126 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2019
    1. your Friendships arc not cemented by Intrigues nor spent in vain Diversions, but in the search of Knowledge

      Women's rhetorical sphere and a space/place for knowledge/information exchange: women's conversations

    2. Firmness and strength of Mind ·,_ 1 • ..will carry us thro all these little persecutions,, ..... ..-orrt ... • h' h . r • • w 1c may create us some uneasiness 1or a.. .t...t 0r while, but will afterwards end in our Glory and-....:� Triumph.

      I think it's important to note that the words Astell is using are not unusual or incredibily difficult to understand -- they are, in fact, pretty conversational, and don't seem pretentious or alienating. She's working with her audience.

    3. became acquainted with other female intellectual leaders such as Lady Mary Wortley Monlagu and Lady Catherine Jones. Astell's new friends respected her learning and intelligence and encouraged her to publish her views.

      We can see how the importance of female-only/female-dominated spaces in Astell's life played a major role in how she envisioned female learning/education could/should look like.

    4. to serve God whatever their circumstances and lo support themselves through teaching if that hecame necessary.

      Oooo this is a very clever way to educate women so that they can support themselves. To serve God -- duh. Of course.

    5. she did not advocate extensive reading. She wanted her program to be within the reach of every woman-

      I'm thinking this is also a nod at the time women had/didn't have because of the various duties they had to fulfill. Also maybe a nod at the fact that women would probably not really have a space/place in which they could extensively read. Yes?

    6. Aslell specified in lhe charter or lhe school that it should alwuys he directed by women.

      And once again, we see how the importance of female-only/female-dominated spaces/places in Astell's life influenced her beliefs on female learning/education.

    7. hut they soon abandonl!d her.

      Wow. Mary just can't catch a break.

      Between her unusual education and loss hounding her, she couldn't help but become a writer, could she?

    8. Madonella.

      Meaning "little Madonna" or "small Madonna." What is fascinating about this reference is the history behind the Madonnelle street shrines (little Madonnas) in Rome/other Italian cities. These little Madonnas were seen as the protectors of the communities in which they looked over (literally believed to be protecting them from evil). Also, lamps in front of the shrines were lit at night to guide passer-bys through the darkness, and, unlike other Madonna icons, these little Madonnas gazed directly at the viewer, establishing "a personal connection between the two." Maybe not such a ridicuous bluestocking figure to compare Mary Astell to afterall?

    1. being able to wear clothing that enabled better mobility. Walker chose to wear what was known as the "Bloomer costume" as a modified uniform all throughout the war. It was a dress-and-trouser combination that had gone out of favor long before the war began, but she didn't care -- she wore it anyway.

      From the time she was a girl she wore pants and she continued to do so even in the military.

    2. In 1863, her medical credentials were finally accepted, so she moved to Tennessee, where she was appointed as a War Department surgeon

      The phrasing of this appears to be somewhat biased. It sounds like her credentials weren't up to snuff or something but really, the military was low on surgeons at that time and simply didn't want a woman. https://hyp.is/vAWzXCtjEem5j1tLLCQ8dg/cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_325.html

    3. Because of her credentials, she didn't want to be a nurse, either, so she chose to volunteer for the Union Army.

      This is some what conflicting information. According to https://hyp.is/vAWzXCtjEem5j1tLLCQ8dg/cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_325.html she did work as a Nurse, she just wasn't paid.

    4. Walker went into private practice for a few years, but then the Civil War broke out in 1861. She wanted to join the Army as a surgeon but wasn't allowed because she was a woman.

      She was a surgeon in private practice but wanted to join the war effort.

    5. in 1855 graduated as a medical doctor from Syracuse Medical College

      She was the second women surgeon at that time.

    1. in 1863 she was briefly appointed surgeon in an Ohio Regiment.

      She finally was appointed a surgeon near the end of the war.

    2. Dr. Mary Walker was an outspoken advocate for women's rights, and the first woman ever awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

      She wore her medal everyday and also modified her uniform in the war to have pants. In 1917 they took all medals of honor away for anyone who hadn't been "in combat". She refused to give her medal up and wore it until the day she died. Jimmy Carter later reinstated her medal in 1977.

    3. At the outbreak of the Civil War, she volunteered in Washington to join the Union effort, and worked as a nurse in a temporary hospital set up in the capital.

      She worked as an unpaid nurse because she was not allowed to join as a surgeon in the US military.

  2. Jan 2019
    1. Of course men haven't been discriminated against as much a women in the work place. Men are "meant" to do jobs in STEM, while women aren't really seen in the STEM program as much. Women deserve to be recognized in anything as much as men are they're just as good.

    1. handbag

      I don't know why this word in particular made me so upset, but like... dude, women are always holding shit. Handbags, babies, oats, always fucking something. And whatever that thing is that we're holding, it's almost always something that either a) sustains life, or b) is life.

    1. Access to gender-responsive substance use disorder treatment services, especially for pregnant women

      Stigma is particularly high for this group, along with the felt shame that pregnant women bear, which serve as barriers to accessing high quality drug addiction support. Because group therapy is one common form of treatment, retention is lower because the group majority is male. Women who do seek out help do not always feel psychologically safe in these treatment settings. Additionally, they may not appropriately address the unique needs of mothers and expecting mothers. I wonder about regional differences, SES, race/ethnicity...

  3. Dec 2018
    1. not only designed the first true word processor; in 1969, she was also a founder and the president of the Redactron Corporation, a tech start-up on Long Island that was the first company exclusively engaged in manufacturing and selling the revolutionary machines.

      Pretty incredible, especially given the era!

    1. buried two husbands

      This is the first remarried woman in Austen's writing. While it was discussed in Persuasion, it was in much more generic terms, and mostly regarding men. This is an interesting dynamic.

  4. Oct 2018
  5. Sep 2018
    1. “Some of us just like that stuff,” she said. “We like suspense, we like to be scared, we like to have visceral reaction in the theater. Maybe I’m starved for adrenaline, but for me watching a horror movie is very pleasurable. So making one was kind of a dream.”
    1. But if you have, and still can shake hands with the murderers, then are you unworthy the name of husband, father, friend, or lover, and whatever may be your rank or title in life, you have the heart of a coward, and the spirit of a sycophant.

      Paine is appealing here to his reader's sense of independence and manhood. What might this indicate about eighteenth-century ideas about gender roles?

    1. and have no other preliminaries to settle with the reader, than that he will divest himself of prejudice and prepossession, and suffer his reason and his feelings to determine for themselves ; that he will put on, or rather that he will not put off the true character of a man, and generously enlarge his views beyond the present day.

      Paine assumes here that his reader is male, and associates an openness of thought with being "manly."

    1. man

      Paine is using "man" to refer to all of humanity. It is important to remember, however, that women were excluded from formal participation in politics as citizens. They could not vote. Neither could most African-Americans and Native Americans.

    2. Paine is using "man" to refer to all of humanity. It is important to remember, however, that women were excluded from formal participation in politics as citizens. They could not vote. Neither could most African-Americans and Native Americans.

    1. "The ideas of the First Amendment are not designed to deal with what it took to make the materials [of pornography.]" [5:56-5:59]

    2. "The 'freely choosing women'... As if you've raised a freely choosing black person [who decides to 'freely choose'] to clean toilets. That's the equivalent. You call that freedom. It's called freedom when women choose to do it and it's sex because people believe that sex is free. However, pornography is selling yourself for sex. The idea of money is supposed to make it free. Usually, when people have sex with another person and choose to do it, they're not being paid, it's free because you're not being paid. In other words, this is an arm of prostitution." [NOT VERBATIM] [3:53-4:31]

  6. Aug 2018
    1. Women were afforded much the same rights as men in Egyptian society.

    2. At least 15 egyptian pharaohs were known to be women. This article from 2014 suggests there were at least 7. It's crazy how in just 3 years they discovered that there were more than twice as many. This really speaks to the cover up by the scientific community to exclude women from history.

    1. Blog that is critical of the fear or disgust of men, that addresses the very factual reasons why men are more frightening than women.

      "Androphobic feminists insist that fear of men is not irrational and present us with statistics that 99% of sexual crime against adults, 75% of violent crime and 60% of domestic violence is committed by men. (Figures are more equal in relation to child abuse although men are still somewhat over-represented in most categories except infanticide, sexual assault of boys and psychological abuse of girls.) Furthermore, they tell us that these figures indicate that we have a culture which normalises and condones violent and sexual crime against women by men and masculinity itself needs to revised. However, the vast majority of men do not commit violent and sexual crime against women, women are not the primary victims of violent crime and most sexual crime is committed by a small number of recidivist criminals."

  7. Jul 2018
  8. May 2018
    1. Mr. Gardiner was a sensible, gentlemanlike man, greatly superior to his sister, as well by nature as education. The Netherfield ladies would have had difficulty in believing that a man who lived by trade, and within view of his own warehouses, could have been so well-bred and agreeable. Mrs. Gardiner, who was several years younger than Mrs. Bennet and Mrs. Philips, was an amiable, intelligent, elegant woman, and a great favourite with all her Longbourn nieces.

      It's well known that men had an advantage of getting a proper education which explains Mr. Gardiner's intelligence. This paragraph shows that Mrs. Gardiner was "amiable, intelligent" which shows that she had some form of an education. For women, getting an education was different than men because not all females got an education. According to the article, "Life for Women in 18th Century", if women got an education, it is usually because they were wealthy and were able to go to boarding school. Some women, not everyone, of lower class learned basic reading and writing skills. Although this doesn't mention her background and what exactly it means by "intelligent", it makes me wonder which social class she was raised in and if she really did get education.

  9. Mar 2018
    1. In the lives of most women, everything, even the greatest sorrow, resolves itself into a question of 'trying-on.'

      This is interesting as it contrasts so strongly with the narrator's mother's grief towards the grandmother dying. In comparison to the Narrator's reaction to the grandmother's death, his mother's seems far more genuine and less superficial. When M. de Guermantes shows up as the grandmother is in her last hours the narrator feels obliged to play the role of the host whereas his mother ignores him. Thus the mother is less focused on appearances. This seems as evidence against the idea of women as more superficial and so begs the question of whether Proust or the narrator believes this claim.

  10. Oct 2017
  11. Sep 2017
    1. Why is this code so important? It was the first ever summarized code of law to help provide structure for his subjects. Was actually deity? Nope! In my opinion, he was a visionary and his subjects did not know how to address his abilities. Marduk was the god of the Amorites

  12. Aug 2017
    1. Over and over again, we have noticed that cursory examinations of the data often support a gender-normative narrative, but diving deeper into the data reveals far more surprising (and interesting) relationships between gender and gameplay

      this is cool! Also check out this article!

  13. Jun 2017
  14. May 2017
    1. usness for this speech and in my m

      Watson was criticised in March 2017 for a photograph published by Vanity Fair in which her breasts are partly visible

    2. All I know is that I care about this problem

      Emma Watson took the top spot on the AskMen "Top 99 Outstanding Women 2015" list on the strength of having "thrown her back" into women's rights issues.

    3. decided that I was a feminist,

      Logos. Watson made her first country visit as a UN Women Goodwill Ambassador to Uruguay where she gave a speech highlighting the need for women's political participation.

    1. Reasons for the gender wage gap are multi-faceted. IWPR’s research shows that, irrespective of the level of qualification, jobs predominantly done by women pay less on average than jobs predominantly done by men.

      If Women are doing a job primarily done by men and they are doing as good as a job as women then they should be paid the same.

    2. In 2015, female full-time, year-round workers made only 80 cents for every dollar earned by men, a gender wage gap of 20 percent.

      If women are receiving the same education or a better education why should they be paid less? If a man and a women both hold the same position but the pay gap is at 20% a man working a job making $100000 would be compared to a women making $80000.

    3. Hispanic women will have to wait until 2248 and Black women will wait until 2124 for equal pay.

      Even tho white women are suffering from the pay gap those of color are having it even worse.

  15. Apr 2017
    1. qualified voters

      "Qualified voters" meant almost exclusively white men. As the former colonies began the process of writing state constitutions, debates over who should be included as a "qualified voter" often divided conventions. Vermont and Pennsylvania had two of the most liberal constitutions. Vermont permitted all men, regardless of color, to vote, while Pennsylvania permitted all white men to vote regardless of income. Other states, like Maryland, had much more restrictive qualifications for voting and required that free white men also hold property.

    1. Role models now existed, and they could be followed by younger women who aspired to be medical doctors or University Professors. A new pathway was opened.

      Here are more role models!

    2. However, most historians agree that this apparently auspicious achievement must be taken with a grain of salt: these women scientists were mostly hired in positions “according to their femininity”, often in lower level jobs and always as subordinates in the research teams performing research projects during the War. In most cases,

      Learn more about this!

    1. "I've never seen anything as strong or as stubborn," he says. And I think, how do you tame a wild tongue, train it to be quiet,

      Setting aside the obvious fact that this is literally concerning her tongue and speech, I feel that this is also a good metaphor for silencing women to deny them any kind of power.

  16. Mar 2017
    1. "cre-ates" the text by deciding which of its features are relevant or significant.

      Sometimes the curtains in the main characters house are blue because he likes the color blue! Doesn't always mean he is about to jump off a building.

    1. Undeniably (we verify it at our own expense-but also to our amusement), it's their business to let us know they're getting a hard-on, so that we'll assure them (we the mater-nal mistresses of their little pocket signifier) that they still can, that it's still there-that men struc-ture themselves only by being fitted with a feather.

      I must say, this is the first time I have actively laughed out loud at any of the texts we have read thus far (not that were funny) but I think it is quite brilliant that she is using the woman's role of hearing about a hard-on as the over all important of a woman. It seems to me that is stating that even though women have been oppressed for so many years, men just always have to look to them for reassurance.

    2. ecriture feminine

      Lovely idea as it goes off of Freud's idea that women are less structured and moral. Cixous finds quite possibly the only way to make that positive by stating that those qualities in a woman allow her to move freely through their imagination in the act of writing. They were granted the gift of less controlling social rules.

    1. who i!> speaking? What institutional role, legal status, social privilege, or educational or other certification determines who may claim the right to speak authoritatively?

      I happen to know of a few ladies that would argue anyone has the right to speak authoritatively.

    1. Girls in India and beyond gained new heroes: the kind that wear sarees and tie flowers in their hair, and send rockets into space.
    1. As the first woman in American car design, she paired natural creativity with the hustle that would define her career.

      Never heard about her before!

    1. Elsevier is doing just that in their analysis of 20 years of global research from a gender perspective, published today

      Interesting angle to work in the significance of the day.

  17. Feb 2017
    1. Fashion has crossed many of these lines for years, of course. Women have long appropriated men’s clothes for comfort and authority.

      There is a relatively recent but rich history of women borrowing from "men's" wardrobes, (Yves Saint Laurent's "Le Smoking," Iris Apfel's surface of jeans for girls) that goes back further than one might realize.

      "A Brief History of Women in Menswear"

      This is a fun little article if you would like more information on the subject.

    1. arguably no American woman to dale has surpassed her in na-tional and international renown.

      Arguably, indeed. Grand claims like this seem questionable to me, especially since I had never heard of Willard prior to this piece. However, that in and of itself demonstrates the historical erasure of women who were, indeed, important in their day. I'm curious whether any of you recall reading about Willard in your U.S. history textbooks, because I certainly do not, but that may have been because, as the editors point out above, the temperance movement has been largely reduced to a mockable footnote in American history.

    1. "I permil not a woman lo spcal,. in the congregation." Yet in cxlraordinary cases he ,mule a lcw exceptions.,

      This still doesn't sound so great; women who preach are exceptional women--the average woman can't participate in a traditionally masculine role.

    2. sannah Wesley, who had led large prayer meetings in their home when her Anglican priest husband was absent. W

      Beginning with Margaret Fell in the late seventeenth century, Quaker women were among the first lo speak in public on social issues, Similar behavior between the two woman of allowing meetings in their homes. Only difference was that Margaret ended up in prison.

    1. Sarah Grimkc's position as the first important American feminist theorist.

      Recent scholars have apparently not done a great job of it, because this is the first time I've ever read such a claim.

    2. She denounces men's insistence on seeing women always as sexual beings and argues that women's eloquence arises not from sex but from spiritual and mental powers that they share equally with men and that they must he allowed to exercise.

      Perhaps that idea was only the effect of the sagacity common to the ,sex, and the advantages which their natural address gave them over rough and simple warriors. Stewart would agree that there was more to woman than the their beauty, but perhaps there is something there in terms of softness and ability to woo a crowd that gives women a little extra something?

    3. male hecklers who threatened violence,

      This is a partial answer to my concern about Stewart's speaking experiences. I wonder whether heckling (and its consequences) was better recorded against the Grimke sisters because they were white women (and therefore viewed as more fragile and worthy of protection).

    4. which wa.'i burned to the ground by an angry mob shortly after she spoke.

      A second example of a well-documented consequence of women speaking to a mixed crowd. (Though, to be fair, it would be sort of difficult to overlook this one/fail to record it. It's pretty dramatic.)

    1. gentlemen's kitchens.

      Im interested in this phrase simply because in most literature of this time the kitchen was truly the one thing women owned. It seems to me like this is a praise to African American men but still a stab at men in general. As if only men get the ability to own anything.

  18. Jan 2017
    1. clear

      Her ideas that "nature is the best teacher of eloquence" and rules only help a little is tricky. It seems that Astell is proclaiming that there are natural characteristics which make women effective rhetorically, but women must also follow rules in order to adhere to their nature and speak eloquently?

    1. "But I wouldn't do it again," he added, listing the challenges of having so many kin -- like the need to build each wife a house away from the others to prevent friction

      instead of having friction he should have made the disition to have i wify

    2. Because polygamous marriages are not recognized by the state -- imams who conduct them are subject to punishment -- the wives have no legal status, making them vulnerable when marriages turn violent. Yet the local authorities here typically turn a blind eye because the practice is viewed as a tradition.

      In marriages, women have no right to to report or divorce their husband when thay are in a violent situation that's occur ring in the marriage.

  19. Dec 2016
    1. In a research lab you might not face any gender discrimination as most of the staff is highly educated chunk of science scholars. But there are issues that women scientists have to face. Let's discuss deeper...

      1.Effort Scientist is a profession which requires a lot of research, dedication, and diligent efforts. As Nandini pointed a female scientist has to put double effort than a male scientists to manage between the tight-rope of family and career.

      1. Career Break Due to maternity or some other reason, women have to take a break which affects her career many times.

      Being a scientist and a mother does not come hunky Dorie. Even as a JRF in Council of scientific and industrial research organization, you have to crack the exam with prescribed CSIR Syllabus. Then you'll have to work under a guide making them understand your worth as a science scholar for whom career is an important part of life.

    1. The Belles of New England: The Women of the Textile Mills and the Families ...

      female work in the strikes

  20. Oct 2016
    1. Well, if Albert won’t leave you alone, there it is, I said, What you get married for if you don’t want children?

      This phrase is pointing out the character's antiquated thoughts towards women and they role they play when it comes to marriage. She mentions how Albert is the one at fault, but blames his wife as the one who should have known what she was getting into in the first place.

  21. Sep 2016
    1. There will be a · 1 · · · h I ·11 d gtr s1ttmg opposite me w 0 w1 won er why I have not been flirt-ing with her

      This is our first indication throughout the book that David views women differently than the average man. We don't yet know the real reason why, especially since he then refers to "his" Hella. According to Juliet Gardiner, Baldwin's implication here is consistent with the wold wide view of women in the 50's. They were expected to be perfect wives and mothers, and often flirted with and arguably viewed as an object of entertainment.

  22. Aug 2016
  23. Jun 2016
    1. What is development? How does it happen? How have ideas on development changed since the Second World War? This study guide to International Development: Ideas, Experience, and Prospects will help dig deeper into these questions. Each chapter features a summary of the main conclusions, discussion questions, and suggested readings. The Study Guide Quick Finder is at the bottom of each page.

      If you work in international development? If you are interested in learning more about the history and evolution of the thinking driving international cooperation. This is a site for you.

      The site offers the pre-print version of an IDRC publication entitled International Development: Ideas, Experience, and Prospects, edited by Bruce Currie-Alder, Ravi Kanbur, David M. Malone, and Rohinton Medhora.

      This is an interesting book brings together the voices of over ninety authors, which include international development practitioners, experts and policy makers.

      The site contains a study guide comprised by eight sections of the book, each with a number of chapters. Ideal to use for beginner or advanced courses in universities and as reference for day to day work in the field.

  24. ou-expo.nicklolordo.com ou-expo.nicklolordo.com
    1. Men marry because they are tired; women, because they are curious: both are disappointed.

      Wilde provides commentary here on the confinement of marriage and the commitment it demands. Through Harry he illustrates a life of playful nature and deviance for men and one of innocence and modesty for women.

  25. Apr 2016
    1. This also represents the lack of power women have in Macbeth

      Or it might represent the subservient role they play to men in public. I think she does have power in the relationship.

    2. Women play a major role in the play Macbeth

      Could you start with a general statement about the role women play in Shakespeare plays in general?

  26. Jan 2016
    1. But, of the dozens of female lawyers and law graduates I spoke with on a visit to Saudi Arabia in early November, only two would admit to any interest in expanding rights for Saudi women.
    2. Today, several thousand Saudi women hold law degrees, and sixty-seven are licensed to practice, according to justice-ministry figures released at the end of November.
    3. In early October, at the end of the Islamic calendar year, the Saudi justice ministry announced that in the past twelve months there had been a forty-eight-per-cent increase in cases of khula, divorces initiated by women.
    4. The second Hawa’a’s Rights lecture, on April 26th, addressed personal-status law, the category of Saudi law that governs marriage, divorce, guardianship, and inheritance.
    5. The first lecture in the series, which Ferak called Hawa’a’s Rights (Hawa’a is the Arabic version of the name Eve), was publicized on Twitter and took place on the evening of April 15th.
    6. In November, in an adultery case, a married woman was sentenced to death by stoning; her unmarried male partner received a hundred lashes.
    7. The fact that women couldn’t obtain law licenses wasn’t a source of anxiety for Zahran and her classmates, but by 2008, when she graduated, the justice ministry still hadn’t indicated that it would begin licensing female lawyers.
    8. In 2004, she was a student in the human-resources department at King Abdulaziz University, in Jeddah, when the university announced that it would be opening a degree program in law for female students. It was the first such program in the kingdom, and Zahran immediately switched her concentration to law.
    9. The advent, in 2014, of car services that can be requested through mobile apps has given women a freedom of movement that had seemed impossible just months earlier.
    10. Sorcery is considered such a grave concern that, in 2009, the Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice created a specially trained unit to conduct witchcraft investigations.
    11. In 2008, King Abdullah, who died last January, appalled some of his subjects when he announced that the Riyadh University for Women would be renamed Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University, in memory of a favorite aunt.
    12. In supermarkets, which have employed women since 2013, low partitions suffice, because semi-public spaces are easily monitored by members of the Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice, the kingdom’s religious police.
    13. In 2011, when Mohra Ferak entered the law department at Dar Al-Hekma, her immediate family was supportive, but others were horrified.
    14. Since 2013, women have been allowed to ride bicycles, but only in designated parks and recreation areas, chaperoned by a close male relative.
    15. 2004, Saudi Arabia introduced reforms allowing women’s colleges and universities to offer degree programs in law.
    16. The lecturer, Bayan Mahmoud Zahran—a thirty-year-old Jeddah attorney who, in January, 2014, became the first Saudi woman to open a law firm
    17. In 2013, law licenses were granted to four women, including Bayan Mahmoud Zahran.
    18. The first female law students graduated in 2008, but, for several years after that, they were prohibited from appearing in court.
  27. Dec 2015
  28. Aug 2015
  29. Jun 2015
    1. Con las modelos el truco de la magia de la moda, es hacernos creer que ellas son así, que no están actuando. Que lo que vemos es lo que hay, pero no es verdad. Las modelos siempre han sido seres silenciosos. Yo les he dado el altavoz para que denuncien.
    2. Hay un miedo feroz a representar mujeres poderosas
    1. frequently attracted people who felt frustrated, suffocated by their family, and lacking other means of self-expression than private writing. This explains the over representation of women and homosexuals within the ranks of the diarists

      I lol'd.

  30. Apr 2015
    1. Sylvia Charp -- 70,000 out of 200,000 students in the Philadelphia schools in CAI in 1981. 1981!

  31. Feb 2014
    1. he stole out and killed Candaules

      1.12. Gyges assassinates Candaules and takes the throne of Lydia, establishing the Mermnad dynasty.

    2. She gave him a dagger and hid him behind the same door

      1.12. Candaules' wife arms Gyges and hides him in Candaules' bedroom.

    3. She replied

      1.11. The wife of Candaules instructs Gyges to kill Candaules in his sleep.

    4. Then he asked: “Since you force me against my will to kill my master, I would like to know how we are to lay our hands on him.”

      1.11. Gyges, having failed to persuade Candaules' wife not to force him to make this choice, asks how they will kill Candaules.

    5. When Gyges came, the lady addressed him thus

      1.11. The unnamed wife of Candaules, having been seen naked by Gyges, offers him a choice: kill the king and take his place, or be killed himself.

    6. “Master,” he said, “what an unsound suggestion, that I should see my mistress naked!

      1.8. Gyges responds to Candaules' invitation with a warning not to challenge the natural order of things (don't look at women who aren't your own wife naked).

    7. he praised her beauty beyond measure to Gyges son of Dascylus

      1.8. Candaules praises his wife's beauty to his bodyguard Gyges, setting in motion the chain of events that will end in his death.

    8. since among the Lydians and most of the foreign peoples it is felt as a great shame that even a man be seen naked

      Hdt. 1.10 See previous note. Great shame to be seen naked, even for men.

    9. When a woman's clothes come off, she dispenses with her modesty, too

      Hdt. 1.8 Modesty is an important value/virtue in this culture/time period

    10. fell in love with his own wife, so much so that he believed her to be by far the most beautiful woman in the worl

      Hdt. 1.8 It seems like it was strange to love one's wife; might be interesting to look into views on women/wives during this time period.

    11. “We think,” they say, “that it is unjust to carry women off. But to be anxious to avenge rape is foolish: wise men take no notice of such things. For plainly the women would never have been carried away, had they not wanted it themselves.

      Hdt. 1.4 Persian opinion of carrying women off and avenging rape.