3,845 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2020
    1. 2020-06-16

    2. A paper published last week claiming mask usage prevented 66,000 infections in NYC has received widespread media coverage. It has also been heavily criticized for, among other things, a tenuous analysis of a regression discontinuity. Fitting lines to the number of new cases each day in New York City before and after face masks were mandatory, the authors attribute the steeper decline in cases to face masks: new cases were falling by 39 per day before the order and 106 after, so face masks probably sped up the rate of decrease by about 67 cases a day.
    3. You Regress It: Have Masks Prevented 66,000 Infections in New York City?
    4. You Regress It: Have Masks Prevented 66,000 Infections in New York City? (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2020, from https://roadtolarissa.com/regression-discontinuity

    1. Die Planungen der Europäischen Union und aller ihrer Mitgliedstaaten für eine sichere Wiederaufnahme des Reiseverkehrs in Europa laufen. Der Schutz der öffentlichen Gesundheit hat zwar nach wie vor Priorität, aber jeder soll seinen Urlaub genießen, Familie und Freunde besuchen und zu jedem anderen Zweck reisen können. Mit dieser interaktiven Plattform erhalten Sie die Informationen, die Sie benötigen, um Ihre Reisen und Ihren Urlaub in Europa mit Rücksicht auf Ihre Gesundheit sicher zu planen. Die Informationen werden häufig aktualisiert und stehen Ihnen in 24 Sprachen zur Verfügung.
    2. Re-open EU
    3. Re-open EU. (n.d.). Re-open EU. Retrieved June 17, 2020, from https://reopen.europa.eu

  2. ulausannebusiness.eu.qualtrics.com ulausannebusiness.eu.qualtrics.com
    1. Oben rechts auf dieser Seite können Sie die gewünschte Sprache (Englisch, Französisch, Deutsch oder Italienisch) auswählen. Vielen Dank für Ihre Teilnahme an dieser Studie. Sie befasst sich mit SARS-CoV-2. Wie Sie wahrscheinlich wissen, ist das neuartige Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 das Virus, das mit der aktuellen Pandemie und der COVID-19-Krankheit assoziiert ist. Unsere Umfrage dauert ungefähr 5 Minuten: Wir bitten Sie, zwei Fragen zu SARS-CoV-2 zu beantworten, gefolgt von einigen demografischen Fragen.   Die Teilnahme an dieser Studie ist anonym. Die Ergebnisse werden nur in aggregierter Form veröffentlicht und erlauben keine Identifizierung der Teilnehmer. Bitte beachten Sie, dass Ihre Teilnahme an dieser Studie vollkommen freiwillig ist und dass Sie für Ihre Teilnahme nicht vergütet werden.   Indem Sie fortfahren, bestätigen Sie, dass Sie diese Informationen gelesen haben und stimmen zu, unter den oben genannten Bedingungen an dieser Studie teilzunehmen. Für weitere Informationen können Sie den Organisator der Studie, Jérémy Orsat, unter jeremy.orsat@unil.ch kontaktieren.
    2. SARS-CoV-2 Study. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2020, from https://ulausannebusiness.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_0rgUXxwC5wIiuRD

    1. Capraro, V., & Barcelo, H. (2020). Priming reasoning increases intentions to wear a face covering to slow down COVID-19 transmission [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/wtcqy

    2. 2020-06-16

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/wtcqy
    4. Finding mechanisms to promote the use of face masks is fundamental during the second phase of the COVID-19 pandemic response, when shelter-in-place rules are relaxed and some segments of the population are allowed to circulate more freely. Here we report three pre-registered studies (total N = 1,920), using an heterogenous sample of people living in the USA, showing that priming people to “rely on their reasoning” rather than to “rely on their emotions” significantly increases their intentions to wear a face covering. Compared to the baseline, priming reasoning promotes intentions to wear a face covering, whereas priming emotion has no significant effect. These findings have theoretical and practical implications. Practically, they offer a simple and scalable intervention to promote intentions to wear a face mask. Theoretically, they shed light on the cognitive basis of intentions to wear a face covering.
    5. Priming reasoning increases intentions to wear a face covering to slow down COVID-19 transmission
    1. Somma, F., Bartolomeo, P., Vallone, F., Argiuolo, A., Cerrato, A., Miglino, O., Mandolesi, L., Zurlo, M. C., & Gigliotta, O. (2020). Further to the left. Stress-induced increase of spatial pseudoneglect during the COVID-19 lockdown [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/xb954

    2. 2020-06-17

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/xb954
    4. Background The measures taken to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the lockdown in Italy, do impact psychological health; yet, less is known about their effect on cognitive functioning. The transactional theory of stress predicts reciprocal influences between perceived stress and cognitive performance. However, the effects of a period of stress due to social isolation on spatial cognition and exploration have been little examined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects and impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on spatial cognition tasks, particularly those concerning spatial exploration, and the physiological leftward bias known as pseudoneglect. A right-hemisphere asymmetry for spatial attention processes crucially contributes to pseudoneglect. Other evidence indicates a predominantly right-hemisphere activity in stressful situations. We also analyzed the effects of lockdown on coping strategies, which typically show an opposite pattern of hemispheric asymmetry, favoring the left hemisphere. If so, then pseudoneglect should increase during the lockdown and be negatively correlated with the efficacy of coping strategies. Methods One week before the start of the lockdown due to Covid-19 in Italy (T1), we had collected data from a battery of behavioral tests including tasks of peri-personal spatial cognition. During the quarantine period, from late April to early May 2020 (T2), we repeated the testing sessions with a subgroup of the same participants (47 right-handed students, mean age = 20, SD = 1.33). At both testing sessions, participants performed digitized neuropsychological tests, including a cancellation task, radial arm maze task and Raven’s advanced progressive matrices. Participants also completed a newly developed COVID-19 Student Stress Scale, based on transactional models of stress, and the COPE-NIV to assess coping orientation. Results The tendency to start cancellation from a left-sided item, to explore first a left-sided arm of the maze, and to choose erroneous response items on the left side of the page on Raven’s matrices, increased from T1 to T2. The degree of pseudoneglect increment positively correlated with perceived stress, and negatively correlated with Positive Attitude and Problem-Solving COPE-NIV subscales. Conclusions Lockdown-related stress may have contributed to increase leftward bias during quarantine through a greater activation of the right hemisphere. On the other hand, pseudoneglect was decreased for better coping participants, perhaps as a consequence of a more balanced hemispheric activity in these individuals.
    5. Further to the left. Stress-induced increase of spatial pseudoneglect during the COVID-19 lockdown
    1. In epidemiology, the terms ratio, rate, and risk have clear definitions.1Kelly H Cowling BJ Case fatality: rate, ratio, or risk?.Epidemiology. 2013; 24: 622-623Crossref PubMed Scopus (12) Google Scholar In the emerging publications related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the phrase case fatality rate is being used instead of case fatality ratio.2Guan WJ Ni ZY Hu Y et al.Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China.N Engl J Med. 2020; (published online Feb 28.)DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa2002032Crossref Google Scholar,  3Rajgor DD Lee MH Archuleta S Bagdasarian N Quek SC The many estimates of the COVID-19 case fatality rate.Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; (published online March 27.)https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30244-9Summary Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (9) Google Scholar A ratio is a comparison of two similar quantities. Ratios have no dimensions and can take any value; a ratio of 1 means the two quantities being compared are equal to each other. The case fatality ratio is the ratio of deaths (numerator) to identified cases (denominator), and is usually expressed as percentage.2Guan WJ Ni ZY Hu Y et al.Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China.N Engl J Med. 2020; (published online Feb 28.)DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa2002032Crossref Google Scholar,  3Rajgor DD Lee MH Archuleta S Bagdasarian N Quek SC The many estimates of the COVID-19 case fatality rate.Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; (published online March 27.)https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30244-9Summary Full Text Full Text PDF PubMed Scopus (9) Google Scholar As clearly described by Kelly and Cowling,1Kelly H Cowling BJ Case fatality: rate, ratio, or risk?.Epidemiology. 2013; 24: 622-623Crossref PubMed Scopus (12) Google Scholar a rate has a time dimension (ie, time−1); it expresses changes in one quantity over a time period. Risk, however, is the probability associated with an adverse outcome that is likely to occur in the future during follow-up. Like ratios, risk has no dimensions but, unlike ratios, risk is confined to values between 0 and 1.
    1. The controversial lockdown imposed on Roma settlements in Slovakia to prevent community transmission of COVID-19 sparks accusations of discrimination. Ed Holt reports.
    1. Even before COVID-19 hit, there was a mental health crisis in academia. A 2018 study, for instance, found that rates of anxiety and depression in graduate students were nearly six times greater than what’s seen in the general population. Now, the pressures that may lead to mental health challenges in academia are even more extreme. Many scientists are worried about their own health as well as that of their families. Some are anxious about their future job prospects. And nearly everyone has been adjusting to a new work situation—one that revolves around digital communication rather than face-to-face contact.
    1. To prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, countries around the world have taken a variety of restrictive measures. March 2020 figures already show their significant impact on international trade in goods. In March 2020, total seasonally adjusted extra-EU trade (imports + exports) fell from €252 billion to €228 billion compared with January 2020. However, the impact varied for different product groups.
    1. Conspiracy theorists are using a new chat app to ‘gamify’ the spread of dangerous misinformation including coronavirus conspiracies, Holocaust denial and far right racism. Thousands of users frequent ‘servers’ on Discord, a voice and text chat platform for gamers, where participants can rack up points for posting conspiracy theories and cash them in for rewards.
    1. ‘The thing I find the saddest is we knew the entire story of what’s unfolded in Britain in the last 4 months by January 31.’ Editor of @theLancet, @richardhorton1 answers @Piersmorgan's question on why he thinks the UK has handled the coronavirus pandemic so badly.
    2. Good Morning Britain on Twitter: “‘The thing I find the saddest is we knew the entire story of what’s unfolded in Britain in the last 4 months by January 31.’ Editor of @theLancet, @richardhorton1 answers @Piersmorgan’s question on why he thinks the UK has handled the coronavirus pandemic so badly. https://t.co/EhiAIQg9Fy” / Twitter. (n.d.). Twitter. Retrieved June 16, 2020, from https://twitter.com/GMB/status/1272776730554650624

    3. 2020-06-16

    1. Muungo, L. (2020). Effects of pneumococcal vaccine in patients with chronic respiratory disease. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/gwqvx

    2. 2020-06-14

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/gwqvx
    4. When I started my PhD with my thesis entitled ‘‘Correlation of Quantitative CT with selective alveolobronchogram and pulmonary function tests in emphysema’’ [1], the research performed in our dept was mainly focused on the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Following my PhD, my further research focused on control of breathing in patients with COPD [2, 3]. Part of my scientific work is the long-term observation of patients with chronic respiratory tract infection. In particular, I have investigated the antibiotic resistance according to genotype of penicillin-binding protein and macrolide resistance genes of Streptococcus peumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from the patients with chronic respiratory diseases. I identified the relationship between the emergence of resistant genes and the risk factors of the patients. The pneumococcal vaccine includes 23 purified capsular antigens, which covers 95% of STATEMENT OF INTEREST: None declared. the penicillin-nonsusceptible serotypes, and is expected to Eur Respir Rev 2008; 17: 107, 43–45 DOI: 10.1183/09059180.00010717 Copyright?ERSJ Ltd 2008 c EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY REVIEW VOLUME 17 NUMBER 107 43 reduce the incidence of drug-resistant strains [4]. I then focused on the usefulness of the pneumococcal vaccine in preventing either pneumonia or death in adults with chronic respiratory disease and reducing penicillin-nonsusceptible strains. The percentage of respiratory tract infections caused by pneumococcus is particularly high among elderly patients. The currently available pneumococcal vaccine stimulates the formation of specific antibodies in vivo, resulting in the prevention of pneumococcal infection; the antibody specific to pneumococci is produced within 1 month of vaccination and is retained in vivo for ,5 yrs. Among the studies conducted to date to evaluate the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccines, a placebo-controlled study involving mine workers (known to have a high incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia, i.e. several percent or higher per year) and some other groups was performed in the 1970s. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of vaccines against pneumonia and sepsis. In developed countries, however, it is very difficult to demonstrate the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccines with this type of study because the incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia is very low and .20,000 subjects need to be assigned to both the vaccinated group and the control (nonvaccinated group) for evaluation of effectiveness. In recent years, the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccines was studied primarily using case–control or indirect cohort study designs, demonstrating that vaccines are not useful in preventing the onset of nonbacteraemic pneumonia, but are for pneumococcal bacteraemia [5, 6]. In Japan, the percentage of people vaccinated against pneumococcal infection is very low (2%), and it is difficult to perform a case–control study involving subjects with pneumococcal infection, as is often done in developed countries. In our cohort study, we were able to demonstrate the usefulness of vaccination despite the relatively small size of the population studied. This probably owes much to the study design, i.e. the adoption of bacterial respiratory infection (which often complicates chronic respiratory disease) as an indicator of the effectiveness of vaccination and the technique of repeated measures analysis of variance, to compare the change in the incidence of infection from the pre-vaccination to the post-vaccination period between the vaccinated and nonvaccinated groups (fig. 1, table 1).
    5. Effects of pneumococcal vaccine in patients with chronic respiratory disease
    1. Guerrero, R. J. A., Parra, A. B., Cahua, J. C. H., & Banaszak-Holl, J. (2020). Psychological problems associated with coping strategies: A web-based study in Peruvian population during the COVID-19 pandemic. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/uarwz

    2. 2020-06-14

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/uarwz
    4. BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease has quickly spread to all corners across Latin-American countries. Its exponential capacity has overwhelmed even the most resilient health systems (1). The already significant impact of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) on the global scale is worsened by psychological responses that may aggravate the health crisis. OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed at collecting demographic information, prevalence of psychological morbidities and associated coping styles during the COVID-19 pandemic on Peruvian population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted through online survey using snowball sampling techniques after the state of emergency was declared in Perú. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ -28) identify somatic symptom, anxiety/ insomnia, social misfunctioning and depression prevalence and the Coping Strategy Questionnaire (COPE-28) maps strategies addressing recent stress. RESULTS: We collected data from 434 self-selected participants within 18-68 years old (ME =33.87), by analysing the socio-economic information in which the majority of the respondents were women (61.3%), aged between 18 and 28 (41.7%), from well-educated groups (>=85.0 %), Peruvian (94.2%), working citizen (57.4%) and single (71.20 %). Nearly 40.8% rated psychological problems, expressing fear of being infected by coronavirus (71.43%). Regression analysis shows that female gender is associated to higher somatic (p<0.001*, C.I: -2.75 to -.99) and anxiety/insomnia symptoms (p=0.00*, C.I: -2.98 to 0.84). Depression and social dysfunction are experienced at any age. Educational status is protective against developing psychological disorders (p<0.05). While active responses (Acceptance and Social support) are scarcely used by individuals with psychological problems; Passive strategies are commonly reported (Denial, Self-Distraction, Self-Blame, Disconnection, and Emotional discharge). CONCLUSION: These findings provide a better understanding of psychological disorders resulting from the current pandemic in Peruvian population. This evidence informs the need to strengthen mental health programs, especially in less privileged groups after the Covid-19 pandemic.
    5. Psychological problems associated with coping strategies: a web-based study in Peruvian population during the COVID-19 pandemic
    1. Arslan, G., & Yildirim, M. (2020). Coronavirus Stress, Meaningful Living, Optimism, and Depressive Symptoms: A Study of Moderated Mediation Model [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ykvzn

    2. 2020-06-11

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/ykvzn
    4. In the world, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to public mental health stress, anxiety, panic, and behavioral disorders. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether meaning in life mediated the relationship between coronavirus stress and depressive symptoms and whether the mediating effect of meaning in life on depressive symptoms was moderated by optimism. The sample of the study included 475 undergraduate students attending a public university in an urban city of Turkey. They were 69.2% female, ranged in age between 18 and 34 years (M = 20.63, SD = 1.99). Results showed that meaning in life and optimism–pessimism mediated the relationship between coronavirus stress and depressive symptoms. Optimism also mediated the relationship between meaning in life and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, optimism moderated the mediating effect of meaning in life in the relationship between coronavirus stress and depressive symptoms. These results indicated that the relationship between coronavirus stress and depressive symptoms can be better understood by meaning in life and optimism. Optimism may play a protective factor to mitigate the impact of stress on depressive symptoms
    5. Coronavirus Stress, Meaningful Living, Optimism, and Depressive Symptoms: A Study of Moderated Mediation Model
    1. McBride, O., Murphy, J., Shevlin, M., Gibson Miller, J., Hartman, T. K., Hyland, P., Levita, L., Mason, L., Martinez, A. P., McKay, R., Stocks, T. V. A., bennett, kate m, Vallières, F., Karatzias, T., Valiente, C., Vazquez, C., & Bentall, R. (2020). An overview of the context, design and conduct of the first two waves of the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/z3q5p

    2. 2020-06-11

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/z3q5p
    4. The C19PRC Study aims to assess the psychological, social, and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK, Republic of Ireland, and Spain. This paper describes the the first two waves of the UK survey (the ‘parent’ strand of the Consortium) during March-April 2020. A longitudinal, internet panel survey assessed: (1) COVID-19 related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours; (2) the occurrence of common mental health disorders (e.g. anxiety, depression); as well as the role of (3) psychological factors (e.g. personality, locus of control, resilience) and (4) social and political attitudes (e.g. authoritarianism, social dominance), in influencing the public’s response to the pandemic. Quota sampling was used to recruit a nationally representative (in terms of age, sex, and household income) sample of adults (N=2025), 1406 of whom were followed-up one month later (69.4% retention rate). The baseline sample was representative of the UK population in terms of economic activity, ethnicity, and household composition. Attrition was predicted by key socio-demographic characteristics, and an inverse probability weighting procedure was employed to ensure the follow-up sample was representative of the baseline sample. C19PRC Study data has strong generalisability to facilitate and stimulate interdisciplinary research on important public health questions relating to the COVID-19 pandemic.
    5. An overview of the context, design and conduct of the first two waves of the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study
    1. Westrupp, E., Greenwood, C., Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M., Berkowitz, T., Hagg, L., & Youssef, G. J. (2020). Text Mining of Reddit Posts: Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation to Identify Common Parenting Issues [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/cw54u

    2. 2020-06-11

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/cw54u
    4. Background: Parenting interventions offer an evidence-based method for the prevention and early intervention of child mental health problems, but to-date their population-level effectiveness has been limited by poor reach and engagement, particularly for fathers, working mothers, and disadvantaged families. Internationally, there has been a call for more sensitive intervention frameworks that better recognize parents’ differences and match support accordingly. Tailoring intervention content to parents’ context (i.e., to common parenting situations) offers potential to enhance parent engagement and learning by increasing relevance of content to parents’ daily experiences. However, this approach requires a detailed understanding of the common parenting situations and issues that parents face day-to-day, which is currently lacking. Objective: We sought to identify the most common parenting situations discussed by parents on parenting-specific forums of the free online discussion forum, Reddit, one of the most popular social media platforms in the world. We aimed to understand perspectives from both mothers and fathers, and therefore retrieved publicly available data from two parenting-specific ‘subreddits’ (r/Daddit; r/Mommit). Methods: We used latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) to identify the most common topics discussed in the Reddit posts. Once topics were identified, we completed a manual text analysis of the 10 posts ranked as most relevant to each topic, and summarized the parenting situations that were described. Our pre-specified definition of a parenting situation required that the post involve a parent and their child aged 0-18 years and describe a potential or actual difficulty or issue. Results: We retrieved 340 (r/Daddit) and 578 (r/Mommit) original posts. A model with 31 LDA topics was found to be the best fitting model. Of these, 24 topics included posts that met our inclusion criteria for manual review. From these, we identified 45 unique but broadly-defined parenting situations. The majority of parenting situations were either focused on basic childcare situations relating to eating, sleeping, routines, sickness and toilet training; or related to how to respond to child negative emotions or difficult behavior. Most situations were discussed in relation to infant or toddler age children, and on the whole, there was a high level of consistency in the themes raised in r/Daddit and r/Mommit. Conclusions: Our text analysis of the r/Daddit and r/Mommit posts highlighted two overarching themes in topics commonly discussed in online parenting forums; basic childcare, and management of child emotions and behavior. Our results offer potential to tailor parenting interventions in a meaningful way, creating opportunities to develop content and resources that are directly relevant to parents’ lived experiences.
    5. Text Mining of Reddit Posts: Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation to Identify Common Parenting Issues
    1. Katz, B., & Yovel, P. C. and P. L.-I. (2020). Mood Symptoms Predict COVID-19 Pandemic Distress but not Vice Versa: An 18-Month Longitudinal Study. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/6qske

    2. 2020-06-11

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/6qske
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic has had medical, economic and behavioral implications on a global scale and was argued to have negatively impacted the population’s mental health as well. The current study utilizes longitudinal data to assess such an assertion. An international group of 218 participants completed measures of depression, anxiety, rumination and distress intoler-ance at two baselines six months apart as well as at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic ex-actly 12 months later. Contrary to expectations, depression, rumination, and distress intolerance were at equivalent levels during the pandemic as they were at baseline. Anxiety was reduced by a trivial degree (d = .10). Furthermore, a comparison of quantitative explanatory models indi-cated that symptom severity and pandemic-related environmental stressors predicted pandem-ic-related distress, but pandemic-related distress did not predict symptom severity. These find-ings underscore the necessity of longitudinal designs and diathesis-stress models in the study of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    5. Mood Symptoms Predict COVID-19 Pandemic Distress but not Vice Versa: An 18-Month Longitudinal Study
    1. Chung, S. (2020). Development of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 (SAVE-9) scale for assessing work-related stress and anxiety in healthcare workers in response to viral epidemics [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/a52b4

    2. 2020-06-12

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/a52b4
    4. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had psychological impacts on healthcare workers. However, very few scales are available to specifically assess healthcare workers’ work-related stress and anxiety in response to viral epidemics. This study developed a new rating scale, the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 (SAVE-9), and validated it among healthcare workers directly affected by COVID-19 in Korea. A total of 1,019 healthcare workers responded through anonymous questionnaires during April 20-30, 2020. Internal consistency of the SAVE-9 was measured through Cronbach’s alpha, and principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to determine its component structure. It was also compared with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scales. Its most appropriate cut-off point was determined by conducting receiver operating characteristic analysis. The nine-item scale had satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach’s α=0.795). It adopted a two-factor structure: (1) anxiety about viral epidemics and (2) work-related stress associated with viral epidemics (Bartlett’s test of sphericity, p < 0.001; Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin=0.85). Correlations between SAVE-9 and the other scales were statistically significant. The cut-off points of the SAVE-9 and its anxiety subcategory were 22 and 15, respectively, compared with a GAD-7 score of 5. The results suggest that the SAVE-9 is a useful, reliable, and valid tool to evaluate stress and anxiety responses in healthcare workers during viral epidemics.
    5. Development of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 (SAVE-9) scale for assessing work-related stress and anxiety in healthcare workers in response to viral epidemics
    1. Chatterjee, A., & Chatterjee, A. (2020). Managing through uncertain times: A study to understand the effects of conducting socio-academic life online during COVID-19 [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/zjaey

    2. 2020-06-11

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/zjaey
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused uncertainty and disruptions in daily life. It has mandated social distancing and online education. Teens are spending a significant amount of time online and less time on extracurricular activities including team sports, choir/orchestra, and school socials. The cancellation of SAT, the switch to online AP exams, and the Credit/No Credit policy for 2nd-semester all contribute to the uncertainty in students regarding their future. Our project aims to create a survey that seeks opinions from teens about how they are managing with online socialization, the effectiveness of the online school, and stress levels. Using convenience sampling, adolescents (n = 168) were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Participants were asked about the effectiveness of online socializing, online education, hobbies, and extracurriculars to determine stress levels. We looked at models with two dependent stress variables: “low energy, insomnia and headache” and “forgetfulness and disorganization”. We used descriptive, regression, and correlation analysis to assess what the predictors of anxiety and stress are. Results show that stress levels are highly correlated with online exposure, online schooling, the credit/no credit, and home environment. The purpose of this study is to help school communities and leaders understand the effects on teens during the shelter in place order and identify areas of improvement in socio-academic life. Further studies need to be conducted to follow up with the findings of this project.
    5. Managing through uncertain times: A study to understand the effects of conducting socio-academic life online during COVID-19
    1. How Many Lives Are Lost Due to the Precautionary Principle? (n.d.). Human Progress. Retrieved June 10, 2020, from humanprogress.org/article.php

    2. No matter how well intentioned, sometimes hyper-precautionary rules can be deadly. By defaulting public policies to super-cautious mode and curtailing important innovations, laws and regulations can actually make the world less safe.    A new NBER working paper finds exactly this: the authors examined the “unintended effects from invoking the precautionary principle after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident,” which occurred in Japan in March 2011 due to a tsunami. They find that the Japanese government’s decision to entirely abandon nuclear energy following the incident resulted in many unnecessary deaths, primarily due to increased energy costs and corresponding cold weather-related welfare effects. Japan’s decision also has had potentially serious environmental implications.   The precautionary principle, in other words, can cost more lives than it saves.
    3. How Many Lives Are Lost Due to the Precautionary Principle?
    4. 2019-11-04

    1. COVID-19: 7% des vaudois·es infecté·e·s. (n.d.). Unisanté. Retrieved June 10, 2020, from https://www.unisante.ch/fr/unisante/actualites/covid-19-7-vaudoises-infectees

    2. Réalisée depuis début mai auprès d’un échantillon représentatif de la population vaudoise, l’étude SérocoViD vise à comprendre la manière dont le coronavirus, qui provoque la COVID-19, se transmet au sein de la population, afin de guider les autorités politiques et de santé publique pour prendre les mesures adéquates de lutte contre l’épidémie.
    3. COVID-19: 7% des vaudois·es infecté·e·s
    4. 2020-06-08

    1. Wallis, P., & Nerlich, B. (2005). Disease metaphors in new epidemics: The UK media framing of the 2003 SARS epidemic. Social Science & Medicine, 60(11), 2629–2639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.11.031

    2. 2005-01-11

    3. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.11.031
    4. Since the emergence of HIV/AIDS in the 1980s, social scientists and sociologists of health and illness have been exploring the metaphorical framing of this infectious disease in its social context. Many have focused on the militaristic language used to report and explain this illness, a type of language that has permeated discourses of immunology, bacteriology and infection for at least a century. In this article, we examine how language and metaphor were used in the UK media's coverage of another previously unknown and severe infectious disease: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). SARS offers an opportunity to explore the cultural framing of a less extraordinary epidemic disease. It therefore provides an analytical counter-weight to the very extensive body of interpretation that has developed around HIV/AIDS. By analysing the total reporting on SARS of five major national newspapers during the epidemic of spring 2003, we investigate how the reporting of SARS in the UK press was framed, and how this related to media, public and governmental responses to the disease. We found that, surprisingly, militaristic language was largely absent, as was the judgemental discourse of plague. Rather, the main conceptual metaphor used was SARS as a killer. SARS as a killer was a single unified entity, not an army or force. We provide some tentative explanations for this shift in linguistic framing by relating it to local political concerns, media cultures, and spatial factors.
    5. Disease metaphors in new epidemics: the UK media framing of the 2003 SARS epidemic
    1. Public trust in the authorities has been recognised in risk research as a crucial component of effective and efficient risk management. But in a pandemic, where the primary responsibility of risk management is not centralised within institutional actors but defused across society, trust can become a double-edged sword. Under these conditions, public trust based on a perception of government competence, care and openness may in fact lead people to underestimate risks and thus reduce their belief in the need to take individual action to control the risks. In this paper, we examine the interaction between trust in government, risk perceptions and public compliance in Singapore in the period between January and April 2020. Using social media tracking and online focus group discussions, we present a preliminary assessment of public responses to government risk communication and risk management measures. We highlight the unique deployment of risk communication in Singapore based on the narrative of ‘defensive pessimism’ to heighten rather than lower levels perceived risk. But the persistence of low public risk perceptions and concomitant low levels of compliance with government risk management measures bring to light the paradox of trust. This calls for further reflection on another dimension of trust which focuses on the role of the public; and further investigation into other social and cultural factors that may have stronger influence over individual belief in the need to take personal actions to control the risks.
    2. 10.1080/13669877.2020.1756386
    3. The paradox of trust: perceived risk and public compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore
    4. 2020-04-28

    1. Chong, D., & Druckman, J. N. (2007). Framing Theory. Annual Review of Political Science, 10(1), 103–126. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.10.072805.103054

    2. 2007-06-15

    3. 10.1146/annurev.polisci.10.072805.103054
    4. We review the meaning of the concept of framing, approaches to studying framing, and the effects of framing on public opinion. After defining framing and framing effects, we articulate a method for identifying frames in communication and a psychological model for understanding how such frames affect public opinion. We also discuss the relationship between framing and priming, outline future research directions, and describe the normative implications of framing.
    5. Framing Theory
    1. Yildirim, M., & Arslan, G. (2020). Perceived Risk and Mental Health Problems Among Healthcare Professionals During COVID-19 Pandemic: Exploring the Mediating Effects of Resilience and Coronavirus Fear [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/84xju

    2. 2020-06-10

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/84xju
    4. During coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, healthcare professionals were particularly at high-risk of developing symptoms of mental health problems due to being on the frontline in the battle against COVID-19. This study examined the mediating roles of resilience and coronavirus fear in the relationship between perceived risk and mental health problems among healthcare professionals including doctors and nurses who were actively treating patients confirmed with COVID-19. We recruited 204 healthcare professionals (50% females) with a mean age of 32.92 years (SD=7.01). Results showed that perceived risk and coronavirus fear positively predicted depression, anxiety, and stress while resilience negatively predicted those mental health problems. Coronavirus fear mediated the relationship between perceived risk and resilience, depression, anxiety, and stress. Additionally, resilience mitigated the effect of coronavirus fear on depression, anxiety, and stress. This study is among the first indicating the importance of resilience and fear as critical mechanism that explain the relationship between perceived risk and mental health problems among health professionals directly caring for COVID-19 patients.
    5. Perceived Risk and Mental Health Problems Among Healthcare Professionals During COVID-19 Pandemic: Exploring the Mediating Effects of Resilience and Coronavirus Fear
    1. link in the tweet leads to an error page

    2. Ben de Pear on Twitter: “Almost all scientists briefing on background disagreed fundamentally with herd immunity & the lockdown delay; but almost none in a senior position would go on the record. Many who disagreed privately towed the line in public. Unravelling this dysfunction can’t happen quick enough” / Twitter. (n.d.). Twitter. Retrieved June 10, 2020, from https://twitter.com/bendepear/status/1254007382620995584

    3. 2020-04-25

    4. Almost all scientists briefing on background disagreed fundamentally with herd immunity & the lockdown delay; but almost none in a senior position would go on the record. Many who disagreed privately towed the line in public. Unravelling this dysfunction can’t happen quick enough https://twitter.com/devisridhar/status/1253973922053316610
    1. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread worldwide. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic (1). That same day, the first confirmed COVID-19–associated fatality occurred in New York City (NYC). To identify confirmed COVID-19–associated deaths, defined as those occurring in persons with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, on March 13, 2020, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) initiated a daily match between all deaths reported to the DOHMH electronic vital registry system (eVital) (2) and laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19. Deaths for which COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, or an equivalent term is listed on the death certificate as an immediate, underlying, or contributing cause of death, but that do not have laboratory-confirmation of COVID-19 are classified as probable COVID-19–associated deaths. As of May 2, a total of 13,831 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19–associated deaths, and 5,048 probable COVID-19–associated deaths were recorded in NYC (3). Counting only confirmed or probable COVID-19–associated deaths, however, likely underestimates the number of deaths attributable to the pandemic. The counting of confirmed and probable COVID-19–associated deaths might not include deaths among persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection who did not access diagnostic testing, tested falsely negative, or became infected after testing negative, died outside of a health care setting, or for whom COVID-19 was not suspected by a health care provider as a cause of death. The counting of confirmed and probable COVID-19–associated deaths also does not include deaths that are not directly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The objective of this report is to provide an estimate of all-cause excess deaths that have occurred in NYC in the setting of widespread community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Excess deaths refer to the number of deaths above expected seasonal baseline levels, regardless of the reported cause of death. Estimation of all-cause excess deaths is used as a nonspecific measure of the severity or impact of pandemics (4) and public health emergencies (5). Reporting of excess deaths might provide a more accurate measure of the impact of the pandemic.
    1. (1) Politics&LifeSciences on Twitter: “Pleased to announce our newest Research Tool Report on First View: ‘https://t.co/MDkOCaFmQN: A tool for biopolitical researchers, policymakers, & citizens’ by Glass & Balachandran | @PsychTable @CUP_PoliSci @glenngeher @ml_fisher #evolution #research @tjw51 https://t.co/IMh6xIxr9T” / Twitter. (n.d.). Twitter. Retrieved June 9, 2020, from https://twitter.com/PLSJournal/status/1270038273965150212

    2. 2020-06-08

    3. Pleased to announce our newest Research Tool Report on First View: "http://PsychTable.org: A tool for biopolitical researchers, policymakers, & citizens" by Glass & Balachandran | @PsychTable @CUP_PoliSci @glenngeher @ml_fisher #evolution #research @tjw51
    1. Papini, S., Dainer-Best, J., Rubin, M., Zaizar, E. D., Telch, M. J., & Smits, J. A. J. (2020). Psychological Networks can Identify Potential Pathways to Specific Intervention Targets for Anxiety in Response to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/4zr25

    2. 2020-06-05

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/4zr25
    4. Addressing mental health challenges related to the COVID-19 outbreak can be facilitated through research that characterizes the needs of subpopulations and identifies specific pathways to targeted intervention. Toward this aim, we examined the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on anxiety symptoms among college students (N = 487) and explored the relative impact of coping strategies using a psychological network approach, which models complex interactions to identify potential pathways to symptom-level intervention. Although students showed several significant fluctuations in pre- to post-outbreak anxiety symptom levels measured with the GAD-7, anxiety network connectivity was not significantly different across timepoints. Consistent with hypotheses, the post-outbreak symptom+coping network revealed that increased use of the adaptive coping strategies of acceptance, behavioral activation, and values-based action was associated with lower levels of fear, restlessness, and trouble relaxing. The symptom+coping network also revealed that increased use of the maladaptive strategies of excessive cleaning, reassurance seeking, and excessive checking was associated with higher levels of irritability and fear. Surprisingly, the use of reappraisal and avoidance, two strategies with putatively opposing adaptive value, highly overlapped and showed positive associations with fear and irritability. These symptom+coping associations can guide the assessment and treatment of anxiety in the face of COVID-19.
    5. Psychological Networks can Identify Potential Pathways to Specific Intervention Targets for Anxiety in Response to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
    1. Pagnini, F., Bonalda, E., Montrasi, E., Toselli, E., & Alessandro, A. (2020). Reframing the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak through a social media community for students [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/d5wph

    2. 2020-05-28

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/d5wph
    4. The COVID-19 outbreak and the restrictions that have been enforced by the health authorities are having a profound psychological impact on the population. Many people, including the students, faced forced modifications to their daily lives and this prompted the need for scalable strategies to promote resilience. We designed an online community intervention for psychology students and recent alumni aimed to promote functional coping strategies through openness and cognitive flexibility. This psycho-educational intervention was delivered through a private group on social media (Facebook) and it involved the publication of exercises and quick lectures. Contents were posted regularly and people from the community were invited to share their comments. The posts included stimuli that promote open and flexible reflections on the current situation. The overall aim of this group was a cognitive reframing on the epidemic effects, promoting creative and flexible thinking. We ran a thematic analysis of the interactions, and we collected qualitative feedback at the end of the intervention. The participants’ comments dealt with changes in their perspectives, sharing discomfort, encouragement and support, and building a sense of community. Post-intervention comments were highly satisfied and confirmed the helpfulness of the stimuli to promote flexibility and openness, eventually helping to manage the negative emotions related to the COVID-19 outbreak. This study provides preliminary evidence that an online psycho-educational community stimulating flexibility and openness can help to reframe the negative psychological impact of the outbreak, improving their management.
    5. Reframing the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak through a social media community for students
    1. Horn, S. R., Weston, S. J., & Fisher, P. (2020). Identifying causal role of COVID-19 in immunopsychiatry models [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/w4d5u

    2. 2020-05-25

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/w4d5u
    4. This preprint is a 1000-word Viewpoint that explores methodological considerations of the COVID-19 pandemic for immunopsychiatry. It has been accepted for publication in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity for a special issue on Immunopsychiatry and COVID-19. Specifically, we discuss the treatment of COVID-19 as a confounding versus mediating variable in immunopsychiatric research. We leverage simulated data varied in sample and effect size to illustrate key considerations. Further, we highlight the statistical implications of each of these scenarios. Recommendations and key considerations for the field are briefly discussed.
    5. Identifying causal role of COVID-19 in immunopsychiatry models
    1. Wade, S. L., Gies, L. M., Fisher, A. P., Moscato, E. L., Adlam, A. R., Bardoni, A., Corti, C., Limond, J., Modi, A. C., & Williams, T. (2020). Telepsychotherapy with children and families: Lessons gleaned from two decades of translational research. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 30(2), 332–347. https://doi.org/10.1037/int0000215

    2. 2020-05-16

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/h3dte
    4. The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has led to sweeping changes in psychological practice and the concomitant rapid uptake of telepsychotherapy. Although telepsychotherapy is new to many clinical psychologists, there is considerable research on telepsychotherapy treatments. Nearly two decades of clinical research on telepsychotherapy treatments with children with neurological conditions has the potential to inform emerging clinical practice in the age of COVID-19. Toward that end, we synthesized findings from 14 clinical trials of telepsychotherapy problem solving and parent training interventions involving more than 800 children and families with diverse diagnoses including traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, brain tumors, congenital heart disease, and perinatal stroke. We summarize efficacy across studies and clinical populations and report feasibility and acceptability data from the perspectives of parents, children, and therapists. We describe adaptation for international contexts and strategies for troubleshooting technological challenges and working with families of varying socioeconomic strata. The extensive research literature reviewed and synthesized provides considerable support for the utility of telepsychotherapy with children with neurological conditions and their families and underscores its high level of acceptability with both diverse clinical populations and providers. During this period of heightened vulnerability and stress and reduced access to usual supports and services, telepsychotherapy approaches such as online family problem-solving treatment and online parenting skills training may allow psychologists to deliver traditional evidence-based treatments virtually while preserving fidelity and efficacy.
    5. Telepsychotherapy with children and families: Lessons gleaned from two decades of translational research
    1. Hyland, P., Shevlin, M., Karatzias, T., & Jowett, S. (2020). Somatisation and COVID-19 related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms: The role of hyperarousal [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/bywu7

    2. 2020-06-09

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/bywu7
    4. Objective: Somatisation is commonly associated with histories of trauma and PTSD symptoms. Although previous research has demonstrated that PTSD symptoms predict somatic symptoms, there has been no systematic examination of this at the level of symptom clusters for COVID-19 related PTSD and multi-dimensional assessment of somatic symptoms. It was aimed to test for an association between ICD-11 PTSD symptom clusters, with COVID-19 as the stressor, and somatic symptoms while controlling for potentially confounding variables. Methods: Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1,041 adults from the general population of the Republic of Ireland. Physical health problems across the domains of pain, gastrointestinal, cardiopulmonary, and fatigue were assessed by the PHQ and PTSD symptoms were assessed with the ITQ. Descriptive analyses were undertaken and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted controlling for potentially confounding variables. Results: All ICD-11 PTSD symptom clusters predicted the presence of pain, fatigue, gastro-intestinal, and cardiovascular symptoms in the PHQ. Sense of Threat individually predicted all physical health variables, and Avoidance predicted pain. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the key role of sense of threat in the presence of COVID-19 trauma and somatisation. Findings suggest that interventions that tackle sense of threat might provide relief from somatisation.
    5. Somatisation and COVID-19 related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms: The role of hyperarousal
    1. Bryan, C., Bryan, A. O., & Baker, J. C. (2020). Associations among state-level physical distancing measures and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among U.S. adults during the early COVID-19 pandemic [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/9bpr4

    2. 2020-06-01

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/9bpr4
    4. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify leading sources of stress, describe rates of mental health outcomes, and examine their associations among U.S. adults during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: In a cross-sectional, general population survey conducted from March 18 to April 4, 2020, U.S. adults (n=10,625) were recruited through Qualtrics Panels using quota sampling methods. Results: Life stressors, probable depression, past-month suicide ideation, and past-month suicide attempts were not elevated among participants subject to state-level stay-at-home orders and/or large gatherings bans. Multiple life stressors were associated with increased rates of probable depression. Past-month suicide ideation was significantly higher among participants reporting ongoing arguments with a partner and serious legal problems. Past-month suicide attempt was significantly higher among participants reporting concerns about a life-threatening illness or injury, but was significantly lower among participants reporting an unexpected bill or expense. Conclusions: Results failed to support the conclusion that physical distancing measures are correlated with worse mental health outcomes. Concerns about life-threatening illness or injury was uniquely associated with increased risk of suicide attempt.
    5. Associations among state-level physical distancing measures and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among U.S. adults during the early COVID-19 pandemic
    1. Hyland, P., Shevlin, M., Murphy, J., McBride, O., Ben-Ezra, M., Bentall, R., & Vallières, F. (2020). Posttraumatic stress symptoms and associated comorbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ireland: A population based study [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/mnbxf

    2. 2020-06-09

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/mnbxf
    4. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as it relates to people’s experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic has yet to determined. This study was conducted to determine rates of COVID-19 related PTSD in the Irish general population, the level of comorbidity with depression and anxiety, and sociodemographic risk factors associated with COVID-19 related PTSD. A nationally representative sample of adults from the general population of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1,041) completed self-report measures of all study variables. The rate of COVID-19 related PTSD was 17.7% (95% CI = 15.35 - 19.99%: n=184), and comorbidity with generalized anxiety (49.5%) and depression (53.8%) was high. Meeting the diagnostic requirement for COVID-19 related PTSD was associated with younger age, male sex, living in a city, living with children, moderate and high perceived risk of COVID-19 infection, and screening positive for anxiety or depression. Traumatic stress problems related to the COVID-19 pandemic are common in the general population. Our results show that health professionals responsible for responding to the COVID-19 pandemic should expect to routinely encounter traumatic stress problems.
    5. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and associated comorbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ireland: A population based study
    1. Madsen, J. K. (2020). Trustworthiness of Doctors from Public Health Campaigns [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/zhw6j

    2. 2020-06-08

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/zhw6j
    4. Previous research concerning the effectiveness of public health campaigns have explored the impact of message design, message content, communication channel choice and other aspects of such campaigns. Meta analyses reported in the literature reveal, however, that the choice of endorsers in health campaigns remains unexplored. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by studying what makes doctors from public health campaigns appear trustworthy in the eyes of the receiver. The present research examines propensity for trust as well facets of trustworthiness of such expert doctors based on a survey carried out in the UK (155 respondents). Underlying factors of trustworthiness are explored to gain more insight into the understanding of how trust may affect the public’s belief updating and the formation of intentions. Exploratory factor analyses suggest four dimensions of trustworthiness. Multiple regression analyses demonstrate that these factors explain almost 70% of the variance in the participants’ expressed trust in doctors from public health campaigns. Doctors’ ethical stance and their care for the health of the general population appear to be more important for perceived trustworthiness than their actual professional background, although their abilities and competences are closely related to ethics and benevolence. For policy makers this has important implications when selecting endorsers for public health campaigns in order to design effective health related communication, for example to combat obesity.
    5. Trustworthiness of Doctors from Public Health Campaigns
  3. ispmbern.github.io ispmbern.github.io
    1. 2020-05-26

    2. Evidence informs guidance and public health decisions. In disease outbreaks, evidence is often scarce but accumulates rapidly. We need solutions to keep track of the emerging evidence. One of these solutions was suggested by Elliot et al.: the living systematic review. A review that is updated as soon as new information becomes available.
    3. Living Evidence on COVID-19
    4. Covid-19. (n.d.). Covid-19. Retrieved June 8, 2020, from https://ispmbern.github.io/covid-19/living-review/