4,111 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Brynjolfsson, E., Horton, J. J., Ozimek, A., Rock, D., Sharma, G., & TuYe, H.-Y. (2020). COVID-19 and Remote Work: An Early Look at US Data (Working Paper No. 27344; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27344

    2. 2020-06

    3. 10.3386/w27344
    4. We report the results of a nationally-representative sample of the US population during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey ran in two waves from April 1-5, 2020 and May 2-8, 2020. Of those employed pre-COVID-19, we find that about half are now working from home, including 35.2% who report they were commuting and recently switched to working from home. In addition, 10.1% report being laid-off or furloughed since the start of COVID-19. There is a strong negative relationship between the fraction in a state still commuting to work and the fraction working from home. We find that the share of people switching to remote work can be predicted by the incidence of COVID-19 and that younger people were more likely to switch to remote work. Furthermore, states with a higher share of employment in information work including management, professional and related occupations were more likely to shift toward working from home and had fewer people laid off or furloughed. We find no substantial change in results between the two waves, suggesting that most changes to remote work manifested by early April.
    5. COVID-19 and Remote Work: An Early Look at US Data
    1. Dave, D. M., Friedson, A. I., Matsuzawa, K., Sabia, J. J., & Safford, S. (2020). Were Urban Cowboys Enough to Control COVID-19? Local Shelter-in-Place Orders and Coronavirus Case Growth (Working Paper No. 27229; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27229

    2. 2020-05

    3. 10.3386/w27229
    4. One of the most common policy prescriptions to reduce the spread of COVID-19 has been to legally enforce social distancing through state or local shelter-in-place orders (SIPOs). This paper is the first to explore the comparative effectiveness of early county-level SIPOs versus later statewide mandates in curbing COVID-19 growth. We exploit the unique laboratory of Texas, a state in which the early adoption of local SIPOs by densely populated counties covered almost two-thirds of the state’s population prior to Texas’s adoption of a statewide SIPO on April 2, 2020. Using an event study framework, we document that countywide SIPO adoption is associated with a 14 percent increase in the percent of residents who remain at home full-time, a social distancing effect that is largest in urbanized and densely populated counties. Then, we find that in early adopting counties, COVID-19 case growth fell by 19 to 26 percentage points two-and-a-half weeks following adoption of a SIPO, a result robust to controls for county-level heterogeneity in outbreak timing, coronavirus testing, and border SIPO policies. This effect is driven nearly entirely by highly urbanized and densely populated counties. We find that approximately 90 percent of the curbed growth in COVID-19 cases in Texas came from the early adoption of SIPOs by urbanized counties, suggesting that the later statewide shelter-in-place mandate yielded relatively few health benefits.
    5. Were Urban Cowboys Enough to Control COVID-19? Local Shelter-in-Place Orders and Coronavirus Case Growth
    1. Hassan, T. A., Hollander, S., van Lent, L., & Tahoun, A. (2020). Firm-level Exposure to Epidemic Diseases: Covid-19, SARS, and H1N1 (Working Paper No. 26971; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w26971

    2. 2020-05

    3. 10.3386/w26971
    4. Using tools described in our earlier work (Hassan et al., 2019, 2020), we develop text-based measures of the costs, benefits, and risks listed firms in the US and over 80 other countries associate with the spread of Covid-19 and other epidemic diseases. We identify which firms expect to gain or lose from an epidemic disease and which are most affected by the associated uncertainty as a disease spreads in a region or around the world. As Covid-19 spread globally in the first quarter of 2020, firms' primary concerns relate to the collapse of demand, increased uncertainty, and disruption in supply chains. Other important concerns relate to capacity reductions, closures, and employee welfare. Financing concerns were mentioned relatively rarely in the first quarter but appear to become a more important concern in the second quarter. We also identify some firms that foresee opportunities in new or disrupted markets due to the spread of the disease. Finally, we find some evidence that firms that have experience with SARS or H1N1 have more positive expectations about their ability to deal with the coronavirus outbreak.
    5. Firm-level Exposure to Epidemic Diseases: Covid-19, SARS, and H1N1
    1. 2020-05

    2. Lin, Z., & Meissner, C. M. (2020). Health vs. Wealth? Public Health Policies and the Economy During Covid-19 (Working Paper No. 27099; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27099

    3. 10.3386/w27099
    4. We study the impact of non-pharmaceutical policy interventions (NPIs) like “stay-at-home” orders on the spread of infectious disease. Local policies have little impact on the economy nor on local public health. Stay-at-home is only weakly associated with slower growth of Covid-19 cases. Reductions in observed “mobility” are not associated with slower growth of Covid-19 cases. Stay-at-home is associated with lower workplace and more residential activity, but common shocks matter much more. Moreover, job losses have been no higher in US states that implemented stay-at-home during the Covid-19 pandemic than in states that did not have stay-at-home. All of these results demonstrate that the Covid-19 pandemic is a common economic and public health shock. They also show that policy spillovers and behavioral responses are important. The tradeoff between the economy and public health in a pandemic depends strongly on what is happening elsewhere. This underscores the importance of coordinated economic and public health responses.
    5. Health vs. Wealth? Public Health Policies and the Economy During Covid-19
    1. Chatterji, P., & Li, Y. (2020). Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Outpatient Providers in the US (Working Paper No. 27173; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27173

    2. 2020-05

    3. 10.3386/w27173
    4. There is growing concern that the COVID-19 pandemic may have severe, adverse effects on the health care sector, a sector of the economy that historically has been somewhat shielded from the business cycle. In this paper, we study one aspect of this issue by estimating the magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic on use of outpatient health services. We use 2010-2020 data from the Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet). Our findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with about a 67 percent decline in the total number of outpatient visits per provider by the week of April 12-18th, 2020 relative to the same week in prior years. Effects become apparent earlier in the pandemic for outpatient visits for non-flu symptoms, but we find negative effects on outpatient visits for flu symptoms as well.
    5. Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Outpatient Providers in the US
    1. Akesson, J., Ashworth-Hayes, S., Hahn, R., Metcalfe, R. D., & Rasooly, I. (2020). Fatalism, Beliefs, and Behaviors During the COVID-19 Pandemic (Working Paper No. 27245; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27245

    2. 2020-05

    3. 10.3386/w27245
    4. Little is known about individual beliefs concerning the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Still less is known about how these beliefs influence the spread of the virus by determining social distancing behaviors. To shed light on these questions, we conduct an online experiment (n = 3,610) with participants in the US and UK. Participants are randomly allocated to a control group, or one of two treatment groups. The treatment groups are shown upper- or lower-bound expert estimates of the infectiousness of the virus. We present three main empirical findings. First, individuals dramatically overestimate the infectiousness of COVID-19 relative to expert opinion. Second, providing people with expert information partially corrects their beliefs about the virus. Third, the more infectious people believe that COVID-19 is, the less willing they are to take social distancing measures, a finding we dub the “fatalism effect”. We estimate that small changes in people's beliefs can generate billions of dollars in mortality benefits. Finally, we develop a theoretical model that can explain the fatalism effect.
    5. Fatalism, Beliefs, and Behaviors During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    1. 2020-06

    2. Bartik, A. W., Cullen, Z. B., Glaeser, E. L., Luca, M., & Stanton, C. T. (2020). What Jobs are Being Done at Home During the Covid-19 Crisis? Evidence from Firm-Level Surveys (Working Paper No. 27422; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27422

    3. 10.3386/w27422
    4. The threat of COVID-19 has increased the health risks of going to an office or factory, leading more workers to do their jobs remotely. In this paper, we provide results from firm surveys on both small and large businesses on the prevalence and productivity of remote work, and expectations about the persistence of remote work once the COVID-19 crisis ends. We present four main findings. First, while overall levels of remote work are high, there is considerable variation across industries. The Dingel and Neiman (2020) measure of suitability for remote work does a remarkably good job of predicting the industry level patterns of remote work - highlighting the challenge of moving many industries to remote work. Second, remote work is much more common in industries with better educated and better paid workers. Third, in our larger survey, employers think that there has been less productivity loss from remote working in better educated and higher paid industries. Fourth, more than one-third of firms that had employees switch to remote work believe that remote work will remain more common at their company even after the COVID-19 crisis ends.
    5. What Jobs are Being Done at Home During the Covid-19 Crisis? Evidence from Firm-Level Surveys
    1. 2020-07

    2. Bui, T. T. M., Button, P., & Picciotti, E. G. (2020). Early Evidence on the Impact of COVID-19 and the Recession on Older Workers (Working Paper No. 27448; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27448

    3. 10.3386/w27448
    4. We summarize some of the early effects and discuss possible future effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and recession on the employment outcomes of older workers in the United States. We start by discussing what we know about how older workers faired in prior recessions in the United States and how COVID-19 and this recession may differ. We then estimate some early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and recession on employment and unemployment rates by age group and sex using Current Population Survey data. We calculate employment and unemployment rates multiple ways to account for the complicated employment situation and possible errors in survey enumeration. We find that while previous recessions, in some ways, did not affect employment outcomes for older workers as much, this recession disproportionately affected older workers of ages 65 and older. For example, we find that unemployment rates in April 2020 increased to 15.43% for those ages 65 and older, compared to 12.99% for those ages 25-44. We also find that COVID-19 and the recession disproportionately affected women, where women have reached higher unemployment rates than men, which was consistent for all age groups and unemployment rate measures we used.
    5. Early Evidence on the Impact of COVID-19 and the Recession on Older Workers
    1. Montenovo, L., Jiang, X., Rojas, F. L., Schmutte, I. M., Simon, K. I., Weinberg, B. A., & Wing, C. (2020). Determinants of Disparities in Covid-19 Job Losses (Working Paper No. 27132; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27132

    2. 2020-05

    3. 10.3386/w27132
    4. We make several contributions to understanding how the COVID-19 epidemic and policy responses have affected U.S. labor markets, benchmarked against two previous recessions. First, monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) data show greater declines in employment in April 2020 (relative to February) for Hispanics, workers aged 20 to 24, and those with high school degrees and some college. Second, we show that job loss was larger in occupations that require more interpersonal contact and that cannot be performed remotely. Pre-epidemic sorting into occupations with more potential for remote work and industries that are currently essential explain a large share of gaps in recent unemployment for key racial, ethnic, age, and education sub-populations. However, there is a larger unexplained component to the gender employment gaps. We also address measurement issues known to have affected the March and April 2020 CPS. In particular, non-response increased dramatically, especially among the incoming rotation groups. Some of the increase appears non-random, but is not likely to be driving our conclusions. We also demonstrate the importance of tracking workers who report having a job but being absent, in addition to tracking employed and unemployed workers. We conclude with a discussion of policy priorities implied by the disparities in labor market losses from the COVID-19 crisis that we identify.
    5. Determinants of Disparities in Covid-19 Job Losses
    1. Banerjee, A., Alsan, M., Breza, E., Chandrasekhar, A. G., Chowdhury, A., Duflo, E., Goldsmith-Pinkham, P., & Olken, B. A. (2020). Messages on COVID-19 Prevention in India Increased Symptoms Reporting and Adherence to Preventive Behaviors Among 25 Million Recipients with Similar Effects on Non-recipient Members of Their Communities (Working Paper No. 27496; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27496

    2. 2020-07

    3. 10.3386/w27496
    4. During health crises, like COVID-19, individuals are inundated with messages promoting health-preserving behavior. Does additional light-touch messaging by a credible individual change behavior? Do the features of the message matter? To answer this, we conducted a large-scale messaging campaign in West Bengal, India. Twenty-five million individuals were sent an SMS containing a 2.5-minute clip, delivered by West Bengal native and 2019 Nobel laureate Abhijit Banerjee. All messages encouraged reporting symptoms to the local public health worker. In addition, each message emphasizes one health-preserving behavior (distancing or hygiene) and one motivation for action (effects on everyone or just on self). Further, some messages addressed concerns about ostracism of the infected. Messages were randomized at the PIN code level. As control, three million individuals received a message pointing them to government information. The campaign (i) doubled the reporting of health symptoms to the community health workers (p = 0.001 for fever, p = 0.024 for respiratory symptoms); (ii) decreased travel beyond one’s village in the last two days by 20% (p = 0.026) (on a basis of 37% in control) and increased estimated hand-washing when returning home by 7% (p = 0.044) (67.5% in control); (iii) spilled over to behaviors not mentioned in the message – mask-wearing was never mentioned but increased 2% (p = 0.042), while distancing and hygiene both increased in the sample where they were not mentioned by similar amounts as where they were mentioned; (iv) spilled over onto nonrecipients within the same community, with effects similar to those for individuals who received the messages.
    5. Messages on COVID-19 Prevention in India Increased Symptoms Reporting and Adherence to Preventive Behaviors Among 25 Million Recipients with Similar Effects on Non-recipient Members of Their Communities
    1. Borjas, G. J., & Cassidy, H. (2020). The Adverse Effect of the COVID-19 Labor Market Shock on Immigrant Employment. IZA Discussion Paper, 13277.

    2. 2020-05

    3. 13277
    4. Em­ploy­ment rates in the United States fell dra­mat­i­cally between February 2020 and April 2020 as the initial reper­cus­sions of the COVID-19 pandemic re­ver­ber­ated through the labor market. This paper uses data from the CPS Basic Monthly Files to document that the em­ploy­ment decline was par­tic­u­larly severe for im­mi­grants. His­tor­i­cally, immigrant men were more likely to be employed than native men. The COVID-​related labor market dis­rup­tions elim­i­nated the immigrant em­ploy­ment advantage. By April 2020, immigrant men had lower em­ploy­ment rates than native men. The reversal occurred both because the rate of job loss for at-work immigrant men rose relative to that of natives, and because the rate at which out-​of-work im­mi­grants could find jobs fell relative to the native job-​finding rate. A small part of the relative increase in the immigrant rate of job loss arises because im­mi­grants were less likely to work in jobs that could be performed remotely and suffered disparate em­ploy­ment con­se­quences as the lockdown permitted workers with more “remotable” skills to continue their work from home.
    5. The Adverse Effect of the COVID-19 Labor Market Shock on Immigrant Em­ploy­ment
    1. No form of identification (doi or other).

    2. Szablewski, C. M., Chang, K. T., Brown, M. M., Chu, V. T., Yousaf, A. R., Anyalechi, N., Aryee, P. A., Kirking, H. L., Lumsden, M., Mayweather, E., McDaniel, C. J., Montierth, R., Mohammed, A., Schwartz, N. G., Shah, J. A., Tate, J. E., Dirlikov, E., Drenzek, C., Lanzieri, T. M., & Stewart, R. J. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 Transmission and Infection Among Attendees of an Overnight Camp—Georgia, June 2020. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(31). https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6931e1

    3. 2020-07-31

    4. Limited data are available about transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), among youths. During June 17–20, an overnight camp in Georgia (camp A) held orientation for 138 trainees and 120 staff members; staff members remained for the first camp ses-sion, scheduled during June 21–27, and were joined by 363 campers and three senior staff members on June 21. Camp A adhered to the measures in Georgia’s Executive Order* that allowed overnight camps to operate beginning on May 31, including requiring all trainees, staff members, and campers to provide documentation of a negative viral SARS-CoV-2 test ≤12 days before arriving. Camp A adopted most† components of CDC’s Suggestions for Youth and Summer Camps§ to minimize the risk for SARS-CoV-2 introduction and transmis-sion. Measures not implemented were cloth masks for campers and opening windows and doors for increased ventilation in buildings. Cloth masks were required for staff members. Camp attendees were cohorted by cabin and engaged in a variety of indoor and outdoor activities, including daily vigorous singing and cheering. On June 23, a teenage staff member left camp A after developing chills the previous evening. The staff member was tested and reported a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2 the following day (June 24).
    5. SARS-CoV-2 Transmission and Infection Among Attendees of an Overnight Camp — Georgia, June 2020
    1. Martel, C., Mosleh, M., & Rand, D. (2020). You’re definitely wrong, maybe: Correction style has minimal effect on corrections of misinformation online. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/w3tfb

    2. 2020-08-03

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/w3tfb
    4. How can online communication most effectively respond to misinformation posted on social media? Recent studies examining the content of corrective messages provide mixed results – several studies suggest that politer, hedged messages may increase engagement with corrections, while others favor direct messaging which does not shed doubt on the credibility of the corrective message. Furthermore, common debunking strategies often include keeping the message simple and clear, while others recommend including a detailed explanation of why the initial misinformation is incorrect. To shed more light on how correction style affects correction efficacy, we manipulated both correction strength (direct, hedged) and type (negation, explanation) in response to participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk (N = 2,228) who indicated they would share a false story in a survey experiment. We found minimal evidence suggesting that correction strength or type affects correction engagement, both in terms of likelihood of replying, and accepting or resisting corrective information. However, we do find that analytic thinking and active open-minded thinking are associated with greater updating of beliefs in response to corrective messages, regardless of correction style. Our results help shed light on the efficacy of user-generated corrections of misinformation on social media.
    5. You’re definitely wrong, maybe: Correction style has minimal effect on corrections of misinformation online
    1. Rezapour, T., Assari, S., Kirlic, N., Vassileva, J., & Ekhtiari, H. (2020). Enhancing Cognitive Resilience in Adolescence and Young Adults: A Neuroscience-informed Approach [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/enrv9

    2. 2020-08-03

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/enrv9
    4. Resilience, as a trait, process, or outcome, is an important factor to explain behavioral diversity between individuals and population groups in face of stress and adversity. Individuals and groups who can bounce back shorty after stressful events, experience less severe negative emotions (depression, anxiety) and manage situations through efficient problem-solving strategies are categorized as resilient. Enhancing populations’ and individuals’ resilience becomes a central strategy for prevention of maladaptive behaviors, especially among adolescents. Several psychosocial interventions, mostly taking a positive psychology approach, improve resilience and reduce disruptive behaviors (e.g., using illicit drug and alcohol or self-harm behaviors) among adolescents. However, the role of brain awareness and training interventions targeting cognitive underpinning of resilience is not fully explored. In this chapter, we firstly review the existing literature and address the interventions that indirectly increase cognitive resilience among school-aged adolescents. Then we introduce the Promoting Cognitive Resilience (ProCoRe), a new multi-modal cognitive resilience training program, that taps different cognitive functions that are documented to be effective in the neuroscience literature. Clinical and public health implications of the ProCoRe as a prevention program to empower adolescents to avoid high risk behaviors in face of stressful through effective emotion regulation and impulse control. are discussed.
    5. Enhancing Cognitive Resilience in Adolescence and Young Adults: A Neuroscience-informed Approach
    1. Simchon, A., Brady, W. J., & Bavel, J. J. V. (2020). Troll and Divide: The Language of Online Polarization. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/xjd64

    2. 2020-08-03

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/xjd64
    4. Political polarization, or the ideological distance between the political left and right, has grown steadily in recent decades. There is a rising concern over the role that ‘bad actors’ or trolls may play in polarization in online networks. In this research, we examine the processes by which trolls may sow intergroup conflict through polarizing rhetoric. We developed a dictionary to gauge online polarization by measuring language associated with communications that display partisan bias in their diffusion. We validated the polarized language dictionary in three different contexts and across multiple time periods. We found the polarization dictionary made out-of-set predictions, generalized to new political contexts (#BlackLivesMatter), and predicted partisan differences in public polls about COVID-19. Then we analyzed 383,510 tweets from a known Russian troll source (the Internet Research Agency) and found that their use of polarized language has increased over time. We also compared troll tweets from 3 different countries (N = 798,33) and found that they all utilize more polarized language on average than a control dataset of tweets from regular Americans (N = 1,507,300) and trolls have dramatically increased their use of polarized rhetoric over time. These results illustrate how trolls leverage polarized language. We also provide an open-source, simple tool for exploration of polarized communications on social media.
    5. Troll and Divide: The Language of Online Polarization
    1. Rahman, Md. M., Thill, J.-C., & Paul, K. C. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic Severity, Lockdown Regimes, and People’s Mobility: Evidence from 88 Countries [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/wtdf2

    2. 2020-08-03

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/wtdf2
    4. This study empirically investigates the complex interplay between the severity of the coronavirus pandemic, mobility changes in retail and recreation, transit stations, workplaces, and residential areas, and lockdown measures in 88 countries of the word. To conduct the study, data on mobility patterns, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of people, lockdown measures, and coronavirus pandemic were collected from multiple sources (e.g., Google, UNDP, UN, BBC, Oxford University, Worldometer). A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique is used to investigate the direct and indirect effects of independent variables on dependent variables considering the intervening effects of mediators. Results show that lockdown measures have significant effects to encourage people to maintain social distancing. However, pandemic severity and socioeconomic and institutional factors have limited effects to sustain social distancing practice. The results also explain that socioeconomic and institutional factors of urbanity and modernity have significant effects on pandemic severity. Countries with a higher number of elderly people, employment in the service sector, and higher globalization trend are the worst victims of the coronavirus pandemic (e.g., USA, UK, Italy, and Spain). Social distancing measures are reasonably effective at tempering the severity of the pandemic.
    5. COVID-19 Pandemic Severity, Lockdown Regimes, and People’s Mobility: Evidence from 88 Countries
  2. Jul 2020
    1. Kaptchuk, G., Goldstein, D. G., Hargittai, E., Hofman, J., & Redmiles, E. M. (2020). How good is good enough for COVID19 apps? The influence of benefits, accuracy, and privacy on willingness to adopt. ArXiv:2005.04343 [Cs]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.04343

    2. 2020-05-09

    3. 2005.04343v4
    4. A growing number of contact tracing apps are being developed to complement manual contact tracing. A key question is whether users will be willing to adopt these contact tracing apps. In this work, we survey over 4,500 Americans to evaluate (1) the effect of both accuracy and privacy concerns on reported willingness to install COVID19 contact tracing apps and (2) how different groups of users weight accuracy vs. privacy. Drawing on our findings from these first two research questions, we (3) quantitatively model how the amount of public health benefit (reduction in infection rate), amount of individual benefit (true-positive detection of exposures to COVID), and degree of privacy risk in a hypothetical contact tracing app may influence American's willingness to install. Our work takes a descriptive ethics approach toward offering implications for the development of policy and app designs related to COVID19.
    5. How good is good enough for COVID19 apps? The influence of benefits, accuracy, and privacy on willingness to adopt
    1. Doi or other form of identification is missing. Citation is missing.

    2. 2020-07

    3. The covid-19 pandemic led many countries to close schools and declare lockdowns during the Spring of 2020, with important impacts on the labor market. We document the effects of the covid-19 lockdown in Spain, which was hit early and hard by the pandemic and suffered one of the strictest lockdowns in Europe. We collected rich household survey data in early May of 2020. We document large em­ploy­ment losses during the lockdown, es­pe­cially in “quar­an­tined” sectors and non-​essential sectors that do not allow for remote work. Em­ploy­ment losses were mostly temporary, and hit lower-​educated workers par­tic­u­larly hard. Women were slightly more likely to lose their job than men, and those who remained employed were more likely to work from home. The lockdown led to a large increase in childcare and housework, given the closing of schools and the inability to outsource. We find that men increased their par­tic­i­pa­tion in housework and childcare slightly, but most of the burden fell on women, who were already doing most of the housework before the lockdown. Overall, we find that the covid-19 crisis appears to have increased gender in­equal­i­ties in both paid and unpaid work in the short-​term.
    4. How the COVID-19 Lockdown Affected Gender In­equal­ity in Paid and Unpaid Work in Spain
    1. Missing doi or other form of identification

    2. 2020-07

    3. We evaluate the causal effect of class size (i.e., number of students in a classroom) on incidence of class closure due to flu epidemic in 2015, 2016, and 2017, applying an in­stru­men­tal variable method with the Mai­monides rule to ad­min­is­tra­tive data of public primary and middle school students in one of the largest mu­nic­i­pal­i­ties within the City of Tokyo Met­ro­pol­i­tan Area. Given the classroom area of 63m2 set by reg­u­la­tion in Japan, class size reduction improves social dis­tanc­ing among students in a classroom. We find that class size reduction is effective to reduce class closure due to flu: one unit reduction of class size decreases class closure by about 5%; and forming small classes with 27 students at most, sat­is­fy­ing the social dis­tanc­ing of 1.5 m rec­om­mended to prevent droplet infection including influenza and COVID-19, reduces class closure by about 90%. In addition, we find that the older are students, the larger are the effects of class size reduction. Our findings provide sup­port­ive evidence for the ef­fec­tive­ness of social dis­tanc­ing policy in primary and middle schools to protect students from droplet in­fec­tious disease including COVID-19.
    4. Do Class Size Re­duc­tions Protect Students from In­fec­tious Disease? Lessons for COVID-19 Policy from Flu Epidemic in Tokyo Met­ro­pol­i­tan Area
    1. Rajkumar, R. P. (2020). COVID-19, hypocortisolism, and psychosomatic sequelae [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/puqea

    2. 2020-07-28

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/puqea
    4. There is preliminary evidence that some patients recovering from novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may experience ongoing symptoms such as myalgia, fatigue and headache. Such symptoms have been observed as persistent sequelae of the earlier outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In this paper, evidence is presented that novel coronavirus infections may be associated with hypocortisolism which may persist for weeks or months, and that this may be a risk factor for both post-viral symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder in patients recovering from COVID-19. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon may involve reversible inflammation or dysfunction at the level of the pituitary gland, or a dysregulated host immune or stress response. The implications of these findings for the assessment and management of patients recovering from the acute phase of COVID-19 are discussed.
    5. COVID-19, hypocortisolism, and psychosomatic sequelae
    1. Flowe, H. D. (2020). Patterns of Violence and Its Impact on Women and Children Amidst the Covid-19 Pandemic in Kenya Policy Brief [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/zykq7

    2. 2020-07-27

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/zykq7
    4. Children, particularly girls, have heightened vulnerability to sexual violence committed by non-stranger perpetrators (e.g., neighbours) at private residences during the daytime, owing to school closures and a lack of alternative safe venues. Women have heightened vulnerability to sexual and physical violence at all times of day, with attacks by stranger and non-stranger (e.g., intimate partners) perpetrators occurring in both private residences and in public, owing to social isolation and being trapped with abusers. The socio-economic impact of the crisis has increased tensions within households, with reports of physical violence and increased homelessness for women. Vulnerability to violence has been amplified across the population as a whole, with numerous incidents of death and injuries caused by the police while enforcing COVID-19 emergency measures. Policy recommendations are offered.
    5. Patterns of Violence and Its Impact on Women and Children Amidst the Covid-19 Pandemic in Kenya Policy Brief
    1. DOI missing

    2. 2020-07

    3. Kalenkoski, C. M., & Pabilonia, S. W. (2020). Initial Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Employment and Hours of Self-​Employed Coupled and Single Workers by Gender and Parental Status. IZA Discussion Paper, 13443.

    4. This study examines the initial impact of COVID-19 shutdowns on the em­ploy­ment and hours of un­in­cor­po­rated self-​employed workers using data from the Current Pop­u­la­tion Survey. Although the shutdowns decreased em­ploy­ment and hours for all groups, dif­fer­en­tial effects by gender, couple status, and parental status exist. Coupled women were less likely to be working than coupled men, while single women were more likely to be working than single men. However, fathers of school-​age children who remained employed were working reduced hours compared to men without children. Remote work mitigated some of the negative effects on em­ploy­ment and hours.
    5. Initial Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Em­ploy­ment and Hours of Self-​Employed Coupled and Single Workers by Gender and Parental Status
    1. Bhattacharya, C., Chowdhury, D., Ahmed, N., Ozgur, S., Bhattacharya, B., Mridha, S. K., & Bhattacharyya, M. (2020). The Nature, Cause and Consequence of COVID-19 Panic among Social Media Users in India. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/dgr45

    2. 2020-07-28

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/dgr45
    4. Aims The recent pandemic of COVID-19 has not only shaken the healthcare but also economic structure around the world. In addition to these direct effects, it has also brought in some indirect difficulties owing to the information epidemic on social media. As India experienced a later outbreak of COVID-19 and a prolonged uninterrupted lockdown, we aimed to understand the nature of panic social media users in India are experiencing due to the flow of (mis)information. We further extend this investigation to other countries. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study by conducting survey on multiple social media platforms. We received 1075 responses (sex ratio 2:1) through opportunity sampling from social media users of 30 different countries (between April 11, 2020 and May 15, 2020). We performed both quantitative and qualitative analyses on the 935 respondents from India. Several hypotheses are statistically tested on them and are further examined on rest of the 140 social media users from 29 other countries. We also performed a separate Twitter hashtag analysis and sentiment analysis on the responses. We applied a citizen science approach to involve the respondents in the analysis pipeline after the survey. Results This cross-sectional study on 1075 social media users from India and 29 other countries revealed a significant increase of social media usage and rise of panic over time in India. Middle-aged people and female exhibit a higher panic in India. The amount of panic was independent of the nature of association with COVID-19. The change of mental health was associated with panic level and productivity. Further qualitative analysis highlights the occurrences of information panic, economic panic, moral panic and spiritual panic, among other causes. Conclusions Several panic behaviors are unique to social media users in India possibly because COVID-19 broke out relatively later in comparison with the other countries and the uninterrupted lockdown prolonged for a long time. The amount of social media usage might not be causal but has a significant role in generating panic among the people in India. A significantly higher level of panic among the middle-aged people can be attributed to their higher amount of responsibility. The popularity of different hashtags, including the names of drugs under trial for COVID-19, in limited countries highlight that the causes of panic are not the same everywhere. As some of the respondents took part as citizen scientists a robust perspective to the outcome is obtained.
    5. The Nature, Cause and Consequence of COVID-19 Panic among Social Media Users in India
    1. Vegetti, F., & Littvay, L. (2020). Belief in conspiracy theories, aggression, and attitudes towards political violence. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/xwyjq

    2. 2020-07-28

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/xwyjq
    4. In the last decade, political protest events have been rising in Western democracies. At the same time, there has been a steady increase in the diffusion of conspiracy theories in political communication, a phenomenon that has captured the interest of scholars for its growing political relevance. However, while most research focuses on the reasons why citizens believe in conspiracies, studies looking at the political-behavioral implications of such beliefs, in particular their connection to political radicalism, have been more limited. In this paper we investigate the association between people's belief in conspiracies and their propensity to endorse political violence and to legitimate radical political action. We propose a model in which belief in conspiracies mediates the impact of dispositional aggression on radical attitudes, and test it empirically on an online sample of US residents collected on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Our results suggest that conspiracy theories partially channel individuals' aggression towards political targets.
    5. Belief in conspiracy theories, aggression, and attitudes towards political violence
    1. Flowe, H. D., Rockowitz, S., Rockey, J., Kanja, W., Kamau, C., Colloff, M. F., Kauldar, J., Woodhams, J., & Davies, K. (2020). Sexual and Other Forms of Violence during the COVID-19 Pandemic Emergency in Kenya [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/7wghn

    2. 2020-07-28

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/7wghn
    4. This research report explores the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on patterns of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in Kenya. The research entailed conducting interviews across the 47 counties of Kenya, including in informal settlements, to document sexual violence and other violations of adults and children during the COVID-19 pandemic. There have been 6,366 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 148 deaths in Kenya as of June 30, 2020. The Kenyan government implemented emergency measures in the wake of COVID-19 that included a nightly dusk-to-dawn curfew, school closures, and restrictions to road, rail, and air movements, as examples. The research was prompted by concerns raised by SGBV and human rights organisations that the COVID-19 crisis is exacerbating women and girls’ vulnerability to SGBV and preventing their access to life-saving services. The research findings suggest three main impacts of the COVID-19 emergency on SGBV: 1. Emergency measures are exacerbating the vulnerability of children and women; 2. The socio-economic impact of the crisis has increased tensions within households, with reports of physical violence and increased homelessness for women; and 3. Vulnerability to violence has been amplified across the population as a whole according to reports by human rights actors, with there being numerous incidents of death and injuries caused by the police while enforcing the COVID-19 emergency measures put into place. We offer policy recommendations based on our findings.
    5. Sexual and Other Forms of Violence during the COVID-19 Pandemic Emergency in Kenya
    1. Harp, N., Dodd, M. D., & Neta, M. (2020). Emotional working memory load selectively increases negativity bias [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/jnesc

    2. 2020-07-28

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/jnesc
    4. Cognitive resources are needed for successful executive functioning; when resources are limited due to competing demands, task performance is impaired. Although some tasks are accomplished with relatively few resources (e.g., judging trustworthiness and emotion in others), others are more complex. Specifically, in the face of emotional ambiguity (i.e., stimuli that do not convey a clear positive or negative meaning, such as a surprised facial expression), our decisions to approach or avoid appear to rely on the availability of top-down regulatory resources to overcome an initial negativity bias. Cognition-emotion interaction theories (e.g., dual competition) posit that emotion and executive processing rely on shared resources, suggesting that competing demands would hamper these regulatory responses towards emotional ambiguity. Here, we employed a 2x2 design to investigate the effects of load (low versus high) and domain (non-emotional vs. emotional) on evaluations of surprised faces. As predicted, there were domain-specific effects, such that categorizations of surprise were more negative for emotional than non-emotional loads. Consistent with prior work, low load (regardless of domain; i.e., domain-general) was associated with greater response competition on trials resulting in a positive categorization, showing that positive categorizations are characterized by an initial negativity. This effect was diminished under high load. These results lend insight into the resources supporting a positive valence bias by demonstrating that emotion-specific regulatory resources are important for overriding the initial negativity in response to emotional ambiguity. However, both domain-general and domain-specific loads impact the underlying processes.
    5. Emotional working memory load selectively increases negativity bias
    1. Gordon, N. E., & Reber, S. J. (2020). Federal Aid to School Districts During the COVID-19 Recession (Working Paper No. 27550; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27550

    2. 2020-07

    3. 10.3386/w27550
    4. The coronavirus has created an enormous—and expensive—challenge for elementary and secondary schools, while simultaneously depleting the revenue sources on which public schools depend. During the Great Recession, the federal government filled in a significant share of lost revenue. In contrast, the federal response to date has been limited. If Congress decides to invest in future generations, it faces a range of options for how to structure an aid package. One key aspect for any stabilization package is how federal funds should be allocated to states. We consider the types of approaches used in recent proposals, during the Great Recession, and at the onset of the COVID-19 crisis, as well as in major ongoing federal education programs for compensatory and special education. We simulate the distribution of funds and show the considerable difference in how per-child allocations correlate with child poverty rates under the most likely alternative approaches.
    5. Federal Aid to School Districts During the COVID-19 Recession
    1. Rampini, A. A. (2020). Sequential Lifting of COVID-19 Interventions with Population Heterogeneity (Working Paper No. 27063; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27063

    2. 2020-04

    3. 10.3386/w27063
    4. This paper analyzes a sequential approach to lifting interventions in the COVID-19 pandemic taking heterogeneity in the population into account. The population is heterogeneous in terms of the consequences of infection (need for hospitalization and critical care, and mortality) and in terms of labor force participation. Splitting the population in two groups by age, a less affected younger group that is more likely to work, and a more affected older group less likely to work, and lifting interventions sequentially (for the younger group first and the older group later on) can substantially reduce mortality, demands on the health care system, and the economic cost of interventions.
    5. Sequential Lifting of COVID-19 Interventions with Population Heterogeneity
    1. Landier, A., & Thesmar, D. (2020). Earnings Expectations in the COVID Crisis (Working Paper No. 27160; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27160

    2. 2020-05

    3. 10.3386/w27160
    4. We analyze firm-level analyst forecasts during the COVID crisis. First, we describe expectations dynamics about future corporate earnings. Downward revisions have been sharp, mostly focused on 2020, 2021 and 2022, but much less drastic than the lower bound estimated by Gormsen and Koijen (2020). Analyst forecasts do not exhibit evidence of over-reaction: As of mid-May, forecasts over 2020 earnings have progressively been reduced by 16%. Longer-run forecasts, as well as expected “Long-Term Growth” have reacted much less than short-run forecasts, and feature less disagreement. Second, we ask how much discount rate changes explain market dynamics, in an exercise similar to Shiller (1981). Given forecast revisions and price movements, we estimate an implicit discount rate going from 10% in mid-February, to 13% at the end of March, back down to their initial level in mid-May. We then decompose discount rate changes into three factors: changes in unlevered asset risk premium (0%), increased leverage (+1%) and interest rate reduction (-1%). Overall, analyst forecast revisions explain all of the decrease in equity values between January 2020 and mid May 2020, but they do not explain shorter term movements.
    5. Earnings Expectations in the COVID Crisis
    1. Atkeson, A. (2020). How Deadly Is COVID-19? Understanding The Difficulties With Estimation Of Its Fatality Rate (Working Paper No. 26965; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w26965

    2. 2020-04

    3. 10.3386/w26965
    4. To understand how best to combat COVID-19, we must understand how deadly is the disease. There is a substantial debate in the epidemiological lit- erature as to whether the fatality rate is 1% or 0.1% or somewhere in between. In this note, I use an SIR model to examine why it is difficult to estimate the fatality rate from the disease and how long we might have to wait to resolve this question absent a large-scale randomized testing program. I focus on un- certainty over the joint distribution of the fatality rate and the initial number of active cases at the start of the epidemic around January 15, 2020. I show how the model with a high initial number of active cases and a low fatality rate gives the same predictions for the evolution of the number of deaths in the early stages of the pandemic as the same model with a low initial number of active cases and a high fatality rate. The problem of distinguishing these two parameterizations of the model becomes more severe in the presence of effective mitigation measures. As discussed by many, this uncertainty could be resolved now with large-scale randomized testing.
    5. How Deadly Is COVID-19? Understanding The Difficulties With Estimation Of Its Fatality Rate
    1. Pastor, L., & Vorsatz, M. B. (2020). Mutual Fund Performance and Flows During the COVID-19 Crisis (Working Paper No. 27551; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27551

    2. 2020-07

    3. 10.3386/w27551
    4. We present a comprehensive analysis of the performance and flows of U.S. actively-managed equity mutual funds during the COVID-19 crisis of 2020. We find that most active funds underperform passive benchmarks during the crisis, contradicting a popular hypothesis. Funds with high sustainability ratings perform well, as do funds with high star ratings. Fund outflows largely extend pre-crisis trends. Investors favor funds that apply exclusion criteria and funds with high sustainability ratings, especially environmental ones. Our finding that investors remain focused on sustainability during this major crisis suggests they view sustainability as a necessity rather than a luxury good.
    5. Mutual Fund Performance and Flows During the COVID-19 Crisis
    1. Fernández-Villaverde, J., & Jones, C. I. (2020). Estimating and Simulating a SIRD Model of COVID-19 for Many Countries, States, and Cities (Working Paper No. 27128; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27128

    2. 2020-05

    3. We use data on deaths in New York City, Madrid, Stockholm, and other world cities as well as in various U.S. states and various countries and regions to estimate a standard epidemiological model of COVID-19. We allow for a time-varying contact rate in order to capture behavioral and policy-induced changes associated with social distancing. We simulate the model forward to consider possible futures for various countries, states, and cities, including the potential impact of herd immunity on re-opening. Our current baselinemortality rate (IFR) is assumed to be 1.0% but we recognize there is substantial uncertainty about this number. Our model fits the death data equally well with alternative mortality rates of 0.5% or 1.2%, so this parameter is unidentified in our data. However, its value matters enormously for the extent to which various places can relax social distancing without spurring a resurgence of deaths.
    4. 10.3386/w27128
    5. Estimating and Simulating a SIRD Model of COVID-19 for Many Countries, States, and Cities
    1. Fajgelbaum, P., Khandelwal, A., Kim, W., Mantovani, C., & Schaal, E. (2020). Optimal Lockdown in a Commuting Network (Working Paper No. 27441; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27441

    2. 2020-07

    3. 10.3386/w27441
    4. We study optimal dynamic lockdowns against Covid-19 within a commuting network. Our framework integrates canonical spatial epidemiology and trade models, and is applied to cities with varying initial viral spread: Seoul, Daegu and NYC-Metro. Spatial lockdowns achieve substantially smaller income losses than uniform lockdowns, and are not easily approximated by simple centrality-based rules. In NYM and Daegu—with large initial shocks—the optimal lockdown restricts inflows to central districts before gradual relaxation, while in Seoul it imposes low temporal but large spatial variation. Actual commuting responses were too weak in central locations in Daegu and NYM, and too strong across Seoul.
    5. Optimal Lockdown in a Commuting Network
    1. 2020-04

    2. 10.3386/w27027
    3. This paper examines the determinants of social distancing during the COVID-19 epidemic. We classify state and local government actions, and we study multiple proxies for social distancing based on data from smart devices. Mobility fell substantially in all states, even ones that have not adopted major distancing mandates. There is little evidence, for example, that stay-at-home mandates induced distancing. In contrast, early and information-focused actions have had bigger effects. Event studies show that first case announcements, emergency declarations, and school closures reduced mobility by 1-5% after 5 days and 7-45% after 20 days. Between March 1 and April 11, average time spent at home grew from 9.1 hours to 13.9 hours. We find, for example, that without state emergency declarations, event study estimates imply that hours at home would have been 11.3 hours in April, suggesting that 55% of the growth comes from emergency declarations and 45% comes from secular (non-policy) trends. State and local government actions induced changes in mobility on top of a large response across all states to the prevailing knowledge of public health risks. Early state policies conveyed information about the epidemic, suggesting that even the policy response mainly operates through a voluntary channel.
    4. Tracking Public and Private Responses to the COVID-19 Epidemic: Evidence from State and Local Government Actions
    1. Arellano, C., Bai, Y., & Mihalache, G. P. (2020). Deadly Debt Crises: COVID-19 in Emerging Markets (Working Paper No. 27275; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27275

    2. 2020-05

    3. 10.3386/w27275
    4. The COVID-19 epidemic in emerging markets risks a combined health, economic, and debt crisis. We integrate a standard epidemiology model into a sovereign default model and study how default risk impacts the ability of these countries to respond to the epidemic. Lockdown policies are useful for alleviating the health crisis but they carry large economic costs and can generate costly and prolonged debt crises. The possibility of lockdown induced debt crises in turn results in less aggressive lockdowns and a more severe health crisis. We find that the social value of debt relief can be substantial because it can prevent the debt crisis and can save lives.
    5. Deadly Debt Crises: COVID-19 in Emerging Markets
    1. Modersitzki, N., Phan, L. V., Kuper, N., & Rauthmann, J. F. (2020). Who is impacted? Personality predicts individual differences in psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/s65ux

    2. 2020-07-14

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/s65ux
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to changes in people’s private and public lives that are unprecedented in modern history. However, little is known about the differential psychological consequences of restrictions that have been imposed to fight the pandemic. In a large and diverse German sample (N = 1,320), we examined how individual differences in psychological consequences of the pandemic (perceived restrictiveness of government-supported measures; global pandemic-related appraisals; subjective well-being) were associated with a broad set of faceted personality traits (Big Five, Honesty-Humility, Dark Triad). Facets of Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness were among the strongest and most important predictors of psychological outcomes, even after controlling for basic socio-demographic variables (gender, age). These findings suggest that psychological consequences of the pandemic depend on personality and thus add to the growing literature on the importance of considering individual differences in crisis situations.
    5. Who is impacted? Personality predicts individual differences in psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany
    1. Bernard, P., St-Amour, S., Lachance, Kingsbury, C., & Lapointe. (2020). Dynamic patterns of depressive symptoms and sleep during the first month of strict lockdown in two women with major depressive disorder [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/5enrq

    2. 2020-07-15

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/5enrq
    4. Mental health research community needs to collect high-quality data to understand the effects of COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdown measures in adults with mental disorders. Our aims were to document the day-to-day patterns of depressive symptoms and sleep parameters, and explore the dynamic network structure of measured depressive symptoms during the first four weeks of strict lockdown in two women with major depressive disorder. Data from ecological momentary assessments have been analyzed with idiographic models. In both cases, the self-reported depressive symptoms and core affects fluctuated during the lowckdown. All measured depressive symptoms were not exacerbated and showed different patterns of variation. Psychomotor retardation and level of arousal played a prominent role in the dynamic symptom networks. These case studies contribute to our understanding of the lockdown effects on depressive symptoms and affective experiences, and highlight the need of person-centered mental health care to help people with major depressive disorder during a lockdown.
    5. Dynamic patterns of depressive symptoms and sleep during the first month of strict lockdown in two women with major depressive disorder
    1. Gabor, C., Törő, K. D., Mokos, J., Rozsa, S., Éva, H., Andrea, K., & Rita, F. (2020). Examining perceptions of stress, wellbeing and fear among Hungarian adolescents and their parents under lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/feth3

    2. 2020-07-18

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/feth3
    4. Intensified anxiety responses and even symptoms of post-traumatic stress are commonly observed under quarantine conditions. In this study, the effects on fear, anxiety and wellbeing of the recent pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 were investigated in a sample of otherwise healthy Hungarians. Taking the family as a microsystem, differences in gender, age, family relationships and time spent in isolation were the main focus of this investigation. 346 parent-child dyads were examined; the children were 11-17 years of age. Standard psychological questionnaires (Perceived Stress Scale, WHO Wellbeing Index), and an open question test (the Metamorphosis test) were used, and the results analysed with the aid of basic statistical methods. Stress levels and wellbeing displayed a significant negative correlation with each other in both parents and children. Parental stress and levels of wellbeing had a weak but significant impact on the wellbeing of their children. Among the demographic variables examined, none of them was found to explain the wellbeing or stress level of parents. Natural catastrophes, such as pandemics, create a stressful social environment for parents, and therefore directly impact the psychological wellbeing of all family members.
    5. Examining perceptions of stress, wellbeing and fear among Hungarian adolescents and their parents under lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic
    1. Twardawski, M., Steindorf, L., & Thielmann, I. (2020, July 16). Three pillars of physical distancing: Anxiety, prosociality, and rule compliance during the COVID-19-pandemic. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/zkfyb

    2. 2020-07-16

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/zkfyb
    4. The outbreak of a global pandemic such as COVID-19 poses a challenge for societies across the world. Lacking both vaccination and medical treatment, the only way to combat the spread of a virus in its early stages are behavioral measures, particularly physical distancing behavior. The present work proposes three pillars of individuals’ engagement in physical distancing: anxiety, prosociality, and rule compliance. In a large (N = 1,504), pre-registered study among German adults, we studied both situation-specific tendencies and stable personality traits that are theoretically associated with these pillars in relation to self-reported physical distancing behavior and underlying motives. Results supported the importance of each of the proposed pillars for physical distancing behavior. That is, for each pillar, we found (some) relations of the corresponding tendencies and personality traits with physical distancing (motives) as expected. Overall, the project provides a comprehensive picture of physical distancing behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.