4,444 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. 10.1038/s41591-021-01407-5
    2. Mass vaccination has the potential to curb the current COVID-19 pandemic by protecting individuals who have been vaccinated against the disease and possibly lowering the likelihood of transmission to individuals who have not been vaccinated. The high effectiveness of the widely administered BNT162b vaccine from Pfizer–BioNTech in preventing not only the disease but also infection with SARS-CoV-2 suggests a potential for a population-level effect, which is critical for disease eradication. However, this putative effect is difficult to observe, especially in light of highly fluctuating spatiotemporal epidemic dynamics. Here, by analyzing vaccination records and test results collected during the rapid vaccine rollout in a large population from 177 geographically defined communities, we find that the rates of vaccination in each community are associated with a substantial later decline in infections among a cohort of individuals aged under 16 years, who are unvaccinated. On average, for each 20 percentage points of individuals who are vaccinated in a given population, the positive test fraction for the unvaccinated population decreased approximately twofold. These results provide observational evidence that vaccination not only protects individuals who have been vaccinated but also provides cross-protection to unvaccinated individuals in the community.
    3. Community-level evidence for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine protection of unvaccinated individuals
    4. Milman, O., Yelin, I., Aharony, N., Katz, R., Herzel, E., Ben-Tov, A., Kuint, J., Gazit, S., Chodick, G., Patalon, T., & Kishony, R. (2021). Community-level evidence for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine protection of unvaccinated individuals. Nature Medicine, 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01407-5

    5. 2021-06-10

    1. Samarakoon, U., Alvarez-Arango, S., & Blumenthal, K. G. (2021). Delayed Large Local Reactions to mRNA Covid-19 Vaccines in Blacks, Indigenous Persons, and People of Color. New England Journal of Medicine, 0(0), null. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2108620

    2. 10.1056/NEJMc2108620
    3. Blumenthal et al.1 report delayed large local reactions in 12 patients who had received the mRNA-1273 vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Baeck et al.2 report a similar reaction to the BNT162b2 vaccine. The majority of these patients with delayed large local reactions and those whose cases have been reported elsewhere3,4 have been White. Alvarez-Arango et al.5 note the importance of diverse images of dermatologic findings to mitigate cognitive biases and to better prepare clinicians to recognize and address cutaneous reactions in the diverse patients we serve. We therefore present a case series of delayed large local reactions to messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in recipients who are Black, Indigenous, or People of Color (BIPOC). From February 10, 2021, through April 23, 2021, a total of 1422 reports of postvaccination reactions were submitted to a Covid-19 vaccine allergy case registry (https://allergyresearch.massgeneral.org. opens in new tab). Of these reactions, 510 (36%) were delayed large local reactions that were reported by patients (64%) and clinicians (36%). The mean (±SD) age of the patients with delayed large local reactions was 50±15 years (range, 21 to 91), and the majority were women (472 [93%]). Delayed large local reactions were reported after the receipt of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in 459 patients (90%), after the receipt of the BNT162b2 vaccine in 35 (7%), and after the receipt of other or unknown Covid-19 vaccines in 16 (3%).
    4. Delayed Large Local Reactions to mRNA Covid-19 Vaccines in Blacks, Indigenous Persons, and People of Color
    5. 2021-06-09

    1. 2021-06-09

    2. Simpson, C. R., Shi, T., Vasileiou, E., Katikireddi, S. V., Kerr, S., Moore, E., McCowan, C., Agrawal, U., Shah, S. A., Ritchie, L. D., Murray, J., Pan, J., Bradley, D. T., Stock, S. J., Wood, R., Chuter, A., Beggs, J., Stagg, H. R., Joy, M., … Sheikh, A. (2021). First-dose ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccines and thrombocytopenic, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events in Scotland. Nature Medicine, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01408-4

    3. 10.1038/s41591-021-01408-4
    4. Reports of ChAdOx1 vaccine–associated thrombocytopenia and vascular adverse events have led to some countries restricting its use. Using a national prospective cohort, we estimated associations between exposure to first-dose ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccination and hematological and vascular adverse events using a nested incident-matched case-control study and a confirmatory self-controlled case series (SCCS) analysis. An association was found between ChAdOx1 vaccination and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (0–27 d after vaccination; adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 5.77, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.41–13.83), with an estimated incidence of 1.13 (0.62–1.63) cases per 100,000 doses. An SCCS analysis confirmed that this was unlikely due to bias (RR = 1.98 (1.29–3.02)). There was also an increased risk for arterial thromboembolic events (aRR = 1.22, 1.12–1.34) 0–27 d after vaccination, with an SCCS RR of 0.97 (0.93–1.02). For hemorrhagic events 0–27 d after vaccination, the aRR was 1.48 (1.12–1.96), with an SCCS RR of 0.95 (0.82–1.11). A first dose of ChAdOx1 was found to be associated with small increased risks of ITP, with suggestive evidence of an increased risk of arterial thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events. The attenuation of effect found in the SCCS analysis means that there is the potential for overestimation of the reported results, which might indicate the presence of some residual confounding or confounding by indication. Public health authorities should inform their jurisdictions of these relatively small increased risks associated with ChAdOx1. No positive associations were seen between BNT162b2 and thrombocytopenic, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events.
    5. First-dose ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccines and thrombocytopenic, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events in Scotland
    1. 2021-06-09

    2. 10.1038/s41591-021-01419-1
    3. A prospective cohort analysis finds a link between the ChAdOx1 vaccine and an autoimmune disorder known as immune thrombocytopenia—but questions remain and causality is yet to be established. Download PDF Worldwide efforts to control the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 have led to the most rapid and extensive vaccination program in human history. With all of its benefits, there also comes the potential for side effects, including autoimmune responses. In this issue of Nature Medicine, Simpson and colleagues implicate the AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1) vaccine, but not the Pfizer (BNT162b2) vaccine, in the development of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)1. In interpreting such findings, it is important to consider not only the strengths and limitations of the study but also the wider clinical context and the balance of risks and benefits of vaccination.
    4. COVID-19 vaccination and immune thrombocytopenia
    5. Pishko, A. M., Bussel, J. B., & Cines, D. B. (2021). COVID-19 vaccination and immune thrombocytopenia. Nature Medicine, 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01419-1

  2. May 2021
    1. Stephan Lewandowsky. (2021, February 17). ‘Digital fireside chat’ with @adamhfinn and @BristolUni ProVC Prof John Iredale about ‘Vaccines milestones and combating conspiracy theories’ now available at: Https://t.co/LPud59J7f7 The C19vax handbook makes an appearance https://t.co/3s5JWBvi0m @SciBeh https://t.co/a2FsWsTpXo [Tweet]. @STWorg. https://twitter.com/STWorg/status/1361999293704527876

    2. 2021-02-17

    3. "Digital fireside chat" with @adamhfinn and @BristolUni ProVC Prof John Iredale about "Vaccines milestones and combating conspiracy theories" now available at: https://digitalfireside.blogs.bristol.ac.uk/2021/02/17/episode-13-vaccines-milestones-and-combating-conspiracy-theories/… The C19vax handbook makes an appearance https://sks.to/c19vax @SciBeh
    1. Clark, C. (2021). The Blame Efficiency Hypothesis: An Evolutionary Framework to Resolve Rationalist and Intuitionist Theories of Moral Condemnation.

    2. The Blame Efficiency Hypothesis applies insights from evolutionary psychology to resolve the apparent conflict between rationalist and intuitionist perspectives on moral judgment. First, people reserve moral condemnation for actors and actions that are likely to be deterred by moral condemnation. This includes intended and controllable actions (consistent with rationalist perspectives that highlight how considerations of intentionality and causal control influence blame judgments) because blame cannot deter intentions that never existed in the first place, nor can it alter unalterable actions. And this includes actors who care about their moral reputations (i.e., cognitively competent and mentally healthy humans), because moral condemnation cannot deter those with no regard for their moral reputations. Second, moral judgment is subject to error management principles. Failing to condemn a morally responsible harmdoer signals exploitability, and so it would be more costly to erroneously not blame a harmdoer who could have been deterred by blame than to erroneously blame a harmdoer who could not have been deterred by blame (called The Don Corleone Principle). In contrast, no obvious cost asymmetry exists for overestimations or underestimations of moral responsibility for helpful or neutral actions. Therefore, in ambiguous cases, people should err on the side of assuming harmdoers are morally responsible (consistent with intuitionist perspectives which highlight how punitive desires influence judgments of intentionality and moral responsibility). Blaming efficiently means that people attribute moral responsibility to those who appear capable of controlling their behavior in future situations and to those who appear controllable—likely to change their behavior in response to harsh moral judgment, with a small bias toward ascribing responsibility in ambiguous cases of harm to minimize the costly error of under-blaming.
    3. The Blame Efficiency Hypothesis: An Evolutionary Framework to Resolve Rationalist and Intuitionist Theories of Moral Condemnation
    4. 2021-05

    1. 10.1038/s41591-021-01377-8
    2. Predictive models of immune protection from COVID-19 are urgently needed to identify correlates of protection to assist in the future deployment of vaccines. To address this, we analyzed the relationship between in vitro neutralization levels and the observed protection from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection using data from seven current vaccines and from convalescent cohorts. We estimated the neutralization level for 50% protection against detectable SARS-CoV-2 infection to be 20.2% of the mean convalescent level (95% confidence interval (CI) = 14.4–28.4%). The estimated neutralization level required for 50% protection from severe infection was significantly lower (3% of the mean convalescent level; 95% CI = 0.7–13%, P = 0.0004). Modeling of the decay of the neutralization titer over the first 250 d after immunization predicts that a significant loss in protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection will occur, although protection from severe disease should be largely retained. Neutralization titers against some SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern are reduced compared with the vaccine strain, and our model predicts the relationship between neutralization and efficacy against viral variants. Here, we show that neutralization level is highly predictive of immune protection, and provide an evidence-based model of SARS-CoV-2 immune protection that will assist in developing vaccine strategies to control the future trajectory of the pandemic.
    3. Neutralizing antibody levels are highly predictive of immune protection from symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection
    4. Khoury, D. S., Cromer, D., Reynaldi, A., Schlub, T. E., Wheatley, A. K., Juno, J. A., Subbarao, K., Kent, S. J., Triccas, J. A., & Davenport, M. P. (2021). Neutralizing antibody levels are highly predictive of immune protection from symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nature Medicine, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01377-8

    5. 2021-05-17

    1. The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 globally continues to impact humanity on a global scale with rising morbidity and mortality. Despite the development of multiple effective vaccines, new vaccines continue to be required to supply ongoing demand. We report Day 42 interim safety and immunogenicity data from a Phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Adults aged 18+ immunized with a virus-like particle vaccine candidate produced in plants displaying SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (CoVLP) adjuvanted with AS03 (NCT04636697). This report focuses on presenting safety, tolerability and immunogenicity, as measured by neutralizing antibody (NAb) and cell mediated immunity (IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISpot) responses, in Adults aged 18-64 (Adults) and Older Adults aged 65+ (Older Adults). CoVLP adjuvanted with AS03 was well-tolerated and adverse events (AE) were primarily mild or moderate and of transient duration. AEs in Older Adults were more limited than those observed in the Adult population. CoVLP with AS03 induced a significant humoral immune response in both age cohorts. CoVLP with AS03 induced a greater humoral response in Adults than Older Adults after a single dose but this effect was overcome with a second dose when both age cohorts responded with NAb titers that were ∼10-fold higher than those in a panel of sera from patients recovering from COVID-19. A single dose of CoVLP with AS03 induced a significant IFN-γ response in both age cohorts; a second dose significantly boosted IFN-γ and IL-4 responses in both age cohorts. Adults generated a stronger IFN-γ and IL-4 cellular response than did Older Adults after one or two doses of AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP. Safety and immunogenicity from Adults with comorbidities as well as final safety and immunogenicity responses after 12 months will be reported upon availability.
    2. Interim Report of a Phase 2 Randomized Trial of a Plant-Produced Virus-Like Particle Vaccine for Covid-19 in Healthy Adults Aged 18-64 and Older Adults Aged 65 and Older
    3. 10.1101/2021.05.14.21257248
    4. 2021-05-17

    5. Gobeil, P., Pillet, S., Séguin, A., Boulay, I., Mahmood, A., Vinh, D. C., Charland, N., Boutet, P., Roman, F., Most, R. V. D., Perez, M. de los A. C., Ward, B. J., & Landry, N. (2021). Interim Report of a Phase 2 Randomized Trial of a Plant-Produced Virus-Like Particle Vaccine for Covid-19 in Healthy Adults Aged 18-64 and Older Adults Aged 65 and Older. MedRxiv, 2021.05.14.21257248. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.14.21257248

    1. Graso, M. (2021). Over-estimation of Covid-19 Risks to Healthy and Non-Elderly Predict Support for Continuing Restrictions Past Vaccinations. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/bg54x

    2. 2021-05-18

    3. I test the possibility that people who provide higher estimates of negative consequences of Covid-19 (e.g., hospitalizations, deaths, and threats to children) will be more likely to support the ‘new normal’; continuation of restrictions for an undefined period of time starting with wide-spread access to vaccines and completed vaccinations of vulnerable people. Results based on N = 1,233 from April, 2021 suggested that people over-estimate Covid-19 risks, and those over-estimates were consistently related to stronger support for continuing restrictions. This relationship emerged in four different samples, using core and supplementary risk estimations, and persisted after controlling for Covid-19 denialism, political ideology, and personal concern of contracting Covid-19. People were also more likely to support continuing restrictions if they believed there is scientific consensus on Covid-19 matters, even on issues where there is none (e.g., wearing masks while driving alone). The study concludes with a discussion of the ethical implications of letting both over- and under-estimation of Covid-19 go uncorrected. Just as it is important to combat misinformation that leads people to disregard health mandates, it is crucial to examine the real possibility that people’s support for continuing risk mitigation practices may also not be based on accurate information.
    4. Over-estimation of Covid-19 Risks to Healthy and Non-Elderly Predict Support for Continuing Restrictions Past Vaccinations
    1. Stuart, A., Harkin, L., Daly, R., Sanderson, L., Park, M. S.-A., Stevenson, C., Katz, D., Gooch, D., Levine, M., & Price, B. (2021). Ageing in the time of COVID-19: The coronavirus pandemic exacerbates the experience of loneliness in older people by undermining identity processes. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/rhf32

    2. 2021-05-17

    3. Loneliness can develop as a result of the identity transitions accompanying older adulthood, including the onset of health conditions and loss of social connections. The current study examines how the COVID-19 pandemic affected these identity change processes among older adults thereby impacting their experience of loneliness. In this longitudinal qualitative study, we use a theoretically-guided thematic analysis, applying insights from the Social Identity Model of Identity Change (SIMIC). Interviews were conducted before the pandemic, after the first UK national lockdown, and during the third national lockdown (N=9, Mage=78.7). The themes identified were: threatened social contact; being categorised as a vulnerable older adult; restricted ability to gain and maintain identities; undermined reciprocal social support; and wellbeing hindered by loneliness related fears. Implications discussed include how the pandemic recovery effort will require facilitating positive ageing identities to counteract the vulnerabilities introduced by the pandemic.
    4. Ageing in the time of COVID-19: the coronavirus pandemic exacerbates the experience of loneliness in older people by undermining identity processes
    1. Schnepf, J., & Christmann, U. (2021). “It’s a war! It’s a battle! It’s a fight!”: Do militaristic metaphors increase people’s threat perceptions and support for COVID-19 policies? PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/awuft

    2. 2021-05-17

    3. Governments around the world have made use of militaristic metaphors at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic to draw attention to the dangers of the virus. But do militaristic metaphors indeed affect individuals’ threat perceptions and support for restrictive COVID-19 policies? Using a fictitious newspaper design, COVID-19 policies were described with similarly negatively valanced metaphors but different in militaristic connotation (e.g., “war” vs. “struggle”). Overall, data of 3 framing experiments (N = 1,114) in Germany and the United States indicate limited evidence on the effectiveness of the tested militaristic metaphors. In the U.S. context, the non-militaristic concept of struggle was consistently more strongly associated with the desired outcomes than militaristic metaphors. In study 2 and 3, we also tested whether a narrative compared to factual style of reporting additionally influenced the framing effect. A congruency effect of narrative reporting style and the use of warfare metaphors was found in the German but not in the U.S. sample. Results of post-experimental norming studies (N = 437) in both countries revealed that the metaphor of war is associated with higher responsibility ascriptions to the government, whereas the concept of struggle triggers individual responsibility in the pandemic. The results are discussed in light of the usefulness and appropriateness of militaristic metaphors in medical contexts.
    4. “It’s a war! It’s a battle! It’s a fight!”: Do militaristic metaphors increase people's threat perceptions and support for COVID-19 policies?
    1. SINDS ENKELE weken klinkt er ferme kritiek op het wetenschappelijk niveau van de activiteiten die de organisatie Fieldlab Evenementen uitvoert onder de noemer van ‘onderzoek’. Het gaat hier om een serie grootschalige evenementen. Van festivals en sportwedstrijden tot clubnachten en congressen, waaronder het Eurovisie Songfestival in Rotterdam (ca. 3.500 bezoekers), het Startschotgala in Oost Gelre (ca. 10.000 bezoekers) en het festival BackToLive Walibi in Biddinghuizen (ca. 9.000 bezoekers).
    2. In de ban van de evenementenlobby: Resultaten Fieldlab Evenementen onbruikbaar. Kosten: €2,7 miljoen
    3. Meyns, C. (2021, May 15). In de ban van de evenementenlobby. Medium. https://chrismeyns.medium.com/in-de-ban-van-de-evenementenlobby-46437eb12ee4

    4. 2021-05-13

    1. The international scheme to ensure equal access to Covid-19 vaccines is 140 million doses short because of India's continuing Covid crisis. The Serum Institute of India (SII), the largest single supplier to the Covax scheme, has made none of its planned shipments since exports were suspended in March. The UN children's agency Unicef buys and distributes vaccines for Covax. It is urging leaders of G7 nations and EU states to share their doses.They are due to meet in the UK next month. How India's vaccine drive went horribly wrongExtra $45bn needed for Covax plan to vaccinate poorTracking vaccine progress around the worldUnicef says data it has commissioned suggests that together this group of countries could donate around 153 million doses, while still meeting their commitments to vaccinate their own populations.
    2. India's Covid crisis hits Covax vaccine-sharing scheme
    3. India’s Covid crisis hits Covax vaccine-sharing scheme. (2021, May 17). BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-57135368

    4. 2021-05-17

    1. 2021-05-07

    2. Rapid antigen testing in COVID-19 responses
    3. The value of rapid antigen testing of people (with or without COVID-19 symptoms) to reduce transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been discussed extensively (1–5) but remains a topic of policy debates (6, 7). Lateral flow devices (LFDs) to test for SARS-CoV-2 antigen are inexpensive, provide results in minutes, and are highly specific (2–4), and although less sensitive than reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests to detect viral RNA, they detect most cases with high viral load (2, 3, 8), which are likely the most infectious (8, 9). Successful mass testing relies on public trust, the social and organizational factors that support uptake, contact tracing, and adherence to quarantine. On page 635 of this issue, Pavelka et al. (10) report the substantial reduction in transmission that population-wide rapid antigen testing had, in combination with other measures, in Slovakia.Slovakia ran mass testing interventions from the last week of October to the second week of November 2020, with 65% of the target populations taking rapid antigen tests. Testing started in the four counties with the highest rates of infection, continued with national mass testing, then was followed up with more testing in high-prevalence areas. Nasopharyngeal swabs for the LFDs were taken by clinical staff, not self-administered. Sample quality and test accuracy are higher with tests taken by health professionals (3). Although the specific impact of Slovakia's mass testing could not be disentangled from the contribution of other concurrent control measures (including closure of secondary schools and restrictions on hospitality and indoor leisure activities), statistical modelling by Pavelka et al. estimated a 70% reduction in the prevalence of COVID-19 cases compared with unmitigated growth.The UK piloted mass testing in Liverpool in November 2020 after the city experienced the highest COVID-19 prevalence in the country. Slovakia applied more pressure on its citizens to get tested than did Liverpool, by requiring anyone not participating in mass testing to quarantine. The Liverpool testing uptake was consequently lower than Slovakia's, involving 25% of the population in 4 weeks. Liverpool's public health service valued the testing as an additional control measure, but impacts were limited by lack of support for those in socioeconomically deprived areas facing income loss from quarantine after a positive test (2): Test positivity rates were highest and testing uptake lowest in the most deprived areas (2, 11). Similar socioeconomic barriers were reported for test uptake among care home staff (12). This highlights the importance of addressing public perceptions of testing and support for low-income workers to quarantine when implementing mass testing.
    4. García-Fiñana, M., & Buchan, I. E. (2021). Rapid antigen testing in COVID-19 responses. Science, 372(6542), 571–572. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abi6680

    1. This page provides information and resources to help public health departments and laboratories investigate and report COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough cases. Vaccine breakthrough cases are expected. COVID-19 vaccines are effective and are a critical tool to bring the pandemic under control. However, no vaccines are 100% effective at preventing illness in vaccinated people. There will be a small percentage of fully vaccinated people who still get sick, are hospitalized, or die from COVID-19. More than 130 million people in the United States have been fully vaccinated as of May 24, 2021. Like with other vaccines, vaccine breakthrough cases will occur, even though the vaccines are working as expected. Asymptomatic infections among vaccinated people will also occur. There is some evidence that vaccination may make illness less severe for those who are vaccinated and still get sick. Current data suggest that COVID-19 vaccines authorized for use in the United States offer protection against most SARS-CoV-2 variants currently circulating in the United States. However, variants will cause some vaccine breakthrough cases.
    2. COVID-19 Vaccine Breakthrough Case Investigation and Reporting
    3. COVID-19 Breakthrough Case Investigations and Reporting | CDC. (2021, May 28). https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/health-departments/breakthrough-cases.html

    4. 2021-05-28

    1. An easy access dashboard now provides links to scientific discussion and evaluation of bioRxiv preprints. (n.d.). Retrieved 30 May 2021, from https://connect.biorxiv.org/news/2021/05/14/dashboard .

    2. News & Notes > An easy access dashboard now provides links to scientific discussion and evaluation of bioRxiv preprints.An easy access dashboard now provides links to scientific discussion and evaluation of bioRxiv preprints.bioRxiv  |  2021-05-14Part of our mission at bioRxiv is to alert readers to reviews and discussion of preprints and support the different ways readers provide feedback to authors on their work. These include tweets, comments on preprints and community- or journal-organized peer reviews. bioRxiv improves discoverability of such efforts by linking to peer reviews, community discussions and mentions of the preprint in social and traditional media. By aggregating this information in a new dashboard, we are now making these even easier for readers to find and access.
    3. An easy access dashboard now provides links to scientific discussion and evaluation of bioRxiv preprints.
    4. 2021-05-14

  3. Jan 2021
  4. Aug 2020
    1. ReconfigBehSci on Twitter: “@ErikAngner 2/2 1. mandatory schooling (where there exemptions for immune-compromised parents?) 2. encouraging household members of infected individuals to go to work/school Could you provide more background here and how you see these policies in the wider context?” / Twitter. (n.d.). Twitter. Retrieved August 18, 2020, from https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1295685503111647232

    2. That team of authors is not the most dependable, if I may put it that way.
    3. so was that USA today open letter basically misinformation in this regard?
    4. Lots to say, but just quickly: (1) Exceptions are permitted on a case-by-case basis https://skolverket.se/regler-och-ansvar/ansvar-i-skolfragor/skolplikt-och-ratt-till-utbildning… (2) Everyone is encouraged to work from home whenever possible
    5. V. sorry to see a colleague spread what can only be described as conspiracy theories on Twitter. I think academics have a particular duty to keep their heads cool in a moment of crisis.Quote TweetBenjamin L. Jones@BoardshortsBen · 3hIn many other countries, society would be furious and demanding answers to why their children have been used to spread a virus that we now know has potential neurological implications for children. But not in Sweden. https://theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/17/swedens-covid-19-strategist-under-fire-over-herd-immunity-emails
    6. 2020-08-18

    7. Erik, as people inside and outside Sweden continue to grapple with what exactly the Swedish strategy might have been, there are two aspects that have seemed potentially troubling to me (and only more so in light of the FOI email releases):
    8. 2/2 1. mandatory schooling (where there exemptions for immune-compromised parents?) 2. encouraging household members of infected individuals to go to work/school Could you provide more background here and how you see these policies in the wider context?
    1. 10.1080/17512786.2020.1805791
    2. This study empirically examined studies on fake news through a content analysis of 103 peer-reviewed articles obtained from the eight major databases. The articles were published between 2000 and 2018. This systematic review of the journals, progression, theories, methodologies, media genres, common used words, and geospatial distribution indicated that the majority of the articles were published in Journalism Practice, Popular Communication, Digital Journalism, and Journalism Studies. Regarding progression, the highest number of publications was recorded for 2017 and 2018. At least one article was published each year beginning in 2005; 2006 and 2014 were exceptions. The results indicate that the majority of the articles were atheoretical. Qualitative research methods, content analysis, and surveys which were applied oftentimes. The studies were equally distributed across all media genres (traditional, digital, and social media). However, television and Twitter were the platforms that received the greatest amount of scholarly attention. The articles focused on the United States more than any other country. Finally, “news,” “media,” and “fake” were the most regularly frequently occurring words.
    3. Mapping the Scholarship of Fake News Research: A Systematic Review
    4. 2020-08-11

    5. Arqoub, O. A., Elega, A. A., Özad, B. E., Dwikat, H., & Oloyede, F. A. (2020). Mapping the Scholarship of Fake News Research: A Systematic Review. Journalism Practice, 0(0), 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2020.1805791

    1. 2020-08-17

    2. Are you interested in #preregistration and have experience with either #EEG or #fMRI? We, the MPI CBS #OpenScience initiative, are hosting a hackathon on August 20, 3-6 pm (GMT+2) to continue working on preregistration templates for EEG and fMRI and we need YOUR help! 1/2
    3. MPI CBS Open Science on Twitter: “Are you interested in #preregistration and have experience with either #EEG or #fMRI? We, the MPI CBS #OpenScience initiative, are hosting a hackathon on August 20, 3-6 pm (GMT+2) to continue working on preregistration templates for EEG and fMRI and we need YOUR help! 1/2” / Twitter. (n.d.). Twitter. Retrieved August 18, 2020, from https://twitter.com/CBSOpenScience/status/1295270699158904834

    1. 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100479
    2. Du, Z., Javan, E., Nugent, C., Cowling, B. J., & Meyers, L. A. (2020). Using the COVID-19 to influenza ratio to estimate early pandemic spread in Wuhan, China and Seattle, US. EClinicalMedicine, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100479

    3. Pandemic SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in Wuhan, China on December 31, 2019. Twenty-one days later, the US identified its first case––a man who had traveled from Wuhan to the state of Washington. Recent studies in the Wuhan and Seattle metropolitan areas retrospectively tested samples taken from patients with COVID-like symptoms. In the Wuhan study, there were 4 SARS-CoV-2 positives and 7 influenza positives out of 26 adults outpatients who sought care for influenza-like-illness at two central hospitals prior to January 12, 2020. The Seattle study reported 25 SARS-CoV-2 positives and 442 influenza positives out of 2353 children and adults who reported acute respiratory illness prior to March 9, 2020. Here, we use these findings to extrapolate the early prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19 in Wuhan and Seattle.
    4. Using the COVID-19 to influenza ratio to estimate early pandemic spread in Wuhan, China and Seattle, US
    5. 2020-08-12

    1. (1) Adam Briggs on Twitter: “Might be of interest. In 2017, @PHE underwent an independent international peer-review from @IANPHIhealth - the International Association of National Public Health Institutes. An organisation that strengthens government agencies responsible for public health. Thread/” / Twitter. (n.d.). Twitter. Retrieved August 18, 2020, from https://twitter.com/ADMBriggs/status/1295416016877625344

    2. 2020-08-17

    3. Might be of interest. In 2017, @PHE underwent an independent international peer-review from @IANPHIhealth - the International Association of National Public Health Institutes. An organisation that strengthens government agencies responsible for public health. Thread/
    1. Whitney R. Robinson on Twitter: “1/ An #EpiTwitter 🧵 about theory... https://t.co/rSjfkHG21r” / Twitter. (n.d.). Twitter. Retrieved August 18, 2020, from https://twitter.com/WhitneyEpi/status/1295522551892971520

    2. 2020-08-18

    3. 11/ I’m continually impressed by the powerful insights that come from epidemiologists who draw from our conceptual and methodology traditions but also tested and validated theory.
    4. 10/ When someone in spring 2020 tells @HealthEquityDoc that we are “all in the same boat” re: chances of getting exposed to #SARSCoV2 and dying of #COVID19, she too is going to have some questions... https://iaphs.org/racism-in-the-
    5. 9/ When people tell @JuliaLMarcus that shaming folks & involving criminal justice is an effective tool for slowing the spread of #COVID19, she’s going to have a few questions for you...
    6. 8/ The problem with data divorced from theory is that statistics can lie. And we humans are fallible and susceptible to suggestion. The theoretical grounding of the researchers that I respect most helps keeps them clear-eyed & ethical.
    7. 7/ And the novel coronavirus #SARSCoV2 has presented many novel situations...
    8. 6/ The thing is, solid theory gives us a basis for predicting likely outcomes in novel situations...
    9. 5/ Visionary, truth-telling epidemiologists like @HealthEquityDoc, who has an MPH in health behavior and a PhD in social epidemiology...
    10. 4/ Future-gazing epidemiologists like @JuliaLMarcus, who has an undergrad double major in sociology and women’s studies...
    11. 3/ When I think about the most forward-thinking epidemiologists I know re: #SARSCoV2 and #COVID19, a common bond is a grounding and training in social theory...
    12. 2/ Many epidemiologists are not trained in social or health behavior theory. Its value is often overlooked in a field that values quantitative analysis.
    13. 1/ An #EpiTwitter about theory...GIFQuote TweetThe Atlantic@TheAtlantic · 13hThe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has switched to remote learning after a spike in COVID-19 cases. “Universities have no business reopening if they can’t provide a healthy environment," Julia Marcus and Jessica Gold wrote in July. http://on.theatln.tc/WIHQzDo
    1. 2020-08-17

    2. Andrew Althouse on Twitter: “@brnichols8744 @JeremySussman @FinancialGonzo @venkmurthy Many scientists use Twitter to carry on conversations (with varying degrees of formality) about published papers, the good, bad, and ugly. The people in this conversation all do this frequently. None of us are anti-science (cont...)” / Twitter. (n.d.). Twitter. Retrieved August 18, 2020, from https://twitter.com/ADAlthousePhD/status/1295168734219337738

    3. Many scientists use Twitter to carry on conversations (with varying degrees of formality) about published papers, the good, bad, and ugly. The people in this conversation all do this frequently. None of us are anti-science (cont...)