588 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2019
  2. ucc9d37bcb9c001ec3ffeaf8a9d4.previews.dropboxusercontent.com ucc9d37bcb9c001ec3ffeaf8a9d4.previews.dropboxusercontent.com
    1. romourJaintlatteroflaatfallyouwillinfarthatI.th1nkitbest,&desirennberemovadfromthisstationonaccountatSomeprejudicesagainatme,here,inthemindsofacmeoftheBnhnd.-I.stillthinkthegem

      Ely wants to leave Fond du Lac because some of the Board has prejudices against him being there

    2. oreoftheIndianswishtosettledownasisnowantio-ipated,andshonldthe.missionbenomoreinterrupedinitscoursebytheIndianshostilities,threemalemissionariesmightbeveryprofitablyemployedat

      Ayer is misleading in his attempts to appease Greene

    3. oubtlessalltheFamiliesoverwhomanyinfluencehasbeenex~ertedbythemissionwillgo.Thereisbutlittleprospectthateven8or3childrenfromtheFortcouldbegatheredforaschoolastheclerkwilltakehisfamilywithhim;.and,asisnowthecalculation,onebepladedhere,whohasnochildrenforschool.Itisnotneces—saryIpresumetotouchonotherpointshintedatinthejointlet—ter.Brsno

      Ayer says the school at Fond du Lac isn't promising in terms of attendance

    4. Therehavebeann9indianaenoampedherewithén6‘0£‘V'H63k63'&ndnhene»p£obablyJ3ill—beLanaauxiugtn;win$er;to~remainanylanghh___cftime,Th

      no Ojibwe camping near Fond du Lac still

    5. 1gnawedthepaymentatLunest,area:nearitsanmmenwiththeHiasipRive}.nbersUtamareganazalaanzéfaetianthanwasapprehended-—themwagbimettnemerymanab.ahild---theyfellEbertfarthewomen,‘bun”fned§fte¢au6y*wat-madaup~£athoudawTherewasaIargésapply-ofHEmEmjun%n%Qnr&~nbbq

      Missions are still providing for the Ojibwe

    6. IlegitL8Points»13ml“ofAug.&arrivedhereonthe11th¢~£oundnheEndsinaSkate6?unusualexcitemenn,&exasperationagainns[£333thewhiteswhphadcomeintonhecounnryfarthepurpase0fcuttingluMBer

      Boutwell came to Pokegoma from La Pointe and encountered the same mindsets from the Ojibwe

    7. heérspeakerthenreplied"Itistree&wedonotwishyoutoleavethecount

      the Ojibwe understand that if the Missionaries leave the area they will most likely die

    8. AtthistimeaprofessedlyfriéndlyIndtoldmenha$hiscountrymenhadbeenholdingacoEulneil&hadasterminedtadriveallthewhites£30mthepumehasedtémriboxythattheyweregoing£0killallcuraéntle&ifwewerestillherewhenthayhadkilled&eatenthemnhey[woulalkillusgMéantimetheywereinsistentintheexitemetheydiénotintendtoenterourhousewithouttheirdrawnknives0rwaralubsinnheirhands&snillcentinuednebagforfood.

      Seymour says a Native told him that they were planning on driving the white people out of the land

    9. nhattheyhadanindisputableclaimheourpity,

      Seymour thinks that the Natives think that they have a right to Christian pity

    10. eshouldnotbesurprizedifthedisaffectedstateoffeelingamongtheIndiansshouldsoincreasethatitwouldheunadtisaiietoreestablishatLeechLake,buteventoabandonPokegc

      It sounds like Ayer and Ely want to be done

    11. heAm.FurCoareabouttoreestablishatradinghouseatL.LakeinchargeofMrWmDavenport,formerlyincharg

      AFC is about to open trade port at Leech Lake

    12. twastheopinionoftheBrethren,lastspring,thatLeechLakewasamorehopefulfieldthanthisplace&thatideahasbeforethemthatitmightbeexpedienttodiscontinuethis,&reoccupythatsta—tion.B

      Leech Lake is more hopeful than Fond du Lac

    13. derallthesecircumstances,thequestionisseriouslypre—sentedtoourmindswhetherweareSpendingourstrengthtothebestedVentageinsinencingtheKingdomofchri

      Ayer is questioning whether or not the Board is wise to continue operating at Fond du Lac

    14. SomelatemeasuresoftheAmFurCaAtoEiewallthemeetineustriousandenterprisingiggmhereanddrewethersaw

      AFC is affecting population surrounding the missions

    15. rejudicesagainstusasAmericanshaveverymuchin,creasedandstrengthenedsincetheTr

      prejudices against the white people elevated after the treaty

    16. heschonlsinceitsestablishmenthasbeenmadeupprincipal—lyofhalfbreedCatholicchildrenconnectedwiththeTradingho

      School at Fond du Lac is primarily used by "half breed Catholic" children

    17. MrEhearingitfrequentlyrepeatedhydifferentindividualsthathisrighttore

      Ely might be forced out

    18. incipallyagriculturaltools,asanequivalent.Theypreferringprovisions,Mt_EgavethemaBarrelofFlourandsomethinginadditio

      Ojibwe prefer provisions

    19. WitnessingthesecasesandalsotheoneofthefirstChiefwhoprofessedfore'timetobeaProtestantChristian,butwithinayearturnedagainasthe"Dogtohisvomit"theIndianssuspectthehis—sionariesofsinistermotivesinattemptingtoconvertthemtothe_whitemansreligion,whichtheyimagineismadeupofforms

      Ayer says the Natives are skeptical of Christianity

    20. hehostilityandindifferenceoftheIndianstotheGospe

      Ayer is losing hope

    21. FormorethanayearpastIhavethoughtthatthefundsoftheBoardweremisappliedinsupportingamissionatthisplaceAf—tersomemonthsresidencehereIamfullysatisfiedofthefact.myreasonsImayprobablystateinasubsequentlette

      Ayer basically says that the Board is wasting their money at Fond du Lac

    22. etholioismisdyingout.ThePriestvisitedherethelastsummerprobablyforthelasttime.AchiefhereinwhomthePriesthadplacedgreatconfidenceshookoffhisallegienceandreturnedtoPaganism.Sincemy

      Ayer says "Catholicism is dying out"

    23. eyshot,stabbed,soalpeditd0.AChiefandhisbandfromMillsLac,2or5daysmarchfromP.requestedMrS.thatifheleftP.theMissionarieswould"stepovertotheirh

      Mr. Seymour is threatened at Millie Lac

    24. isexcitedtoahighdegreetheangeroftheSiouxwhothreatenedtotakevengeanceontheChippewayswherevertheycouldfindthemAsPokegomawas'theirnearestpointofattacktheyweredaily(forsomeweeks,)expectedthere.TheSpiritorherseemedtohavetakenentirepossessionofthem.neanwhiletheyassenbledtoaconsiderablenumbernearourhousetoholda.ned1cineDanceforthebenefitofawomanwhohadburnther—selfinash§kingmannerwithpowder'AfterbeingthereafewdaystheyheldtheirDance.TheynowshowedtheiranimositytowardthePrayingIndiansthoseespeciallywhohadrecentlyrenouncedthemiteui.‘A-pertofth

      Chippeway murder 13 Sioux, and Sioux seek revenge

    25. hetheIndiansgenerallyappearedtogrowmoredisaffectedtowardourGertforrealorimaginarywrongs,yettheyhadasyetshownnohostilefeelingsinparticulartowar

      Ayer notes that the Natives are growing more and more hostile toward the US government

    26. obligedtobeabsentfromPokegom

      lack of resources caused most of the Ojibwe around Pokegoma to relocate for winter

    27. 10nothavebeen,butfortheconfidentempectationthatweshouldhavebeensustainedbymorelabourers.Weought,atleastsomeofus,tohavebeensofreefromotherengagements,thatwecouldhavemadeitourfirst,andalmostexclusiveobjecttoacquiretheOjibwalan—guageasperfectlyaspossible.Butinsteadoffindingtimeforthisweallfoundourselvesinvolvedincaresandlaboursofvariouskinds,whichforbadourgivingourundividedattentiontothisobject.Henceourmeansofintercoursewiththepeeplehasbeenlimited.Wehaveneverbeenabletoprocureefficientinterpreters.Wehavebeenwork—ingh

      Hall feels like the missionaries jumped into everything too soon, or bit off more than they could ever chew

    28. heWantoffundshasbeenanothersourceofseveretrial,espec—iallyatPokegomaduringthepastyear

      money is an issue, especially at Pokegoma

    29. omeofmybrethren,Ifear,aregettingdiscouraged.R

      Hall thinks some of the missionaries are getting discouraged at the mission

    30. uttheycarelittleforamission-'ary,unlesshewillfeedandclothethem

      according to Hall, natives see traders as good and missionaries as bad unless the missionaries will provide for them

    31. Possessingthischar—acter,theydonotregardtheobjectforwhichweresideamongthemasanythingverydesirable.T

      Hall does not think much of them

    32. enerallyatthisplacetheyfeedandclothesthemselvesfarbetterthantheydidwhenIfirstknewthem.ButgenerallytheIndiansmanifestveryA“littledesiretoimprovetheircondition,aswretchedasitis

      Hall says the Natives are more willing to "work" but still "don't want to improve their lives"

    33. ostofthemregardworkasdegradingandafitemploymentonlyforwomenandslaves

      according to Hall, most male Ojibwe see labor as a female or slave task

    34. changetheirmodeoflifewouldbevirtuallytochangetheirreligion.T

      that is literally what it is

    35. tFondduLacalsothingsatpresentwearadiscouragingas

      also not great at Fond du Lac according to Hall

    36. tPokegumathingshavewornaverydiscouragingaSpectduringthepastsummer.TheIndianshavekilledseveralofthecattlebe-longingtothemissionandhavecommittedotherdepredati

      rough relations at Pokegoma

    37. heCatholicsatthisplacearebecomingconsiderablenumerous,andaredoingwhattheycantodrawsoulsintothevortexoftheirer—ror.TheCanadiansandhalf-breedsofCanadiandescentareofcourseRomanCatholic

      stronger catholic presence at La Pointe

    38. isexamplehasdonemuchtoprejudicethemindsofthepeopleagainstvitalpiet

      Warren is a bad influence on the Natives at La Pointe

    39. Weareatpresentthrongedwithcompany,governmentbeingaboutmakingatreatywiththeseIndiansforalargetractoflandlyingsouthofus.MorethantwothousandIndiansarepresen

      more than 2000 Natives are present for the land treaty

    40. rs.HallhasabeautifullittlebabebornthelastofJan,atthebirthofwhichshehadonlyMr.H.andmyselfasassistants,hebeingmidwife&Inurse,soyouseethatIhavegottenintoanentirelynewbusiness.Mrs.H.isveryfeebleandhasbeensoeversinceherconnneme

      Mrs. Hall gave birth in January and is still "feeble"

    41. twasabeggingdance,theywerehungryandaskedforsomethingtoeat.Mr.Hallgavethemaverylittleatthesmallnessofthewhichtheylaugheda

      the "scary" appearance of the Natives was a begging dance

    42. NotfeelinganydangerIwaspleasedwithmyride,excitedwithlaughter,whilethosethatwepassedlookedoninastonishment

      She isn't afraid of social perception

    43. Wehavehadratherofastillwintertherebeingnoin~dians,butourownband,nearus.Butthisplaceisfastnllingwithindiansfromtheinteriorforthereistobeheldatreatywiththemforlan

      There weren't many Natives during the winter, but there are more now because of the Treaty

    44. still-born.

      Mills had a stillbirth

    45. TomorrowIgointotheschooltoassistmyhus-bandinteachingthesmallerclass

      Mills helps Sproat in the classroom

    46. oyouseeIhavenotescaped,eventhisyearourspring,dreadedwor

      Mills is in charge of all the household affairs basically

    47. OurfamilyisnowenlargedbyMr.[EdmundF.]ElyandMr.Air[FrederickAyer]andson,whoarestayingwithusaweekorso,theyappeartobejustmenwalkinginthefearoftheLor

      Ely and Ayer visit Mills and Sproat

    48. heschoolisinteresting,butourbrethrenatPokegamaandFonduLacaretriedverymuchbythehostilityoftheindians,theyarebeginningtobestirred.bythestoryoftheoppres-sionoftheirsouthernbrethrenwhichhasreachedthem,theyarebeginningtofeelthatthewhitemenwilloppressthemasmuchastheycan,andareafraidthatgovernmenthassentthemissionariestoFavourtheirdesigns.TheCherokeeshavesentwampumtoseveralofthenortherntribestojointhemainsttheAmericanssoinsteadoflisteningtotheWordeirmindsareontheunjustnessesofthewhitemen.Ourbandhavenotyetbeenthusexcited.Ihopeitwillbealongtimebeforetheywill.Werewetolookuponthesemis-sionswiththeeyeofsense,weshouldbeentirelydiscouraged,buttheeyeoffaithdiscernsinthedistancetheredmanofthewildernessbendingthekneetotheonetrueGod;to18.-bourforthisendwemusthavefaithandpatienc

      Mills has a really good understanding of the mission situation in relationship to the government

    49. V‘ithregardtosuccessofthemissions,Mr.I‘Iall5wassayinga.fewdayssincethathehasnever,sincehehasbeeninthecountry,seenthetimewhenthingsappearedmorenat-teringthantheydonow,ortheindiansmorefriendly

      Mills says Hall is impressed by the success of missions

    50. Ihavegivenmyselftotheheathen.Iam.willingtostaywiththemifIcandothemanygo

      Hall claims to have "given" himself "to the heathen"

    51. .Yousayyourhusbandisnotpious.Rememberthenyourresponsibility.S

      Hall tells his sister that it is her duty to make her husband pious

    52. Iamhappytolearnthatyouaresohappilysituatedastodomesticenjoyment.Idonotdoubtthatitcontributesmuchtoyourhappinesstohaveahomeandfamilyofyourown

      Hall assumes his sister is happy because she has family now

    53. WehaveassociatedwithusnowMrSproat&hisw

      Hall and Sproat are working together

    54. Everythingthatcanbepurchasedatall,isprocuredatanexpensedoublethatforwhichitcanbeprocuredwithyo

      provisions are expensive out there in the wild west

    55. hefollowingarethereasonsforcontinuingFond.duLa

      Reasons for staying at Fond du Lac

      • property
      • agriculture
      • school
      • less Catholicism than in past
    56. Iwillonlyadd,thatinleavingL.LakeIleftmygarden&houseinthecareoftheC

      Boutwell left things in the charge of the Chief at Leech Lake

    57. eInds.bythetreatyhavebeendis—0;—concerted,perplexed&seemtohavelostallenerquenterpriseinhuntingasformerl

      retrogression in Natives returning to missions after the treaty

    58. WithregardtoL.Lakeweallwereoftheopinion,thatitismoreimportantinanultimatepointofview,thanFondduLa

      Why Leech Lake is better to occupy than Fond du Lac

    59. WewereunanimousinourviewswithregardtoreoccupyingLeechLake&inabandoningFondduLacincasetheBoardcannotsustainboth.Todowhichrequirestwo

      Boutwell, Ayer, and Ely are all in agreement that if finances are bad, they should reoccupy Leech Lake and abandon Fond du Lac

    60. r5-teachers,thoughtheyupsetallcornersoftheIndiancoun-trywithlargebribesandrichpresents,havenotbeenabletoerectasizablemissionanywhereamongtheIndia

      reasons why Protestants haven't been able to establish a lasting mission in the NW

    61. cantruthfullyassertthattheIndiansareaphlegmatic,good-natured,unusuallypatientanddocilerace,whoarecapableofgoodimpulsesandwhointheiroriginalwildcon-dition,whentheyareawayfromtheevilworld,donotliveinawickedanddissolutemanner;theylistentoavisitingpriestwithadesireforknowledge;theygladlyacceptre-ligionandallowthemselvestobeeducatedasgoodandtrueChristians.Ontheotherhand,whereverthepoorIndianshavebeencontaminatedbygrossvicesof.whiteChristians,orhavebeenruinedthroughdrinkandmisledintofalseconcep-tionsofourholyreligionbyitsenemies,theybecomemuchmorestubborntoconversionandciviliz

      Pierz notes that the Ojibwe are shocker actually people,and get corrupted by white vices, like alcohol

    62. nArbreCrochehehasmadehundredsofsuchexcellentChristiansoutofthecoarsestsavagesthat,asfarasIknowthempersonally,theycouldbeplacedbeforeallChristendomasanexampleofpiety.

      Pierz reveres Baraga

    63. Iintendtoerectanewmissionther

      Pierz wants to start a new mission, when personnel is already short

    64. journeyshewishestheBoardto

      Cooke wants the Board to pay for her travels back into "society" - I'm not sure she mentioned this in previous letters to Greene

    65. earenotabandoningLeechLakeforgood,buthopetoresumeitagain.WeareunderthenecessityofleavirgoneofourstationsforthepresentormaintainthematthedisadvantageofmyremainingaloneatL[eech]Lake&MrElyatFduLac

      Boutwell tells Sibley that Leech Lake isn't abandoned long term

    66. Catholiccongregationhereisverynumerous

      Strong Catholic presence at La Pointe

    67. ouwillbealittlesurpriedwhenItellyouMrElyslittlegirlafewdaysagowastakenoutofthecreekfrdead.Theyworkedseveralhoursbeforeshediscoveredanywarmthinhrbody&hardlyanysymptomsofanimation.ImentionthisthatyoumaydoubleyourwatchfulnessoverlittleJulia

      Boutwell tell Aitkin that Ely's daughter nearly drowned

    68. orthpresentembarrassedstateofthetreasury,whichislittle,ifatallrelievedfromtepressurefeltlastsummer,wouldnotwarranttheCommitteeinsendingoutayadditionalmissionaries,unlessthecallinProvidencewasverypec

      the Board won't send out anymore missionaries until they get their financial situation in check

    69. eshallleaveitforhim&hisbrethrentodecid

      Greene tells Ely that Boutwell will decide where to stay for the next year

    70. ndiansshallbequiteexterminat

      he is preparing for the extermination of the Natives

    71. hereality‘ofevilwillcomesoonenough,andinthemeantimewemustdowhatwecantosavetheIndians,&preparethemtobeartheapproachingevilwithlessinjuryorsufferin

      it's almost as if he is saying to prepare the Ojibwe for a cultural genocide

    72. owever,ifhecancomewithoutexpensetotheBoard,canbekeptunderyoureye,andcangobackwithoutbeingheldupmuchforashow,Ithinkweshallnotobjecttohis

      But as long as the Chief of Leech Lake is Boutwell's problem, Greene is fine with him traveling with him

    73. wouldprobablyoccasionsometalk,perhapsunfavorabletotheinterestsoftheBoard,ifyoushouldbeseentravellingacrossthecountrywithanIndi

      this is so hypocritical - "civilize" them, but don't let them be seen with you because they will always be inferior

    74. YourrequestrelativetovisitingNewEnglandwaslaidbeforetheCommittee,andtheyassentedtoyourproposal.ShouldyoucometoNewHaMpshire,weshallexpectyouofcoursetovisitBoston,asweshallwishtoconferwithyouonsometopicscogéntedwiththemissio

      Greene and the Board let Boutwell vacation in New England

    75. itwillbebest,probably,foryoutousethatforpayingallyourexpensesonyourway,tillitisexpanded,andpostponere-'oeivinganyonaccountoftheBoard,tillyouactuallynee

      Greene advises Sproat to use his own money until he runs out, and only then to use the Board's money

    76. GreenetoSproat,Jan27‘“,Boston,18

      Greene leaves it up to Sproat to decide if the womyn from his hometown should be his missionary wife

    77. ThefollowinghoweverIthinkoughttonbe]possessedinsomegoodde-greebyeverymissionaryandmissionary'srifeamongtheheathen,judgingfromthelittleexperienceIhavehadamongourIndianmis-eione

      Sproat describes what he feels are the qualities necessary for missionaries

    78. ahaysbeensomanhabafflizatedth13.seaéonbysickn

      Fond du Lac has sickness

    79. Wefeelmorethaneverthewantofanordainedmini

      Ayer wants Pokegoma to have an ordained minister

    80. ncreoeverhereare5familiessettledbyuschemwe5333helpinagricultur

      Ayer argues that Pokegoma deserves a higher ration of money because they have more missionaries and more natives that need help with agriculture

    81. ButGodhasseenfittoblesstheworkofour,handaherefromthebeginnin

      Ayer suggests that Pokegoma is the most comfortable and successful of all the Missions

    82. tin"nowornever“asitregardstheprosperityofthishis?eio

      Ayer says it is "now or never" in regards to the success of Pokegoma

    83. 3darenotcommitourselves,inmakingSpecialpremisestoassistthem.Todarenotturnthemawa

      Ayer is conflicted because he doesn't want to turn any natives away, but he hasn't the resources to help them

    84. ThenumberofIndiansdenominatedbythehogan_“PrayingIndian?is17adultsandaboutasmanychildren.Thereare8meu.and9women.Threeofthemenareunitedwiththechurchoa~wethinkthatanotherisachristian.Also3womenTwootheryoungwomenentertainhopesbutwehavenotsufficientevidenceoftheinternalteachingoftheSpirittoencouragethemtoh

      numbers for the church at Pokegoma

    85. herselfwithherchildrenamongthosewhowereseekingafterGod".Shedesiredthepardonofhersine,andtheoins¢ofherchildrenmorethananythingelse.Inaccordancewithouradviceonherreturnhomesherearedthefamilyaltar,andeversincemorning&eveninghasbeenheardthevoiceofprayer&praiseinherdwelling.SheappearsverydesirousthatherPaganrelativesshouldcomeandlistentothewordofGo

      one Native mother wants to convert herself and her children

    86. versincethelittlerevivalweenjoyedlastwintertherehasbeenmarkedatientiontoinstructionandtheseriousimpressionsthanmadeonsomeminds.hsvsneveraltogethersubsided—«butwehopein2or3oaseshaveresultedinconversio

      Ayer says Pokegoma is enjoying some conversion "success"

    87. hysicalAspectofthegounu'y.Thisplace&theimmediateVicinityoffersveryfewinducementtoAgriculralists.Smallspotsofexcellentalluviallandaretobefoundhere,butnotsufnienttolocateanynumberoffamilies.Thereisgoodlandalso—a[t]variousdistncesintheVicinity.ASIhavetraveledverylittleinthesurroundingcountry,it'11notbeexpectedofmetoattemptadescriptio

      the land is good for several people to farm, but not for whole communities

    88. Theprejudiceagotherwise.ItisinsistedthatsomesecretmotivefordoingformerwordsconceringourmgMen,2Boys,4YoungWomen,7dnggoodprogress,consideringhichinallcaseshasbeenveryfewdaysintheschool—thenonsentSchoolarestudyingbothOjibue&English.Youngmenmadesomepronciency,r,inthetwonrstprinciplesofspectsforusefulnessaredarkerthanheretoforethey.ainstusasAmericansisincreasingratherthanwearesentherebyGovernment,&thatGovthavegso

      Ely tells Bushnell that favor toward the Whites in Ojibwe country isn't favorable

    89. TeacherPupi

      Ely explains attendance to Daniel Bushnell, Indian Agent

    90. IquestionmuchwhetheritismydutytoreturntoLaPointet

      Sproat isn't sure he wants to return to La Pointe

    91. Thethoughthasoccurredtomethatsixmonthsspentinthestudyofmedicine,withsomeablepractitioner,wouldbeofgreaterservicetomeasamissionarythananyothercoursewhichIcouldpursue.Willyoupleasewriteandinformmehowtheplanpresentsitselftoyou,andifyouthinkthattherewouldbeanobjectio

      Sproat "agrees" with Greene that he would do well at La Pointe, but then "offers" that perhaps he would be more useful longterm if he studied in New England over the winter

    92. MissCoo

      Even though miss cooke has been released, she doesn't know and so she stays there

    93. uttheproposalwasrejected,andtheyreplied,thattheywishedtoreceivetheoompeneationfortheirlands,insomethingtheycouldeatorwear.This19thegeneralfeelingthroughoutthecountryinrespecttoimprovementsofallkin

      the Natives don't like the treaty and want compensation for land in the form of clothing and food

    94. hestateofreligionherethepastyearhasbeenlow.

      Low religious prosperity at La Pointe

    95. argeafamilyoughttobesupportedhereunderthepresentembarrassmentsoftheBoard.IftheembarrassmenteoftheBoardarelikelytobesogreatfromthewantoffunds,thattheeemissionsmustbecometoocircumscribedintheirexpen

      Hall tells the Board that if they are broke enough to be embarrassed, to not send more help

    96. educethenumberoflabourers

      It is ironic that Hall mentions this since all the missionaries have been asking for female help

    97. ManuscriptsRelatingtotheFrederickAyertoPresidAttherequestoftheChiefsVIpenned,andnowforwardiShouldyousir,astheyhavesubjectoftheforegoingspeecommunicationtoF.Ayer,IUpperMississippieItisbutrecentlythatIhavebodyregrettedthesaleofthopinionasfarasIamacquacompensationfortheland—thosechiefswhocededthelbymanyIndianswhodid—woulddisputetheClaimoftsupposedclosedtheirspeeclcalculatedtointimidateIto]toholdtheirheadsalthoughrequestsandholdtheland.theirpovertyandmiseryto]considertheircaseandwoNorthwestMissionsP489.entoftheUSASeptember301837Pokegamawhosenamesareappendedtotheforegoingspeeches,:hemforyournotice.requestedinformthembyletterofyourviewsonthe-chesyouwill(ifitisyourpleasure)addressthe’uhkahummahcareofH.H.SibleyEsqStPeterslearnedfromtheIndiansthemselvesthattheyasaairlandbytherecentTreaty

      Ayer tells the president that the Natives regretted "giving" their land up in the treaty

    98. henthewhitescomeamonguéwherewillourChildiengo

      primary concern of Buffaloe is there children

    99. IquestionmuchwhetheritismydutytoreturntoLaPointethis

      Sproat tells Greene he's not sure he should return to La Pointe

    100. MrBoutwellwritesmefromFondduLac,thathehasdeterminedtoleavehisfamilytherewhilehegoeshimselftoLeechLaketoseetheIndiansthere,andtakecareofthepropertyhehasthere,andthenwillreturntoFduLtospendthewinter

      Boutwell is going to leave his family at Fond du Lac while he travels to Leech Lake

    101. snotcarrieaintoeffect-onthecontrarytheclerksaresentbacktoallthepostssaveone-RedCedarLakewherehissonwaskill

      Aitkins didn't remove the AFC, just the one post near Red Cedar Lake

    102. ThetimehasnowcomeIthinkforourMissionstodeclarethem—selvesindipendentoftheh.M.F.Compan

      Seymour suggests to Greene that the missions severe connection to the American Fur Company

    103. ug-13[1837

      Boutwell's son is baptized Ramsey Crooks

    104. SHalltoDavidGreene,LaPointe

      Hall apologizes to Greene for sending Sproat to look for help because the Board is so broke

    105. Bro.Elysooncametoseemen,andinformedmethatbothourlittleonesareillwithcoughandso;ethroat.Ifoundthemquiteill,especiallydearAntoinett

      Boutwell and Ely's children are ill

    106. heywillgrantit.

      Greene grants Cooke permission to leave missionary work

    107. Determinedthatthebestandmostefficientwayformetodogoodamongthispeoplewasbyitineratingamongthem,asIhavedonefor4weekspast,enteringintotheirhuts,sittingdownamongthem,instructingtheirchildren,andendeavouringtoimparttothemthewordofLife,asGodshallenable

      best mode of Christianization for Sproat is to visit all the Natives as individuals, rather than calling them together

    108. uringthenightIhadsucharavishingviewofthegloryofGodinChristthatIcouldnotsleep.Icouldonlylookupthroughtheholeatthetopofmybutandsin

      Sproat is extremely religious

    109. enttovisitasickchild.FounditinsasufferingconditionaNoclothessaveamiserableblanketthrownoveritsshoulders;itsbreastandlimbsexposed.Itappearedtobeverymuchafflictedinitslimbs,itshandsandfeetbeingpartiallywithere

      Sproat visits a sick child

    110. llappearedgladtoseeme,andwillingtohavetheirchildreninstructed.O

      Sproat finds that most of the Natives at Sugar Bush are okay with their children being educated at a school

    111. mbarkedwithMr.Aitkinf1:SandyLake,toaccompanyhimtoSaintPeter'stoattendtheTreaty.LeftmydearfamilyatFondduLacwithBr

      Boutwell and Aitkin travel to Sandy Lake for a treaty

    112. rrivedatFondduLa

      Boutwell arrives at Fond du Lac (for permanent placement)

    113. erhapstheywillnotjustifytheexponceI'havc’imrggdymade.IsometimestremolowhenIthinkofitbutnruamiiihavc‘errcdyouwillpardontheerror&be-lievemestil

      Seymour is worried he spent more of the Board's money than he should have

    114. TheypassedaresolutionwhiletogetheratPokegomsthatonmyvisittotheStatesImakeitaspecialobjecttohiresor4piousyoungmenforthetermoz3.4or5yearstolaborforareasonablecompensationatthevariousstationsinthatregi

      Seymour left to Connecticut and Ohio, was ill, and also looked for 3 - 4 pious people to work at the missions

    115. theywerenotunderthenecessityoftakingtheirfamilieswiththemtosubsistupontheChaseastheyfor-merlyhaddon

      because of an increase in long term agriculture, men spending fall and winter hunting is not necessary, but done almost out of habit according to Ayer

    116. Idonotwish,norshouldIbCyanymeansfeelwillingtotakesuchastep,unlesstheindicationsofProvidenceshouldseemclearlytorenderitadvisable

      Cooke really wants to quit from all connection with the Board

    117. IfeartheeepoorIndianawillnotverymuchlongerbe-leftundisturbedinpossessionoftheircountry.Whatwedofortheirsalvation,inhumen.probabilltymustbedoneso

      Ayer can see the influx of White people and understands that soon no land with belong to the Natives

    118. naformerletterImentionedthsfEeasy-ourInnerprcterwishedtobeconsideredasandesistennhiseionary.Recenteventsrelatingtohiswifeandherconnexionsrendereditexpedienhthatheshoulddissolvehisimmeddeneconnictionwiththe-Missionandsettledownb

      Henry (Ayer's interpreter) had to leave suddenly and Ayer is left alone for preaching and all other affairs

    119. Weverymeshneedheiean-erdainedministertobreakthebreadoflife,andadministertne.ozdinanoeetothispeople

      while things are going very well at Pokegoma, Ayer still desires a preacher

    120. Hehasabandonedeveryheathenishpracticeisbecomingmoreandmoreassimilatedin_custometousisindustriousandthriveing.ThegradeofGodhasmadehimaltogetheraneg

      the new chief of the Natives surrounding Pokegoma has converted to Christianity

    121. heChangeintheChiefistrulywonderfu

      Change in the Chief was big for the mission

    122. FromthismomenttheworkofGodgrahnally‘deolined—

      Ayer feels as though God's presence surrounding Pokegoma has declined the new year

    123. WilliamTBoutwellPapers,MNHS.1Box.P2528M

      Boutwell departs for Sandy Lake with his whole family and a 2 week old baby

    124. remainYaursaffectionately&truly

      This is one of the only letters he signs without a Christian ending

    125. till,ifitberepenition,wewishtolearnhowyouare;&‘whan‘yeuaredeing.&wheegraeheetearebeforeyoutocheerordepressyen:heart.Yenneednen:efhenwritefully,orgointoanyexee£;deta;leAsummaryViewcfyeqrileboreintheseveraldepartmenteandthegeneralprogressofnhinge-ieallthanisnecessary;exceptbeéeayear,whenwewantafull'reportgunlegeyouhavecommunicationenemakewhicharecalledferhhbyeventsofspecialintere

      Greene wants Hall to write more about the affairs of the Mission

    126. itinwellforthemissionthathaleavesit,whileitwouldatthesametimemakenofearthathewouldoftenwhar~everhemaybelocated,speakinanunaavioedandunfriendlyman»norofhisbrethrenandofthemissio

      Greene is okay with Town leaving La Pointe

    127. ove&pitythemiserablecreatures,how.everhostiLa&unreasonabletheymay[be].

      Greene tells Boutwell to love and pity the Natives

    128. tomothatyouhadbetterremovetooneofthosestationsandtakeupyourabo

      Greene lists reasons why Boutwell should relocate

    129. greateratPokegummathanatFonduLac

      Greene suggests that Boutwell relocate to Pokegoma or Fond du Lac

    130. acceptsherresignati

      Miss Cooke resigns

    131. hewholecountryseemstobebankrup

      really pointed statement by Greene here: "The whole country seems to be bankrupt."

    132. ftheIndianscontinuetoharasshimasmuchastheyhavedoneatLeechLake,itseemstomebestthatheshould,thecomingfall,joinyouandmakehishometherefortheprese

      Greene suggests sending Boutwell to Ayer because the Natives are harassing him at Leech Lake

    133. bout4.pm.mywifepresentedmewithann

      Mrs. Boutwell gave birth to a son

    134. MrSproatwhohasthechargeoftheschool,hasnointention,sofarasIknow,ofbeingmarried.Hadheawife,Iwouldnotaskforanyotheraidinthepresentscarcityof

      Hall wants Sproat to get married

    135. ytimeggghttg_b§.whollydevotedtogivingreligiousinstruction,translating,andperfectingmyselfintheknowledgeofthenativelanguage,togetherwithcollectingmatarialsforavocabularyandgrammarofit

      Hall's opinion is that he is wasting his own time doing manual labor and not preaching

    136. heformerrendershimlesstobedependedonthanisdesirable;hislackofjudgmentexposeshimtosomeindiscretions;andhisweaknervesexposehimtodisquietudeanddiscontentmentwhichabridgeshisenjoyment,andsometimesrendersthoseunhappywhoareassociatedwithh

      Town's negative characteristics

    137. ThecomplaintwhichIhavemostfrequentlyheardhimmakeagainstthepresentplanofoperationshere,is,thatthetimeofthemissionariesistoomuchoccupiedinmanuallabourandinprovidingfortheirfamili

      Town's chief complaint is too much manual labor

    138. vemelesstimetodevouttodirectlaboursfortheIndiansthanIcouldwish.IhavesaidtohimallIthoughtwouldbeofanyuse,toinducehimtostayandlabourinthesemissions,wherehemightrenderessentialservice.Butifhismind-couldnotberenderedmoresettledinregardtoremaining,thanithasbeenforseveralmonthspast,hewouldrenderusbutlittleaidbyremainingwithus

      Hall tried to convince Town to stay so that Hall's workload wasn't crazy, but no dice

    139. ewasdesiroustoleavethusearly,inordertoestablishhimselfinsomekindofbusiness,andprocurethemeanstomakehisfamilyocomfortablebeforeanotherwinte

      Mr. Town left La Pointe to start a business and his wife will join him soon

    140. heAmer.FurCo.haveitincontemplationtoabandontheirtradingpostsinthosequarters.Iftheydo,itissomewhatdoub[t]fulwhetheritwillbesafeforamissionfamilytoattempttoresideatL[eech]Lakeatpresent.TheIndianswillbesomewhatexasperatedifthetradersWithdraw.Bythelatestintelligencefromthatquarter,welearntthattheexcitementhassomewhatsubside

      Hall also informs Greene about the situation at Red Cedar Lake (Boutwell said it was Sandy Lake?) but says that it seems to have calmed down

    141. rsGamagebringsyouthis.Shestillfeels,Ibelieve,astrongdispositiontogooutwithus.Ihaveendeavouredfaithfullyandplainlytorepresenttoherthetrialsandtoilsofmissionarylife,asfarasIknow.Butsheisnotatalldisinheartened[sic

      Mrs. Gamage wants to join the missionaries, but Sproat has tried to convince her not to

    142. IshallstandmygrounduntilIseetheprovclearlyindicatesthatIshouldremove.Iknownotwhatthefuturewilldevelop.

      Boutwell is scared of another attack, but resolves to stay on

    143. isdeterminedtowithdrawallthepostswestofSLak

      Aitkins wants to withdraw all posts west of Sandy Lake, which greatly worries Boutwell

    144. tthetimeofthemelancholly[sic]occurrenceMrA.wasabsentfromthecountry.Hereturnedtohispost(SandyLake)onthenrstofJan.&ontheeightharrivedherewithapartyofmeninpursuitofthemurdere

      Aitkins oldest son was murdered, and he went out with a party for the killer

    145. AlthoughI.amnotChiaf,yetI.awrightfulowneroftheland.-(liecannot:sellthelanci,wewilllandittoyou)Youcanamenygurhouseonthepointwhereyounowl

      Nindipen says Ely can build on land at Fond du Lac

    146. whoarebutlittlebetterinformedthan.the.India

      The Catholics around Fond du Lac are comparable to the Natives, according to Ely

    147. IhOpayouhavebeforethistimereceivedtheManuscriptofLuke'sGospelwhichIsentlastfall.IftheBoardseefittoprintit,Ihopegreatcarewillbetakentomakeitascorrectasposs

      Hall sent a manuscript to the Board

    148. esaidhewoulddoit,iftheyshouldbethereinseason.Theyshiptheirgoodsaboutthe10thMay.

      Hall says that Greene can send goods to the Mission through the American Fur Company

    149. aosit——ChiefofthisBand,agedabout50yrs,&WilliamTalcott(namedfromW.H.TalcottofAlbany)agedabout21

      Masosit and William Talcott were Christianized

    150. WearebutMissCook,hrs.Ely,self&littleDaughter.Howlonr3138Cookwillremainisuncertain

      Miss Cooke is still at Fond du Lac

    151. tisthepolicyoftheCo.tokeeneverygoodmanindebt,forthentheyholdthemintheirpow

      The Company tries to keep people in debt

    152. .will,as

      Ely is not requesting transfer yet

    153. WerecdonSat.Evelast,thedistressingintelligenceoftheMurderofMr.AitkinseldestSonAlfred

      Mr. Aitkin's son is murdered

    154. YouwishmetoshowcharitytotheIndians——DoyouexpectmetofeedeveryManwhoasksproviéionsofme——or——thosewhocomeininthewinter,indistress-—evenasweheredonethepastWinter?He_repliedthe[?MS.torn]latter.Afterthetalk,I.invitedthemhomewithme,&tookanritingineffect,asabove,whichN.signed&'E.witnesse

      Ely's conversation with Natives around Fond du Lac

    155. Wedonothateyou--wehatethosewhosentyouhere

      Natives at Fon du Lac not highly receptive to missionary presence

    156. Ourcookingroomwas8by10infrontofchimney.ThiswasalsoourSchoolroo

      Mission at Fond du Lac is very tiny

    157. butclothingisbetterthanalmostanythingelsetopaythelabourwehavetohire.

      new clothing is the best payment method for Native labor

    1. IeXpecttohavenodifficultyingettingthroughwith8CanoestoRedLak

      Ayer is heading back to Red Lake

    2. GrandPortag

      Ayer is now writing from Grand Portage

    3. heythereforelookedtotheirfarmertoplowforthem&nngnishseedatotheheaohertheylookedtoinstructtheirohildxen;ThisisthepresentpositionofthingsatPokegana—-peacezgragrtheyassuxedustheywoulddome,fortifythamselvea&plantm

      promise of 30-40 Native families at Pokegoma in the Spring

    4. WeallfeelthatbothLeechLakeandRedLakegg§§_beoccupiedimmodalate

      all the current missionaries want Leech Lake and Red Lake occupied immediately

    5. hereseemstobeamovementonthemindsoftheOjibsssgenerallyinfavourofbeinginstructed

      Ojibwe appear as desiring Christianization

    6. lloLacisalsoaninvitingfield,exceptasitisexposedtoattacksfromtheSfijou

      Mille Lac has a strong Sioux presence

    7. ohelpcan.uoll»bo39paxodatpresentfrouLayointotofoxmanewstation.Theno.iaao’uuchtobedonetharokaiaoreaontasthemia¢aionaricacanwelldo,includingtheireffornsinpreparingbooksforprinting.Thereismoreencouragementtolabourtherenowthanatal»mostanytimesincetheetanionwa

      Seems to suggest that these proposed new missions will need an entirely new set of people, because all the current missions require too much work

    8. tRedLakeandLeechLake,asitseemstousaretwoveryinvit-ingfieldsoflabour.

      Red Lake and Leech Lake are promising for missions

    9. havedenelookingforhisreturn,andthinkhehasleftusaltogeth

      has Boutwell left altogether?

    10. hilenreA.etaid.a£ln£d.bake.heheldmeetingsseveraltimes.with.the‘indianeghfwhichtimeehepreachedtoaaeheidereblenumberofattentiveligfenene.~IheIndianatherewerewillingtoallowmisaaionarieeasmuehlandaseeuldbenecesearyfez~thehto

      Red Lake Band was receptive to the mission and the gospel

    11. henumberofIndiansbelongingtothebandisaboutonehundredhuntingmen,andfrom500to600womenandchild

      Red Lake Ojibwe Band: 100 men, 500-600 womyn and children

    12. heyvisitedLeechLakeandRedLakeandotherplacesontheway,toascertainwhataretheprospectsinthatregionformissionaryOperation

      Ayer visited Red Lake and Leech Lake to access them for missions again

    13. lyfemalethatisa515,byinacond

      Mrs. Wheeler is the only female at La Pointe able to perform domestic duties

    14. erethewifeofamiasionaryoanmostthefenmalenowhereofthechurch,themothoraandthat;danghtono.onaexertanimportantinfluencewhereitwomlnbeimpossibloforthemissionaryhimselftolaborwithmuah

      According to Wheeler, missions needs more womyn because they can exert more domestic influence than men on the Natives

    15. efindourselvesheresituanedinacommunity.ofpeoplenotonlyheathenanddestitutaofatrueaknowledgeofGod,outlivingintheloweststateofhumanSoci

      Wheeler's view of Native life is low

    16. theboom39mg:garnish:nre»withsomefemaleassistantEgg]tolaboras.dom1o££o{gig}Helploouéfami

      The Wheeler family has been at La Pointe for a year and a half and asks the Board for a female assistant

    1. PomschristianawhereWevisitedlabtSummertho'tthatifthachurchtowhichnheybelongeag.could,incampanywithtwoorthreeotherchurchessuppart-a.é£ationamongtheIndians&keepupacor»respondenoewith.themissionarieaatthatstation,theyshoulddomuchmore&taksaiar‘deaper‘tnterestthantheyshouldtosendwhattheyraised_ngrtheBeardnotknowingwhereitwasappropriated.whatwouldyou;committeathinkofta

      Mrs. Ely offers a suggestion to Mr. Greene about a sort of collection of churches in the area supporting the Natives and doing missionary work as a whole

    2. shallhavethemeansofaidingtheInds,iftheyreturn&supportingmyfamilywithoutcallingupontheBeardanotheryaa

      Boutwell has resources, now that most Natives have fled war

    3. sMrAgm&~E§.amebénhgoneitismyautyfornhe.presenttoabidebytheatuiifEufhowlongyourcommitteewillhhink1tem-pediennformene:emalniftheSiouxtreatyisnon’ranifleé&theprospectsofwar‘contlnuo,fsubmittoyourself&the

      Boutwell also leaves it up to Greene and the Board to decide if he should stay

    4. heyhavenotyetfrightenedmeaway,thoughnheirthreatshavesomewhatdis-turbedmywife

      The Sioux say they will kill the first white man's wife they find, and Boutwell seems to be confused as to why his wife is uneasy

    5. SiouxTrea

      Sioux Treaty

    6. fourlaboursdonotaccomplishennughtamakeitanobjecttomaintainushere.itisforyoutoredallusfromthefiel

      Hall again leaves it up to the Board and Greene to decide if they are doing good enough work to stay at the Mission

    7. ButIwouldsayinreplythatIregardthemasmuchobjectsofmissionaryeffort,astheIndian

      Hall states that he views his efforts towards mixed race individuals the same as toward the Natives - heathens needing conversion

    8. etitinalaboriousanddiscourag-ingworktogivetnamnire'gétspahTheyareignorant,degraded,anddepzxav54.Ithinktheirgreatestobgtahiontochristianitywillbefoundinitsoppeaingtheirdepraveddoairaéanapraen

      Hall finds the process of conversion tiresome because of the depravity of the Natives

    9. mixedblood

      "Mixed blood" by Catholic fur traders intermarrying with Natives

      So Catholics exert much influence on the Natives, because any children born in these marriages is baptized a Catholic at birth

    10. hisisinc-atncngholdofCatholicinfluenceinthiscountry.Thefurtradéhac.bcen.nheoccasionofintroducingaconsidera

      fur trade brings catholicism

    11. hitemen,eepeoia11ytraders,have.muchinfluencewiththem.Itisvery.-jmp'oaétamthattheyshouldexertareligiouginf

      Hall mentions the influence of Whites, especially traders, on the Natives and mentions they should be pious and "exert a religious influence"

    12. TheChurchatthisplaoowagorganizedonznho'BGEhofAug.133

      Demographics of the church at La Pointe

    13. nOctoberlast,oneofournumber,aninfantoftenmonnhsold;ardtheonlychildofMr.andMrsSproat,wasremoved_framthisrorldafterashortilln

      Mrs. Sproat's child died after sickness

    14. Ybu,§reprobablyawarethat‘odhastakentwoofournhreechildrent

      two of Ely's children died

    15. hefruitsoftheschoolatFondulacareabundantaaeng—thefewhavelost,Remyimproved.GodmayyetgettohimselfGloryfrommypoorweaklaboursnhe

      Fond du Lac now seems to be the only mission currently doing well in both labor and mission work

    16. oaso'ourIndianashouldgointothewoods,itmaybeexped-ientthatImwinto;itFondulaaratherthanatLepoin

      Ely doesn't know whether he will need to be at Fond du Lac or La Pointe for the winter yet

    17. hichtheywillpayinlabour,beag¢ing,fish,&

      to keep the Natives in his area, Ely bought them fishing and hunting supplies, to be repaid through labor and game

    18. GodinhieProvidencehasagainbroughtmyoelf'afamilywithinashortdistanceofFeeon1&0!&thereasonofthisMovement,13,inshortth

      After war erupted at Pokegoma, the mission families decided to leave, some of whom wanted to go to La Pointe and others to Fond du Lac

    19. ewasthesonofoldBuffalo,andthesecondthathehaslostsinceIhavebeenhere.Hewaskilledbya.fallingtreewhileouthunting.

      A second chief, son of Old Buffalo, died while hunting

    20. ethinksmyhealthhasbeenfailin

      author getting ill

    21. receivedyourletterdaybeforeyesterday,mydearmother,andhappywasItohavenewsfromhom

      She finally hears from her mother in May

    22. Ithinkyoumaybetired,too,ofmyjourney,butcouldIseeyouIcouldtenyouofmanythingsofwhichIhavenottimetowri

      Author really wants to see her family

    23. dgivenbirthtosixstill-bornchildren.ButafteratriptoEnglandandherhealthmuchimprovedshehasgivenbirthtotwolivingchildre

      Mrs. Jones had 6 stillbirths, then two healthy children

    24. Shespokeofhermarriagewithfreedom

      This is important enough that another womyn noted it, and then decided to write it in her diary (the married womyn is Mrs. Copway

    25. WearrivedatFondulacaboutnoon.

      The travel party arrives at Fond du Lac on the 3rd day of travel

    26. WeexpecttostartonourtourtoFondulaciftheweatherbefairsoIhavetospendtheremainderoftheweekinpreparingour“wapon"——awordmeaning,inthiscountry,provisionforajourne

      Traveling to Fond du Lac

    27. IwrotethatIthoughtofgoingwithMr.Hallbutashewillnotstartun-tilthemiddleofsummerIhavegivenuptheideaasmycon-ditionwouldmakeitimpossibleformetotravelatthatt

      "my condition" is she pregnant?