recommendations are lacking. The aim of this rapid meta-review was to investigate the theoretical base, user perspective, safety, and clinical and cost effectiveness of digital interventions in public mental health provision (i.e. mental health promotion, prevention of, and treatment for mental disorder). Methods: A rapid meta-review was conducted. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases were searched on May 11, 2020. Study inclusion criteria were broad and considered systematic reviews that investigated digital tools for health promotion, prevention, or treatment of mental health conditions likely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings: We identified 813 reviews of which 82 met inclusion criteria. Overall, there is good evidence on the usability, safety, acceptance/satisfaction, and effectiveness of eHealth interventions while evidence on mHealth apps is promising, especially if social components (e.g. blended care) and strategies to promote adherence are incorporated. Although most digital interventions focus on the prevention or treatment of mental disorders, there is some evidence on mental health promotion. However, evidence on long-term clinical effects, process quality, and cost-effectiveness is very limited. Interpretation: Accumulating evidence suggests negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on public mental health. There is evidence that digital interventions are particularly suited to mitigating psychosocial consequences at the population level. Decision-makers should develop digital strategies for continued mental health care and the development and implementation of mental health promotion and prevention programs in times of quarantine and social distancing.
    5. Digital interventions to mitigate the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public mental health: a rapid meta-review
    1. Brown, S. M., Doom, J., Watamura, S., Lechuga-Pena, S., & Koppels, T. (2020). Stress and Parenting during the Global COVID-19 Pandemic [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ucezm

    2. 2020-06-30

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/ucezm
    4. Background: Stress and compromised parenting often place children at risk of abuse and neglect. Child maltreatment has generally been viewed as a highly individualistic problem by focusing on stressors and parenting behaviors that impact individual families. However, because of the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), families across the world are experiencing a new range of stressors that threaten their health, safety, and economic well-being. Objective: This study examined the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in relation to parental perceived stress and child abuse potential. Participants and Setting: Participants included parents (N = 183) with a child under the age of 18 years in the western United States. Method: Tests of group differences and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed to assess the relationships among demographic characteristics, COVID-19 related disruptions, mental health risk, protective factors, perceived stress, and child abuse potential. Results: Greater COVID-19 related disruptions and high anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with higher perceived stress and child abuse potential. In addition, higher perceived stress is associated with higher child abuse potential. Conversely, greater parental support and perceived control during the pandemic may have a protective effect against perceived stress and child abuse potential. Results also indicate racial and ethnic differences in COVID-19 related disruptions, but not in mental health risk, protective factors, perceived stress, or child abuse potential. Conclusion: Findings suggest that although families experience elevated stressors from COVID-19, providing parental support and increasing perceived control may be promising intervention targets.
    5. Stress and Parenting during the Global COVID-19 Pandemic