349 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2019
    1. ecananleastcomeincgnnaffwithmereIndiananew,nhan'wecouldbeforenheAm.FurCG»compmenoedthefishingbusinesa,whetherwecanexertagreaterinflu—enceonthemornot.ThepapulatianofthisplaceisincreasingbathwhiteandIndia

      there is increased contact between Ojibwe and While settlers

    2. erconstitutionisenfeeblg9dby.farmerattacksofdisease,andworndownbyaverexertia

      mrs. hall is worn down from being sick all the time

    3. endafewmonthswithherfriend

      While Hall isn't asking to be done, he is asking for a break

    4. nIdoBay,thatIthinkinthedutyofIbelieveauxcourseisonward;Gantherebeanydaubtofthosewhoaxeherenestay.here,andnhaxitistheQunyoftheenurabaea30tosustainthembytheirprayers,andsympathy)andeonnribuanionathattheyshallnotbeprasaedtoaeathinbadyandspirit

      Hall thinks all current missionaries should stay in the field, yet he almost seems to imply that no new individuals should join them? But he just asked for manual labor help

    5. nfidenhthat1%isnetyethopel

      unlike the other missionaries, Hall doesn't want to quit (or is it reverse psychology??)

    6. m-1.34M-1321613-wemaybeidlethat1.163116.askismmesanunng,butthemwemaydewgtaan:timeandan:energydirect;1yt0eifoztsfoxtheaalvatienofthispeapl

      Hall is asking for money so that he can focus his energy where he feels it actually belongs

    7. E0domeatiohelpcanbeobnai'nednhiohoanbedependedon

      is this saying that women are undependable?

    8. Butwehavenotstrengthtoendureitmuohlong

      Hall is speaking for all missionaries when he says that they are almost out of energy to continue

    9. istoubgnggbuged=tn'mpendso-muehnime&n¢atxangthinmanuallabour.asmuchneluvtarnupnmyaparopxiane‘dutiasa3amissionaryandminisner.ThisIjghavedameanddonebeeauseIthoughtitautyned9

      Hall is also finding himself spending (in his opinion) too much time on manual labor and not enough time preaching

    10. ngagajdnbOurexpendituresf9?theyearneeama,lzealaop~strainedneaskferamareliberalgrantnemeetnhgm,than.1anKnQforlastyear

      Hall needs more money to keep La Pointe afloat

    11. avidGreenetoJohnSymour,Boston,9Octob

      the Board releases Seymour, but suggests that he not study divinity

    12. whenGodconvertsthemtheywillflocktotheirfarms&houaes,butifwearetowaituntilnocanassembleacongregationbytheprocessofcolonization,I.feartheOjibuenationwillfallintotheglove&hellbeforetheyheartheSoape

      Ely seems to be saying that God should just convert the Ojibwe, because if the missionaries try to do it, it will never happen

    13. rewecalledtobefarmersinsteadofM

      "Are we called to be farmers instead of missionaries?" seems to be the over arching questions of all the missionaries right now

    14. lltheglGdSofFondduLacstationarenowremovedeithertoPokegemaorthisplace,save2Boxes,whhwillsoonbebroughtdown

      Fond du Lac is completely moved out of

    15. havedevotednotimeexcetontheSabbath,toimpartingreligiousinstruction&nonetoschoolteaching0thestudyofthelanguage,exceptthreemonthsofmynrstyearatMackina

      Seymour has been so busy doing manual labor at Pokegoma that he hasn't taught any religious instruction or school

    16. rElyhasnotbodilystrengthsufficienrforanylaboriousbusines

      Ely is weak

    17. ransportationisandwillbehighforseveralyearstosome_ShouldweaidtheIndiansanotherye

      Ayer anticipates high transportation rates for the next few years because the Natives, while "establishing" themselves, don't have their own teams

    18. Icanonlysay,thatabout3weekssincetheSiouxfellupontwopartiesofOjibueyontheirreturnhomeironSt.Peter's&‘kill—ed96.

      Sioux attacked the Ojibwe and killed 96 people

    19. iarrhoeafor4or5.dhysp

      Ayer has been ill

    20. DavidGreenetoDelia

      Okay so it appears that Greene says the Board doesn't recommend that Cooke return to La Pointe, but that if she wants to still, they might let her?

    21. Iwouldsubmitthequestionofmylongercontinuanceundertheirdirection,tothedecisionofaccordancewithmywishe

      Delia Cooke does not want to terminate her connection with the Board

    22. WithChristianregardstoyurwife

      I'm no expert, but this has to be some kind of serious dig for that time, right?

    23. et,ifyouwentthereinobeiencetowhatappearedtoyoutobethecallsofGod'sprovidenceandhaveonestlylaboredthereforhim,youmaybesurethathehadsomeWisepurposeisendingyouthere,andthathehasnotcalledyoutoremovefromthatpost,untitheworkwhichhehadinviewwasaccomplish

      Greene essentially tells Ely that he and his family are staying at Fond du Lac until it develops

    24. IhadlittlehopeoftheFonduLacstationfromthebegin'ning,thoughIhardlyknowwhatreasontoassignforit,exceptthestrengthofpaa1innuencether

      Greene believes that the original failure of Fond du Lac was caused by the influence of Catholicism there

    25. tterunderstandingofeachone'sappropriatedutiesinthemission

      Articles of Agreement between Hall and Ely about what each other do

    26. elivermefromdealingwithsuchIndsasthese.

      Ely doesn't want to occupy Fond du Lac anymore

    27. Thelabourofasinglefemalew0uldrelieveme&setmeatlibertytodevotemytimetodirectMissionarylabours--butnosuchhelpistobehadher

      Hall expressed to Ely that he was in need of another woman at La Pointe because his wife was continually ill and he was doing all the housework

    28. feélsomuchirritatedattimeswhensomeoftheseScampspresentthemselves&commencetheirbegging,thatIfeelwretchedenough,untilIseetheirbacks,&eventhenfeelwretchedthatIhaze£§l1.§

      Ely describes the needs of the Natives through his own eyes at Fond du Lac

    29. HetellsmehehastheVenerealdiseas

      Eminaso (a Native in Ely's region) has a venereal disease

    30. sireyourconnectionwiththeBoardtobeformallyathis,youwillpleaseinformmeofit,andyour1eCommitte

      Delia Cooke might be completely done with the Board and assisting at the Missions

    31. pposedthatyourhealthrequiredasuspension

      Delia Cooke was out of work for a while due to illness

    1. IneversawtheseInds.halfsogivenuptoeveryspeciesofwicked-nes

      According to Boutwell, the Ojibwe at Leech Lake are spiritually and moral less than any other he has seen

    2. hatIspokeloud&plain

      Boutwell describes a conflict he had with some of the Natives in his area

    3. FredericAyertoDavidGreene,PokegomaDec.28,18

      This whole letter is Ayer explaining to Greene how productive the Pokegoma mission has been in the past year

    4. AbouttheMiddleofAugMrsALyer]wasconnnedwithayoungSon—Soonattackedwiththeintermittentfeverwhichcontinuedtwomonths—Isnowrecovering—Doeslightwor

      Mrs. Ayer got sick from pregnancy and still only does light work

    5. henmyfamilyweresosickthatIcouldnotwrit

      Ayer family was sick as well

    6. henextthingisrevenge

      Boutwell is put on a list of men suspected of stealing ammunition, and his cattle are killed by the Natives in the region

    7. Forbetterthanamonthmywifehardlypassedacomfortablehourinsleepbydayornight,fromapainintheear&teeth.Iwasconnnedmyselfabout20daysfromawoundinthefootbyastub&IwasobligedtoemployanInd.womantoprescribe

      sickness was prominent in the Boutwell family, with both husband and wife being afflicted by something

    8. utIthinkthatasystemorhabitofdoingthiswouldbeunjudicious,andattendedwithvariousevilsmorethanoutweighing,inthelongrun,allthegoodwhichitwouldeffe

      Mr. Greene doesn't want the missionaries giving out gifts often because it taints the message

    9. whoaimataradicalintellectual&moralimprovementitcan

      the missionaries want to establish a radical intellectual & moral improvement

    10. D.GreenetoJosephTow

      Mr. Greene seems to suggest that Mr. Town should abandon his post at the mission since he is gone from there so often anyway

    11. ct22[1836

      very sick woman

    12. Chiefgavemehismedisinba

      a chief at La Pointe gives his medicine bag to Joseph Town, except it's actually at Fond du Lac?

    13. MrandMrsAyerMrSeymour&MissStevensstillcomposetheMissionfamil

      the mission family at Pokegoma

    14. OneweaidedinputtingupaloghousethisFall.Anotheriscommenced,andtwoorthreeotherswishtobuildassoonaswecanaidthe

      Natives are beginning to move into and around Pokegoma and build houses and farms

    15. ormerlyknownasYellowLakeMissio

      Yellow Lake Mission turned into Pokegoma -> moved to be closer to the impressionable Natives

    16. Mywifeisquiteillwithasorethr

      Boutwell's wife is illl and so is his child

    17. IammytimeathomewhichIoughttospendabroadotemanyhourstodomesticdutieswhichoug

      Hall almost seems upset that he has to be at home caring for his children instead of travelling and christianizing the Natives

    18. WehavenofourChildren,betweenthebirthfnotwoofwhomwasthereabove18months.TheycannotlearntodosuchbusiesswithoutgoingtoCollege,Perhapshecan.B[u]tareallbabiesandrequiiscqnstantattention.Besideswhattheysufferfromneglectintheireducation,theysufferfromneglectinotherrespects.Thecareofsuchafamilyisenoughtophoweverstrongherconstienfeebledbydisease.Durimyself,exceptthekindassispartof[the]dayatatimeatassociateinthemission,dreofherownfamilydidnotpethanatherconnnementwitquitefeeble,shehasbeencagratitude.Thepromiseofstostratethehealth&stren[g]thofanyMother,ionmaybe;muchmoreonewhoseconstitutionismyWife'slastconnnement,sheha[d]nonursebuttancerenderedbyMrsNewtonwhoassistedusathreeorfourdifferenttimes.MrsTownourssedthechildafewtimes,butthenumerousdutiesrmithertodomore.Mywifehoweverwasbetterhanyofherotherchildren.Tho'herhealthisnowrriedthroughsofarinamannerthatcallsforspecialrengthequaltoourday,hasbeenverined.Mywifeoftenfeelsasifshecouldnotsustaintheconstantlabourswhichdevolvedup

      there are four children at La Pointe in 1836, all of whom are considered babies that need constant care

      Hall thinks that they are being neglected both in terms of education and actual care

      the women are sick a lot and cannot care for the babies as well as mr. Hall thinks they should be

    19. havebeenobligedthetmyhandsintothewashtub,tohandlethemopandwashmydishes.Youmaybedisposedtoaskifon

      when having to wash is own dishes and cook his own meals, Hall questions whether or not most men could learn those skills on their own

    20. unstab

      Hall describes the Natives as having unstable character

    21. ightitnotbefortheinterestofthecausetocalloneofushomefortwoorthreemonths,ofwecanbespared,toconsultwiththeCommitteeandmakeeffortstoobtainlabourersforthisne

      Hall is suggesting sending missionaries back to Boston for a few months to have them talk to the committee and obtain new people for labor

      he also wants to keep the newly built houses in the hands of the committee and lend them to the Natives

    22. MissCookisnowatFondduLac.ShewentthereinMay&willprobablyremaintillnextspring.Heraidseemedtobeneededtheremorethanhere.MrElyiserectingsomesmallbuildingsfortheaccommodationofhisfamilyandschoo

      Miss Cook is at Fond du Lac with Mr. Ely

    23. FondduLacandLeechLak

      All Northwest Missions, but especially Fond du Lac and Leech Lake, need more labor to sustain them

    24. WehaveamoreformidablefoetoencounterinCathlolicismthaninheathenismitself

      Hall believes that Catholicism is a bigger threat to the success of the missions than "heathenism"

    25. heinnuencetheCatholicsareexertingisbecomingmoreapparenteveryyea

      the missionaries believe that the Catholic influence is increasing every year

    26. uniformorthographywoulddomuchtofacilitatetheprogressofmissionshereinseveralrespec

      a uniform orthography is felt to be needed in order to progress the mission

    27. OneoftheseyoungmenspentthewinteratFondduLacwithMrEly

      one travelling Native spent winter with Mr. Ely at Fond du Lac while travelling to Lac Courtiraille

    28. reachin

      Preaching at La Pointe is the best it's ever been in 1836

    29. .GreenetoF.Ayer,MissionaryRooms,Boston,Jun

      Greene suspects that soon the influx of white people into the "wilderness" will soon reach the missions in the Northwest

    30. AndsothetotalnumberofthenEwly-convertedIndiansinthismission,sinceth

      213 new converts since August (1835?) at Fond du Lac (?)

    31. hopeofhavingapermanentmissionaryintheirlocalitypleasedthemimmesely.Theyshowedmetheplacewheretheywishedtohavethemissionchurchndthehomeofthemissionary

      Baraga claims that the Natives at Fond du Lac desperately want a missionary to reside there permanently

    32. PierreCotté

      Baraga mentions the fur trader again (Pierre Cotte) who sings and reads to the Natives

    33. IwentonMay26ona,whereIspent14days.IfoundtheIndiansthereinthebestofconditions.ItisremarkablehowthesepoorIndianscankeeptheirfaithinreligion,sincetheyhavenomissionaryamongthe

      In May, Baraga visits Fond du Lac (which was unoccupied by missionaries) and remarks how well off they are

    34. hichaltogetherconstitute107sheetsofwriting,occupiedmeverypleasantlythroughoutthewholelongwinterinm

      Baraga makes a set of four small works, both in English and Ojibwe, to be used for teaching

    35. cannotlabormuchinwinter,atthetimethatthepportunityoffereditselfIhadnothingint

      Baraga states that the winter months are essentially useless to missionaries

    36. AgreementbetweenNindipens&Ely,June16,18

      Nindipens and Eninabonde make a deal with Mr. Ely that he can use all the grass and timber he pleases in the land that is his

    37. tseemsthatBoutwellisdepressed,andhasindicatedsuchtotheABCFMandtohisfamilybackeas

      Boutwell is depressed

    38. Mr.Boutwellismoreinfaultthanyourself.Butinhemanwhomweemploytodothatbusinesswasaquentlytoinquirewhatheshoul

      the tone of Hall's response suggests that he frustrated at the Mission and at Greene

    39. Youmustnotbefortsofthecatholics

      Hall advises Greene not to let the Catholics upset him

    40. oallwhichwedesire,&whichwesupposedthatthedowhatweca

      In response to Greene stating that abandoning the mission would be the next option, Hall says that it is their duty to do what they can

    41. rombelowarrived?Isfowhatarethey?Ifnotrecd:1whenissheexpected?ShouldIbedisappointedinaorderedcanyoufurnishmeandatwhatrate.Atwithgoods(principallydrygoods)?WhatistheknownwhentheRedRiverpeoplewillbedown.alvedandaretheydoingwell.IfIcouldnotleaveheretogoforthemtillthenrstofJunewouldnotthecareofthembetoomu

      Mr. Ayer's questions for Henry Sibley, who resides at St Peters

    42. Oneonwhomandencecuthimselfseverelysomeweekssince—andavebeensicmorethanusual

      help at Pokegama for the Ayer's family is low because of injury and sickness

    43. andmustbeforafewweeks—asourgroundforplantingisyetcoveredwithlogs&brush.

      the Ayer's family arrived at Pokegama (?) and is unsettled due to house and land setbacks

  2. Aug 2019
    1. Largeandshowyplatesanswerthemostvaluablepurpos

      the fact that the missionaries need colorful plates to get the Natives attention suggests that the Natives are not truly interested in being converted

    2. heCatholicpriestisstillhere,andisveryactiveamongtheIndiana

      the Catholic influence in the area is strong

    3. fheisneededmoreatFondduLac,oratsomeotherstationthanhere,hewillprobablylea

      Sproat was supposed to go with Ely to Fond du Lac, but the sickness of Mrs. Hall made him stay at La Pointe to help Ms. Cooke with the school

    4. TwonativeyoungmenoftheMethodistconnexionarespendingthewinteratthisplace.Theyareinvaluableassistantsninourwork.TheyweresentoutbytheMethodistEpiscopalSocietyasnativemissionariesorexhorte

      two Native missionaries sent out by the Methodist Episcopal Society

    5. fIthoughtyouorLydiacouldbetion,AreyounotwillingtoserveChristinthisw

      Hall essentially asks his sisters to come help at La Pointe

    6. Ihavebeenobligedtorenderilytotheneglectofimportantmissionarywor

      because his wife is often sick, Mr. Hall has to do some housework, which takes away from the importance of missionary work

    1. I.amhourlyledtoseethatthereisanap—parentcrisis--betweenus&theCatholics

      "crisis" between the Christians and the Catholics

    2. Andbythebye,I.havenotmention-edthatI.hadahelper.TheMethodistssentout3YoungmentogotoLac.Courterei

      Ely has 3 helpers for working the school

    3. SheisconvincedthatBaptism&Absolutioncanneversaveher.Shewasbredecatholic.Shelistenedwithdeepattention&sometimeswithtears,lestsumner,atLePoi

      some of the Natives want to be converted, but don't think they can be

    4. precedenthasbeenestablished,&theScripturesarebeingdailyreadtot

      precedent of reading scripture to Natives every night

    5. Ifyoufind'DrSir,thatI.asktoomuch,Ihopeyouwillcheckm

      Ely asks for a lot for the school in order to maintain the attention of attending students (scholars) and attract new members

    6. hiefMg—oz

      Chief Ma-ozit (Loon's foot) approves of the school where Ely is

    7. Theywhocome,therefore,Come?fromtheirownWills

      According to Ely, children come to mission schools of their own accord

    8. IknowtheIndian.Iknowhimwell,forIamanIndianmyself.Hethinkslittleandspeaksmuch.Hedoesnotlookbeyondthepresent,andhehatesyourobjectinhisheart,althoughitisoneofcharityandforthebenentofhimselfandchildren.

      This is how the second chief of the Leech Lake band views Boutwell and his mission efforts

    9. DeliaCookeEly--BornJan28,183

      Delia Cooke Ely born 1/28/1838

    10. NogoodsfromBostonthisyea

      No goods from Boston were brought to the mission in 1937

    11. Nothingremarkabletookplace,Lastnight,shehadalittlefever.WasveryrestlessSheprobablytookcoldbeingoutinthedampa

      mary got a slight fever

    12. MrElytcLJmenottosayanythingtoherbutwhipherdirectly,&thenadded,"sheneverdoessotome.Itisbecauseyouareslackinyourgovernment.Alas,Ifearitistootrue.Ifrequentlyspeaktoheroftenbeforesheminds.Imustbegin,adifferantcourse.Iwillspeaktoheronce,&ifshedoesnothear,speaktoheragain,&thencorrectherifshedisobeys.Some-timeswhentoldtodoathing,sheisheedlessaboutit&goesratherwnndslowlyIdonotknowwhattodointhatcase,ifsheunderstoodmoreitNbeverydiffere

      Parenting styles

    13. heIndiansaretakingInninitoLapointeheisverysickIsgoing,tobecuredbythemedicinemenatLapointe

      Innini is being taken to La Pointe to see the doctors there

    14. heletherpeaceofbreadfall&inbendingtotakeitthechairturnedover.Shebruisedherheadsadly.Shehassatoutonthegreengrassthismorn,forsometimeamusingherself

      mary bruises her head

    15. havegivenherMagnisiatwi

      Mary Ely given Magnisia (food tooth ache?)

    16. hebabewasinthecradlelyingveryquietlywhenallatonceshescreamedout.Miss0tookherup&examinedher,shesawmarksoffingersonherfacethelittlegirlhadevidentlybeenscratchingher.Thegirldeniedthatshehaddoneanythingtoher.Itookherout&whippedherarms&sentherhometoldhernevertocomeinthehouse

      A little girl comes into the Ely home and scratches the baby

    17. Sheseemedtobeingreatpaininthebowels&criedabouthalfanhour.Wegaveheralittlepeppermint&thateasedher

      Baby Ely is still ill in the bowels

    18. M.hasbeenquitedisposedtosleep.Itmaybeonaccountofthestateofherbowels,nothinghaspassedhersinceyest

      Baby Ely is still sick in the bowels

    19. twouldhardlybesupposedaChildofheragetobecapableofsuchexpression'-=sheis8weeksoldTo—da

      Mary Ely is very expressive

    20. hehasnotbeenVerywelltoday,sickatthestomach.SometimesitseemsasifsheWaspleadingtobetakenupwhenshecatchesaneyefixaduponher,herwholebod,eyes,arm,areallinmotionpleadin

      Mary Ely has been sick

    21. aryWrightEly,bornSabbathMay29thWethinkheronthewholeaprettygoodbaby.Shedoesnotseemtocomplainwithoutsomereason.Shebeginstonoticethosearoundher&appearspleasedwhennoticed.Sheisnowsevenweeksold.

      Mary Wright Ely = daughter

    22. heTaw-Rouzecameinthismorningtoaskmeforalittlephysio.Itold[him]Iwouldgivehimsomesalts.Wehadverylittleofthat.Hesaidhehadbeensickagoodmanydays.Igave.himsome.Iwenttohislodgethisafternoon,themedecinehadoppor—atedwe

      the Taw-Rouze (Native Doctor?) asks Mrs. Ely for salt because he has been sick

    23. 836Jan.4MydearhusbandleftthismorningincompanywithanIn-dianboy,(Kucgetash)forLapoin

      1/4/1836: Mr. Ely leaves for La Pointe with Kuogetash (Native boy)

    24. Sufferedmuchfromthetooth-achetoday.Itwillprobablyulceratebytomorrowmornin

      Mrs. Ely has a busted tooth

    25. AmandthezealofPaul&thefaithofAbraham

      Boutwell hired a Catholic Frenchman as a laborer, but feels that he is not a good representation of the faith, and has decided to do all laboring himself - he asks for a pious man to be sent to Leech Lake instead

    26. couldmarryanIndianwifebutsuchastepIampersuadedwouldcontributelittletomyinnuenceamongtheIndians—destroyforeveramongmyfriends—breaktheheartofanaffectionatemother&bringthegrayhairsofabelovedfatherwithsorrowtothegrav

      Seymour is unaffective among the Ojibwe because he is unmarried (want to get married because of his "sense of duty"), but he feels that marrying an Ojibwe women would ruin his reputation

    27. ltthattheSpiritdirectedhi

      Mr. Town will occupy Fond du Lac

    28. thofthesamemo

      52 Native baptized at Fond du Lac in September 1835 (148 total, everywhere?)

    29. thankedthegoodma

      a pious fur-trader at Fond du Lac is the reason so many Ojibwe wanted to be converted (Pierre Cotte)

    30. ndiansinFondduLac

      According to Baraga, the Natives at Fond du Lac want a priest

    31. 2Indians,

      62 baptized in September by Baraga

    32. 6India

      In august of 1835, 86 Natives were baptized by Baraga

    33. heconversionofasingleheathe

      according to Baraga, "the conversion of a single heathen" provides enough joy to forget all the hardships of the land

    34. withhisfamily,toFondduLacinafewda

      at the end of September the Ely family will return to Fond du Lac

    35. verydaytheydelayourcauseissufferin

      it appears that there are few people aside from the main men that want to work on the mission

    36. hiswouldgiveonly

      One missionary and one male teacher, plus laborers, is the fewest people that should be in a mission

    37. Fondd

      Both Fond du Lac and Sandy Lake are unoccupied

    38. ostundividedattentiontothelanguage

      the learning of the Ojibwe language should be paramount to at least one of the present missionaries

    39. Thehabitsoflifeandcharacte

      The nomadic lifestyle of the Ojibwe means that preachers must travel from house to house

    40. handedandthenrstyeardshimselfembarrassedandabletoadvancebutceneedstobere-enforced

      Boutwell has been at Leech Lake for two years, working solo, so the progress is slow and needs to be re-enforced

    41. Theirerrorsaremoreformidabletothemissionarythantheheathenismit

      The Catholic influence in the area is deemed as worse than the Native religious influences

    42. doubtfulwhetherwemaycalculateoneno

      lack of people and supplies makes it seem like Fond du Lac will be without missionaries for a while

    43. FondduLacistherefo

      Fond du Lac is without missionaries in September 1835

    44. eretoassistMr.Hall.FondduLacistherefor

      September 1835: Ely stays at La Pointe, Fond du Lac in unattended

    45. ourlettersofJuly7thtoMessrstreedaysagoandinformusthatwearetoreceiveno1eBoardthepresentseason

      Mr. Greene is not sending any additional resources to the Missions in the Northwest

    46. onsecratedourdearbabeinbaptism.WecallherElizabethAntoinett

      Boutwell and Crooks baptize their daughter Elizabeth Antoinette

    47. Alas,isis[sic]notverysad0seesomanysoulstogoeternalruinbecauseofascarcityofpriests!

      "scarcity of priests"

    48. NinetymilesfromhereisantherIndianvillagecalledFondduLac,wheretherearemanyIndianswhowishtoaccepttheCatholicreligion

      Fond du Lac is 90 miles from La Pointe, and according to Baraga has many Ojibwe who want to be converted

    49. henumberofmycatechuensisveryremarkable.Theyardentlylongforholybaptism,andwillreceiveitssoonastheyarebetterinstructe

      according to Baraga, the Ojibwe at La Pointe are desperate to be baptised (50 between August 2 and 9)

    50. buildingofamission

      a mission church is built at La Pointe and is functional August 9 1835

    51. Trulythelackofpriestsintheirregionislamentabl

      The area around La Pointe is low on priests

    52. ButItoldthegooIndiansthattheirbrothersonLakeSuperior,whohaveneverseenapriest,ne(1spiritualaidmuchmorethanthey,andthatanothermissionarycertainlwouldcomesoontoArbreCroche;bywhichtheywerecalmedsomew

      Natives at Arbre Croche want Baraga to stay and be their missionary, but he tells them that he is more needed at La Pointe

    53. About4pm.MydearHesterwasconnned,andpresentedmewithannehealthydaughter

      Crooks gives birth do a daughter August 4, 1835

    54. enen

      different denominations minding their own business and staying out of the way of others seems to be agreed upon

    55. appropriatio

      the government is fully willing to help "civilize" the Natives at La Pointe

    56. ThismanandhisWifearethenrstfruitsuntilChristamongthpoorIndians,whohavecomeandunitedwithhisChurch.Theyappeartruly0lovetheSaviourandhisword

      Christianized 4 of the Ojibwe

    57. anuscriptsRelatingtotheDavidGreenetoS.Hall,IamgladtonndthatyoudcdespondingalightasMrFewithMr.StuartduringthevgreatestanxietynowisI‘E‘Sptcatechists.Ididhopetosendespairofnowsendingonewithoutapreacher;&theheforareleasebeforeanotherNorthwestMission

      The Northwest missions are low on men, and the church, while willing to provide funds, does not attempt to provide actual missionaries

    58. hiscircumstancehastendedtoremovethemfromthetimebeingfromourintercourse&innuenc

      agricultural failures forced the Ojibwe to travel to deer land for food, so they are removed from the influence of the missionaries during the winter

    59. yhouse,whenIbegantooccupyit,hadadoor,threewindows&amudchimney,butneitherchair,stool,tableorbed-stead

      Boutwell built his own house at Leech Lake

    60. heseventhdaythemessengerbroughtmeanmrmatlve[answer]&thenextdayIpackedupmyeffects,swungmypack&marched

      In order to overcome suspicions of a mistress, Boutwell marries Hester Crooks

    61. reinthehabitofkeepingamistres

      Missionaries should not live alone because it will be assumed that they have taken a mistress - this is why most missionaries are actually Mission Families

    62. Butexperiencehadtaughtme,thattoresideinatradersfamily,howeverImightbecalledaMissionary,yetitwasimpossibletoremovetheimpressionfromtheInds.Mind,thatIwasinterestedinthetrad

      The Ojibwe don't separate between missionaries and traders

    1. ywifeisquiteillfrominnammationinoneofhereyes,whichissoswollenthatshecannotsee.Iamphysician,nurse,house-keeper.&c.whichoccupiesallmytimeandthoughts

      When his wife is ill, Boutwell is forced to take care of the house

    2. esterCrookswasmarriedtoMrBoutw

      Boutwell married Hester Cooks

    3. ywife,Innd,isnosmallcuriositytothispeople,thoughoneoftheirkindred,accordingtothenesh.HermannersanddressbeingthatofnAmericanwoman,whichmostofthenumberneversaw,excitesthestareandgazeofall,youngandold,maleandfemal

      Boutwell's wife is an Ojibwe woman

    4. FondduLac.ReachedtisplBro.Hall,inlookingoverthMNHS.1Box.P2528aceabout2pm.Theafternoonwasoccupiedwithapremises.&c.withaViewtoapermanentlocationforamission,andinmakingarrangementsforBro.E.toremainherethepresentwinter.At8

      Fond du Lac and Mr. Ely

    5. allseemedtodemandthatIshouldhaveawi

      Mr. Boutwell's circumstances seem to him that he needs a wife

    6. atient,affeotionato,peraovcringlaboristheonlythingthatwill3370theIndia

      "the only thing that will save the Indians" is "patient, affectionate, persavering labor"

    7. ourinter-coursewiththem&yourwholelaborswillrequirepotionce3acontinuallyoperatingcompassionfortheirooulo

      working with the Natives requires patience and "compassion for their souls"

    8. heschoolhasbeensuspendedforeightweeks.AswecouldobtainnohelpwewereunabletodowithoutMissCook'sassistanceinthefamily.Sheisabouttocommenceagain

      because many of the women at La Pointe are/have been very sick, school closed for 8 weeks

    9. houldyougotothisstationyouwouldbeexpectedtoteachtosomeextent,todidintakingcareofthesecularaffeirsofthefamily,andtobewiththeIndiana,asmuchascircumotencsewouldpermit,aidingthemcomeintheirattemptstobecomesettled&cul—tivatetheground,persuadingthemtoattendmeetingt,andsendtheirchildrentoschool,impartingreligiousinstructionasforasyoucould,bymeansofinterpretersorotherwise.Youmightalsodidsomeinprovidingcomfortablebuildingsforthefamily,iftheyshouldnotyetbefurniehod,andperhapsituiohtbeadvisableforyoutoaidoccasionallyatoneortwooftheotherattioneinthatvicinity,inthesamen

      What Mr. Town would be expected to do at Yellow Lake

    10. hepo'sonsatthisstationno

      Mr. Greene breaks down to Mr. Town who all is located at Yellow Lake

    11. WilliamTBoutwellPapers,MNHS.1Box.P2528March19[1834]Quiteillthismorning—withbile

      Boutwell is sick

    12. nadditiontothearticleswhichIhaverequestedyouinformerletterstosendus,IwishyouwouldalsosendthreeorfourEnglishBiblesforgratitousdistribution,andan8vNewTestamentinlargetype.Alsoaflatfurcap,(thesizeshouldberathersmallforama3oruplainsuspenders,someshavingsoapasomecommonglassinkstands.Ihopetheshoeswillnotfailtoc

      items that Mr. Hall requests from Mr. Greene

    13. esidesthecareofourfamily,includinganinfantchilddeprivedofthebreastattheageofalittlemorethanfourmonths,thecareofMrs.HallhasdevolveduponMissStevens,MissCookandmyself

      a four month old baby was left without a nursing mother on in La Pointe

    14. thinkImentionedinmyformerletterthatMrsHallhasexperiencedaslightattackoffever.Aftershehadbeenconnnedtwoorthreeweeks,shebegantobeconvalescent,andwethoughtshewouldspeedilybewell.Bytoomuchexposureandoverexertion,herfeverreturnwithviolence,andsoreducedher,thatinfour[or]nvedayswegaveupallhopeofherrecoveryandlookedalmosthourlyforherdissolution.Throughdivinemercy,herfeverinafewdayssubsided,butlefthersolow,thatwithsymptomsofotherdesease[sic]withappeared,wehadbutslighthopesofherrecoveryforamonthormore.Sheappearsnowtoberecovering,thoughyetunabletomovewithoutassistance

      Mrs. Hall is ill and still recovering, after over a month of being sick

    1. erearesupposedtobenearlyasmanyIndiansintheFondduLacDepartment,asinalltheLakeSuperiorDepartmen

      almost as many Natives in Fond du Lac as in all of Lake Superior area

    2. AlinefromBr.Elyrecdthisev

      Mr. Ely tells Mr. Boutwell that the first chief, La Gueule Plot, wants a school

    3. erequestthatHrSeymourorElymaybesenttoouraidnextspring"iftheLordwil

      Mr. Ayer requests Mr. Ely or Mr. Seymour

    4. yIsupposeIam18yearsofag

      Mrs. Ely is only 18

    5. Embarkedabout10o’ClkA.M.withmydearWife,onboardaboatbelongingtoA.M.F.Co,boundtoFondduLacinchargeofDoct.Borup....PeterAzhaniguonaccompaniesus.HeisaNativeofF.du.Lac—1/4/White,--ConvertedhaslabouredoneyearwiththeMethodistBrethren,&cameoutwithtwoIndianPreachers,toestablishaMissionatLacCourtereille.Itwasdeemedexpendeintbythemtoreturn&winteratLePointe.Br.HallemployedonasInterpreter--&Petercametoassistme.HespeaksonlyOjibue—reads&writestolerablywellmownlan

      Mr. Ely and his wife are travelling to Fond du Lac

    6. amtobelocatedatSandyLake

      Ely confirms he is to be located at Sandy Lake to teach

    7. rE.toteachtheschoolther

      Mr. Ely will teach school at Sandy Lake

    8. ButIforbear,IhavealreadyraiserawarofexterminationifwhatIhavenowgivenyouismadepu

      Boutwell knows these statement would cause the killing of many Natives if they were made public

    9. IfaMissionfumiEyr————————______—+consistedofoneman&twofemales,itmightbedifficulttoeradicateff35—555—1537‘fn§“imvro§§1onthathokoayohastooWiveo

      a mission family with two women might look like a polygamous relationship to the Natives

    10. Itisdesirablethatthoroshouldbethreegersono.-~atalleventsthoroshoulibotwo.Afamilymightconsistofonemale&twofemales,thernvoroewoulihoweverbeprefrablo;two‘maiéo&onefemale.MuchasIhaveboonwonttodobroontetheideaof‘aMiasionarthothoeeIn;n.beilnawr—ried,Imustfranklyadmititsproprietyifamissionintoboloo—atodhe

      Boutwell's suggestions for a mission family at Leech Lake

    11. nInd.roullmostsurelytthesd—‘ventardofyourliberolity.Every

      Boutwell sees the Natives as charity seeking

    12. hismightoperateasastimultuswiththemtocultivateafixavalueuponcorn,rice&0,atleastwithsuch,ascarstohavetheirohil.instructed,ratherthansquanderitinfeasts,&feedingsuchasaretooindolenttomakeagardenthemselve

      Boutwell disapproves of the way the Natives handle food

    13. Atpresentthereisnothingamongthem,nothinglikepersonalrightsorindividualprepertyanyfurtherthantrapsguns&kettlesareconcerne

      no personal property

    14. twillbeimpossible,atleastsofarasIcansee,tosustainasmallschooleven,withoutfeediecthechil.tosomeextent.IftheInds.zenhe‘nduoedbyexample&otherhelps,suchasEecd&preparingtheground,tocultivutcmorelargely,theyyould,Ihavenodoubtfurnishprovisionsfortheirohil.inp

      the school will have to feed children regardless, but parents can contribute more if they settle down and cultivate land

    15. heexpenseofestablishing&supportingaMissionfamilyhere,lcouldsay,fromtheobservation&estimate'Ihavebeenabletomake,itwouldnotexceed3600,norwould-itprobablybelessthan$500.

      Mission Family costs at Leech Lake

    16. hatthereareindividualswhowouldbeun—willingtohavetheirchil.instructedatpresent,Ihavenodoubt.Iamnotwithouthopehowever,thatbykindness&ajudiciouscourseofconduct,theirprejudiceswouldsoongiveway

      Boutwell understands not all families want their children taught, but he believes that they will eventually

    17. eLordhathopenedadoor&isapparentlypreparingthesayforyoutooccupythisfieldassoonasyoucanfurnishthemen&mean

      the school and mission should be established as soon as funds are available

    18. fyouwilllearnhimtoreaddoasthewhitesdo,Ishouldbesoglad,Idontknow,whatIcondoforyou

      families want their children to fit into white society

    19. Ire—membered.tohavereadthe“servantienotabovehisMaster

      how Boutwell views his relationship with the Ojibwe

    20. ychildrenarepoor&ignorant

      how mothers feel about their children not knowing how to read, write, or sing in English

    21. hisband&severalothersinthevicinityarenowsmokingthepipeofpeacewiththeSiouxs

      bands around Leech lake have made peace with the Sioux

    22. tisararethingthatanInd.willnothavedealingswithbothhouses,&atthesametimemakeitapointofhonourtocheatonetocourtth

      Natives trade with traders and with someone else, which causes them to cheat at least one party

    23. uchbeingthestateofthings,thereisalwaysstrife,con-tention&everyevilworkbetweenthetwohouses

      lending on credit and unfair trades

    24. cigni,ieelittl01

      Malian = Little Wolf

    25. esicknccnwhichprevailedamongtheIndian038lastsummerwasinconaequcnoeofourcomingintothecountryandthothehissionaricewouldbringsick—noesupontheIndianaaloe"

      Natives believe missionaries bring sickness

    26. aidhe"wishedhiechildrentolearntheBookbutnottoreceiveourreligion["].

      this is about Dr. B's children - Dr. B is a Chief among the Yellow Lake bands

    27. urruilty,ruinedstatebynatureIendoau-ouredtosetbeforehim,andtoTh0?hintheabsolutenecessityofrepentance&theinfinito14:0rtnnooofit

      insight into what Missionaries tell the Natives about God

    28. neanydevoteconaid-arableof113timetoscatteringabnnndtheaecddnflir

      wants two males missionaries so that one can be a traveling preacher essentially

    29. h1hk"that“about"soormoreiramnegmightbeErGngnéGitnlnnfnény4eremf‘tnéinflucnoomoreorlessdir-aot3faimiséi‘szhéz-éfg

      Ayer anticipates at least 60 families can be converted by a Mission at Yellow Lake

    30. tappearstothemlikearenunciationofhhoirreligiOn(astheycallit)tozubnittoinstructionorzuuffartheirchildrento.ItitnotatallsurprisingthattheyshOuldfeelthuo..Theyarealmostallgrosslylyncrsntofovoxythlng‘connectod‘withdivinetruthbut'afewofthemeye:havingbeen:wheretheyhadnnopportuni:yofhaarinzof

      Ayers says that moving onto a Mission feels like giving up their Native religion

    31. cnewigowawhohavechildrenwillprobablystaytheHummerat-ten@;tqinstructionandsendtheirchildrentoschool

      Ayer says widows with children are more likely to stay and send their kids to school

    32. Thereisbutlittleprospectthatmanyofthemwillbebenefit—todmuchbyvhattheyheariftheycannotbeinducedtosettledown&cultivatethegroun

      Ayer doesn't think Christianization will work unless the bands settle down and cultivate land rather than roaming for most of the year

    33. Onaccountofthoextremencmrcityofnrovinioneherotheycouldnotremainion-er

      the school on the Yellow Lake Mission doesn't have provisions for students to stay long

    34. heywouldretaintheircustoms&habitsIftheGreatSpirithaddeaignadtheyshouldbeinstructedtheywouldhavehadhiawordcommunicatedtothanbefore.."TheGreatSpiritdesignedtheyahouldhaveadifforentreligion&quotnmofromnhoWhites

      This is how Ayers describes the decision of the Ojibwe band to not listen to Christian teachings

    35. erewelefttochooseweshouldpreferhrE.ec‘woarewellacquaintedwithhim,andknowthatourvieweonthesubjectofplinlivingandvarioussubjectsconnect-edwithmissionaryOperationsharmoniz

      Ayer expects Ely to close his Mission near Sandy Lake because not many Natives settle there and requests that Ely be sent to Yellow Lake because he has similar views to the Ayer Mission Family

    36. willbeverydesirableundersuchcircumtttnoeeinourunsettleditetetohaveamolefella:laborrwhoinadditiontoschooltoohingwillsuperintendtheconcorno0hi.Iall]ainstructtheIndia

      Ayer requests another male for the Mission to teach and superintend while he [Ayer] is away

    37. referdenyingour—selveotheuseofthemnodiminishourexpensesandhavemoretobestowupontheneedyIndiana

      the Mission Family decides not to spend money on clothing, tea, coffee, pies, cakes, butter, lard, or fancy dishes in order to give more to "the needy Indians"

    38. Thebilloftrans-portation&provisionsaregreatastheynecessarilymuetbeforafamilysofarintheinteri

      expensive for a Mission Family to live so deep in the region

    39. IhaveoftennoughtdirectidnxoftheLordandampersuadedthatthein-terestofthemissionnonldventuallybemuchpromotedifweshouldobtainthissituation."

      this remark indicates that Ayer is primarily concerned with improving the condition of the Natives through the building of a Mission in this region

    40. emustbuildundergreatdisedventn:oses7:muotbuild,almostwhollyinthewintermetheDrcanhaveFor‘1nve"]nonomenafterthemonthoflarch

      Yellow Lake Mission has to be build almost entirely in the winter because of the availability of men to help build

    41. heIndiansfrequentedthoselakestotakefishmuchmorebeforetheestablishmentofthetradinghouse(3yearseince)thannow.IffishShauldincreasetheIndianscouldbemoreeaeilyinducedtolocateherethannee

      Ojibwe bands around Yellow Lake fish less after trading post is established - higher population of fish could entice them to move into a Mission more now than it has in the past

    42. IthinkImntionedinmyformeroomntheun-dosirablanesaofnavina“lesion‘ttionintheneighbourhoodofatradingbonusona/oofthenoral3'tilonoothatreignsaroundthem

      Ayer does NOT want a mission near a trading post because "of the moral pestilence that reigns around them"

    43. Hewillnotprobablyconsenttoourccoiliogohthe2tSroi~vhoic1ccontemplatedasitisoncollenthunting“£xound,tthIndionskillinginthefallgroatnumhoroofba

      Ayer suspects the Yellow Lake band won't give up land on the St. Croix because it is good hunting ground

    44. S.HalltoDavidGreene,LaPointe,November7,1833

      Hall writes to Greene to tell him what the Mission needs: books, medicine, clothing, shoes