149 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. Sometimes, they also hope to bestow good luck on deceased family members.

      Apparently laypeople will often give their deceased family member's favourite food in these cases — often a sweet treat!

  2. Feb 2019
    1. A commitment to conditionality lives at the intersection of economics and theology. It’s where lectures about the law of the marketplace meet sermons about what we must do to earn our way into heaven. Here, almost every human interaction, even among family members, is regarded as a kind of transaction.” “(Kids) shouldn’t be spared struggle and sacrifice”: underlying idea that others (blacks, women…) are getting “something for nothing”; “the undeserving” must go conspicuously unrewarded. “Without competition we would all be paid the same and people would get lazy.” – explicit link to inequality

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    1. to serve God whatever their circumstances and lo support themselves through teaching if that hecame necessary.

      Oooo this is a very clever way to educate women so that they can support themselves. To serve God -- duh. Of course.

    2. too individualistic, devoid of the community feeling that should bind Chris� thms together.

      It's funny how today this view of how Christians should behave with/in society would probably be labeled as socialist (or, at least, not conservative).

    3. Especially helpful to Astell were the arguments of Descartes that extensive classical learning, from which women had been largely excluded. was not necessary to a vibrant intellectual life: All people were innately capable of reason. the key men· tal activity

      Aaaaaand here is where de Pizan would probably give her a high-five.

      More seriously, Christine de Pizan did something very similar to what I think Astell has done. They both seem to take the philosophical arguments made by famous male philosophers that were used against them/their sex/gender and instead make those philosophical arguments work with and for them/their sex/gender. Astell also seems to do this with religion.

    4. Madonella.

      Meaning "little Madonna" or "small Madonna." What is fascinating about this reference is the history behind the Madonnelle street shrines (little Madonnas) in Rome/other Italian cities. These little Madonnas were seen as the protectors of the communities in which they looked over (literally believed to be protecting them from evil). Also, lamps in front of the shrines were lit at night to guide passer-bys through the darkness, and, unlike other Madonna icons, these little Madonnas gazed directly at the viewer, establishing "a personal connection between the two." Maybe not such a ridicuous bluestocking figure to compare Mary Astell to afterall?

  3. Jan 2019
    1. ve hermeneu-tic
    2. isanyone who asks a lot of questions, refuses to accept simplistic dead-endanswers, is willing to bend rules to attain knowledge, and has a real senseof adventur

      Me, at every Sunday school before I realized that was not where I'd find any answers and stopped going....

    1. This is the meaning of the “Day of Resurrection,” spoken of in all the scriptures, and announced unto all people. Reflect, can a more precious, a mightier, and more glorious day than this be conceived, so that man should willingly forego its grace, and deprive himself of its bounties, which like unto vernal showers are raining from the heaven of mercy upon all mankind?

      I think this meaning is that "Resurrection" is the return of a Manifestation in another human frame. And this is stated to be clearly more glorious than the literal interpretations of past scripture.

      Why is it clearly more glorious?

      1. Everyone has access. And it leads to empowerment.
      2. It allows us to keep science, which is pretty awesome.
      3. It doesn't allow us to just wait for the rapture - see point 1 about empowerment.
      4. It allows us to see all religions as united in spirit.
      5. Related to point 3 and 4, it allows us to unite with non-religious people.
      6. All of this without "doing violence to the facts".
    1. The Victorian periodical The Westminster Review wrote that the introduction of gas lamps would do more to eliminate immorality and criminality on the streets than any number of church sermons.
  4. Oct 2018
    1. Two of Elemental’s biggest early clients were the Mormon church, which used the technology to beam sermons to congregations around the world, and the adult film industry, which did not.

      Seems like the writer slid this sentence in very carefully. Ha!

  5. Sep 2018
    1. Huxley suggests that one source for a definition of what it means to be a human being is religion. In Brave New World, religion has been abolished and Christianity is a distant memory

      In his story, religion is completely abolished and along with this, is a sense of morality, what is good and what is bad. To a degree, it may not even be religion that is the basis of being human, rather it is just spiritual and moral values overall that holds the foundation for emotion and growth to take place.

    1. Many times in a morning, the generality of them would eat up all they had, and yet have some further supply against they wanted.

      This is a fascinating statement because Rowlandson is having the realization that God is behind the abundant provision that the Indigenous people. God holds no bias against who may receive His provision, so long as they seek to receive it. Let us consider Luke 12:24

      "Consider the ravens: They do not sow or reap, they have no storeroom or barn; yet God feeds them. And how much more valuable you are than birds!"

      In this moment within the book of Luke, Jesus is assuring His disciples that God will always provide for them, but also for all the living beings on earth.

    1. Isaiah 55.8: “For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the Lord.” And also that [in] Psalm 37.5: “Commit thy way unto the Lord; trust also in him; and he shall bring it to pass.”

      Focusing on the specific word "way", Jesus Christ states in the book of John "Jesus answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me." John 14:6. It seems to me that Mary is finding comfort or "revival" within these specific verses because they have to do with submission of one's human will to that of God's will.

    1. Mine eyes have seen

      "Mine eyes have seen" is a phrase that comes up numerous times throughout scripture (Luke 3:20) and it is also in the popular hymn, The Battle Hymn of the Republic, "Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord" A song which evokes a lot of faith and patriotism for many Americans

    2. Down I sat, with my heart as full as it could hold, and yet so hungry that I could not sit neither; but going out to see what I could find, and walking among the trees, I found six acorns, and two chestnuts, which were some refreshment to me.

      Again, hunger comes up. Mary speaks of both the need for nourishment both physically and spiritually.

    1. An obvious metaphysical question to raise here is the compatibility or otherwise of religion and transhumanism. In my 1990 essay that first set forth modern transhumanism as a distinct philosophy under that name, I explained how transhumanism (like humanism) can act as a philosophy of life that fulfills some of the same functions as a religion without any appeal to a higher power, a supernatural entity, to faith, and without the other core features of religions (More 1990). The central place accorded to rationalism suggests a tension between transhumanism and religion. But are they actually incompatible? Since rationalism is an approach to acquiring knowledge and says nothing about the content of knowledge, it is possible in principle for a transhumanist to hold some religious beliefs. And some do. The content of some religious beliefs is easier to reconcile with transhumanism than the content of others. Christian transhumanists, while not completely unknown, are very rare (and I know of none who are fundamentalists, and such a combination would surely indicate deep confusion). There are more Mormon transhumanists (although some of these are cultural rather than religious Mormons), perhaps because that religion allows for humans to ascend to a higher, more godlike level, rather than sharply dividing God from man. Several transhumanists describe themselves as Buddhists (presumably of the secular, philosophical type), and there seem to be few obstacles to combining transhumanism with liberal Judaism. However, the vast majority of transhumanists do not identify with any religion. A pilot study published in 2005 found that religious attitudes were negatively correlated with acceptance of transhumanist ideas. Those with strong religious views tended to regard transhumanism as competing with their beliefs (Bainbridge 2005).

      Having a strong belief system is naturally integral for humans. Religion is by far the most common, profound form of human belief systems, so it is relevant to propose the question of transhumanism and religion being incompatible. While it is possible that the basis of each religion can contribute to an individual's probability of simultaneously believing in transhumanism, having a belief system that consists of both beliefs would presumably be rather conflicting for any individual to concurrently believe in.

    2. From here comes the emphasis on progress (its possibility and desirability, not its inevitability), on taking personal charge of creating better futures rather than hoping or praying for them to be brought about by supernatural forces, on reason, technology, scientific method, and human creativity rather than faith.

      The author further increases the gap between transhumanism and religion by stating that transhumanism goes against relying on faith which is the core value of most religions. furthermore we can come to a conclusion that the concept of transhumanism requires absolute dedication of individual people to progress.

  6. Aug 2018
    1. IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism.
    2. "Protestant" life of wealth and risk over the "Catholic" path of poverty and security.[8]

      Is this simply a restatement of the idea that most of "the interesting things" happen at the border or edge of chaos? The Catholic ethic is firmly inside the stable arena while that of the Protestant ethic is pushing the boundaries.

    1. In reading this I almost suspect that it may have been more valuable to have had a book-length version of this a la JD Vance's Hillbilly Elegy to have become popular before the 2016 election than to have had Hillbilly Elegy.

    2. If any of you has a dispute with another, do you dare to take it before the ungodly for judgment instead of before the Lord’s people? 2 Or do you not know that the Lord’s people will judge the world? And if you are to judge the world, are you not competent to judge trivial cases? 3 Do you not know that we will judge angels? How much more the things of this life! 4 Therefore, if you have disputes about such matters, do you ask for a ruling from those whose way of life is scorned in the church? 5 I say this to shame you. Is it possible that there is nobody among you wise enough to judge a dispute between believers? 6 But instead, one brother takes another to court—and this in front of unbelievers!

      Interesting that this is interpreted in modern times in the same way as it was in ancient. A lot of this writing had to have been specific to it's political context at a time when keeping things in house was both to the benefit of the individuals as well as the Church which was a minority within a broader Roman protectorate.

      Why can't Christians manage to see any historical context for a 2000 year old document that is far from a living one?

    3. If you want to understand the Christian extremism that represents the single greatest threat to democracy and human rights in America today, it’s important to understand how authoritarian Christians read the Bible.

      Very likely true.

    4. In the New Testament, familial metaphors are frequently used to describe Christians and what came to be construed as the universal Church. Christians are “brothers” and “sisters” to one another. Weirdly, collectively they are also the body and the bride of Christ. Wives are commanded to submit to their husbands “as you do to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body, of which he is the Savior” (Ephesians 5:22-23). This teaching of male headship is, of course, a source of much abuse of women in conservative Christian circles, and evangelical pastors have been known to abuse, to sweep abuse under the rug, and to counsel women that they must remain in abusive marriages since, after all, Jesus himself forbade divorce, and God can use suffering for good.

      And of course this also likely the source of American mores which have delivered us the power struggle that results in abuses which have boiled over into the MeToo scandals.

    5. The result is that the readers of major news outlets are presented with an unrealistically benign picture of a darkly authoritarian, cult-like branch of Protestantism. That’s one reason I’m writing this essay.
    6. I think it’s important for liberal Americans who do not come from a patriarchal religious background to hear our stories and to sit with that shock. Why? Because I remain convinced that if American civil society and the American press fail to come to grips with just how radically theocratic the Christian Right is, any kind of post-Trump soft landing scenario in which American democracy recovers a healthy degree of functionality is highly unlikely.

      I haven't directly experienced this patriarchal religious background to the extreme that the writer has, but I grew up in "Jesus Land" and know it exists. I suspect he's largely correct here.

    7. De facto, reputation and appearances become more important than people’s wellbeing, because authoritarian Christians are desperately afraid of the sense that any of their rigid, divinely prescribed rules do not actually work. Spoiler alert: they do not actually work.
  7. Jun 2018
    1. ...I remain convinced that if American civil society and the American press fail to come to grips with just how radically theocratic the Christian Right is, any kind of post-Trump soft landing scenario in which American democracy recovers a healthy degree of functionality is highly unlikely.

      ...

      readers of major news outlets are presented with an unrealistically benign picture of a darkly authoritarian, cult-like branch of Protestantism.

  8. Apr 2018
    1. Pascuas

      n. Easter

    2. Melchor

      n. Saint Melchior, or Melichior, was purportedly one of the Biblical Magi along with Caspar and Balthazar who visited the infant Jesus after he was born. Melchior was often referred to as the oldest member of the Magi. He was traditionally called the King of Persia and brought the gift of gold to Jesus.

    3. el Buey

      n. castrated male cow; one usually found on Christmas nativity scenes

    4. San Dionisio

      n. Denis of Paris;Saint Denis was a legendary 3rd-century Christian martyr and saint. According to his hagiographies, he was bishop of Paris in the third century and, together with his companions Rusticus and Eleutherius, was martyred for his faith by decapitation.

    5. el Asno

      n. donkey; one usually found on Christmas nativity scenes

    6. Reyes Magos

      n. the (Three) Wise Men or (Three) Kings, were, in the Gospel of Matthew and Christian tradition, a group of distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh.

    7. Vírgenes de manto azul celeste

      n. The typical virgin on a manger is usually one with a sky blue mantel. In Cuba, the Virgin most commonly associated with the Virgin of Charity.

    8. corderos pascuales

      n. Lamb that the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as part of the Passover celebration. It has always been the constant belief in the Christian tradition that the Paschal Lamb prefigured symbolically Christ, "the Lamb of God," who redeemed the world through the shedding of his Blood, and particularly at the feast of the Eucharist, or new Easter.

  9. Feb 2018
  10. Nov 2017
    1. Negro. Master Christian/I give you a thousand hearty Thanks for this ac-count of your Religion & Philosophy, which no doubt is the best and noblest of all others: Therefore if these be your Christian Principles, I am already a Dis-ciple, but I beseech you be in good earnest, and tell me the truth.

      The title of Sambo here changes from Slave to Negro. The change happens directly after the master enlightens Sambo on the ways of Christianity. This indicates a newly found freedom. The knowledge of Christianity has, to some degree, made both Sambo and the Master equals.Master's title would imply that nothing has changed, but this can be attributed to a change in the meaning of master. Now master takes on the role of teacher and invokes the religious inflection of imparting wisdom.

    1. Fast days and Thanksgivings were emphatically religious occasions

      Another piece of evidence that states thanksgiving and fast days were religious occasions. very important and consistent theme within the argument

    2. religious occasions, intended to invoke God’s help to cope with hardships, or to offer God thanks for positive developments.

      thanksgiving was more of a religious experience; one where the relationship between God and the people was reflected upon and strengthened.

  11. Oct 2017
    1. superstitious ceremonies

      Its interesting that both translations use the word "superstitious" here. Something tells me the Spanish would have used "religious".

  12. Sep 2017
    1. ceremonies, and they attempted to destroy native symbolic objects, such as masks and kachina dolls. At the same time, the de-mands for forced labor from both the state and the church left almost no time for the natives to cultivate their own lands.

      I wonder what Bible did the Spanish carry with them. According to reformed.org the Geneva Bible was the most popular book of testimony in England during the 15th and 16th centuries. Perhaps the Spanish carried and studied the Geneva Bible as well. A verse from the book reads, 1 Corinthians 10:31-32 "Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, orwhatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God. Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God:" This verse states that other religions should be tolerated. If so, why didn't the Spanish tolerate the spiritual beliefs of the natives?

      Another verse from the book reads, "17 For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the Gospel, not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect." From my understanding, in this verse Peter, (Jesus's apostle) states that he was sent to preach but not to "baptize" or convert others. If the Spanish practiced the verses of this book then why did they harshly force Christianity to the natives?

    1. the benefits & blessings of which the legislature now propose to provide for the good

      The authors of the Rockfish Gap Report affirm that religious worship is not conducive to a truly liberal arts education, going so far as to propose "no professor of Divinity." Yet religious language is smatter throughout the document (such as "blessings," "faithfulness," and "religious worship.") In the Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom which Thomas Jefferson also drafted, it is written,"all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall in no wise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities." In this way, the assertions of both texts are consistent, but the biases of the authors are apparent in their use of religious language. This demonstrates that a collective view of what a society should be is not necessarily reflected in individual beliefs.

    2. In conformity with the principles of our constitution, which places all sects of religion on an equal footing

      I wonder what the authors of the Rockfish Gap report meant by "all sects of religion?" Did they mean all different kinds of religion, such as Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam, or did they merely mean the various sects of Christianity? I do think that the authors meant all different kinds of religions. However, the authors' meaning of "religion" can be called into question just as Thomas Jefferson's meaning of "men" in the Declaration of Independence because of its broad nature as a word. Furthermore, I wonder if there really was equality of "all sects of religion" in practice at the University of Virginia because UVA, similar to the United States, often times did not practice what it claimed to practice in reality. It is worth noting that while the Rockfish Gap Report did not specify the religious practice of the University's founders and only covered the topic of religion briefly, the founding charter of Yale University specifies the faith of its founders as followers of the "Christian Protestant Religion." Did Yale place a greater emphasis on religion or even favor Christian Protestants, while UVA treated all religions equally? -- David Gazewood

    3. Hebrew

      I was surprised to see that Hebrew was on the course list. At this point in time, the American Jewish population was very, very small. I suspect this would have been taught in the context of history, relating to the bible, as the old testament was written in biblical/classical Hebrew. From what I know about Western education historically, many of the "humanities" type subjects were very interdisciplinary, so I could understand religion and history being incorporated into this course.

    4. and tho rather, as the proofs of the being of a god, the creator, preserver, & supreme ruler of the universe, the author of all the relations of morality, & of the laws & obligations these infer, will be within the province of the professor of ethics;

      It is noteworthy that the authors of the report choose to place these matters of religion under the jurisdiction of the department of ethics. It sets up an interesting relationship between religion and ethics. The document suggests that it is more responsible to think in terms of ethics than in terms of religion. This reminds me of Jefferson's personal Bible, in which he omitted anything miraculous or scientifically problematic. I think we see strong traces of his influence in this paragraph.

    5. in which may be rooms for religious worship under such impartial regulations as the visitors shall prescribe, for public examinations, for a Library, for the schools of music, drawing, and other associated purposes

      This follows with the vision that learning the central tenant of the University as opposed to religion like it was at others. While "rooms for religious worship" are mentioned, they are simply one entry on a laundry list.

    1. la gran victoria que Nuestro Señor me ha dado

      Analizando las palabras ¨la gran victoria" y "Nuestros Señor" formuladas por Cristóbal Colón en su primer reporte de viaje, se refleja la relación entre estado y religión. ¿Conoces algún otro contexto histórico donde el estado y la religión han trabajado juntos para exportar el sistema socioeconómico y cultural?

  13. May 2017
    1. Arise, O Lord, and judge your own cause. Remember your reproaches to those who are filled with foolishness all through the day. Listen to our prayers, for foxes have arisen seeking to destroy the vineyard whose winepress you alone have trod. When you were about to ascend to your Father, you committed the care, rule, and administration of the vineyard, an image of the triumphant church, to Peter, as the head and your vicar and his successors.

      Pope Leo starts the text with a direct criticism to the Martin Luther King's action where he calls him a foolish person who is abandoning the religion. He is referring Jesus who is full of care and he himself is like a voice of Jesus who is on the earth to give people his message about the religion. To me this is a direct attack on the actions of Martin Luther by calling him a traitor who has gone against the religion. Destroying the vineyard is like destroying the religious teaching that Jesus has provided people.

    2. Let all this holy Church of God, I say, arise, and with the blessed apostles intercede with almighty God to purge the errors of His sheep, to banish all heresies from the lands of the faithful, and be pleased to maintain the peace and unity of His holy Church.

      I beleive this is a religious statement. The Pope is pleading with God the sway the heresies back to the Roman Catholic religion.

    3. That heretics be burned is against the will of the Spirit.

      This could tie in with politic and religion but on the religion side heretics were being burned at the stake which against the Spirt is a sin to God. But, the church had control of the Bible and of they could transfer God's meaning which meant that men such as John Hus and John Wyclif were burned at the stake unable to call out the church and complete their mission.

    4. Christians must be taught to cherish excommunications rather than to fear them.

      This ties in with religion and also somewhat with politics due to the factor of excommunication. This passage communicates what Luther set out to accomplish standup to the church and their corrupt unjust ways. Luther stood by what he believed in and cherishing that excommunication which gave us Lutheranism.

    5. rising

      I agree with the points made by Ssamo1 The Pope is trying hard to tell people to stick to the traditional Catholic practices and shun the reformatory ideas of Martin Luther. He is being religiously appealing for people of that time because he knew that those who have believed in Roman Catholicism and have been loyal to the Pope, Peter and the Church will listen to him and consider Martin Luther and his reformation as prime evil. These words work powerfully from religious as well as from the political perspective.

    6. Finally, let the whole church of the saints and the rest of the universal church arise. Some, putting aside her true interpretation of Sacred Scripture, are blinded in mind by the father of lies. Wise in their own eyes, according to the ancient practice of heretics, they interpret these same Scriptures otherwise than the Holy Spirit demands, inspired only by their own sense of ambition, and for the sake of popular acclaim, as the Apostle declares. In fact, they twist and adulterate the Scriptures. As a result, according to Jerome, "It is no longer the Gospel of Christ, but a man's, or what is worse, the devil's." Let all this holy Church of God, I say, arise, and with the blessed apostles intercede with almighty God to purge the errors of His sheep, to banish all heresies from the lands of the faithful, and be pleased to maintain the peace and unity of His holy Church.

      Here, the Pope is reiterating the fact that the Roman Catholic church is the universal church of the land. He also argues that some are not true believers and accuses them of heresy, saying that they twist the scriptures to meet their own agenda. He is so strong in his faith that he felt the need to call others out when they were misusing God's word.

    7. Against the Roman Church, you warned, lying teachers are rising, introducing ruinous sects, and drawing upon themselves speedy doom. Their tongues are fire, a restless evil, full of deadly poison. They have bitter zeal, contention in their hearts, and boast and lie against the truth.

      In the bible, Peter was one of Jesus' first disciples, beliebed to be the firs pope, and was also the first apostle ordained by Jesus himself. Peter warned of false teachings and how the Devil will tempt us. In this excerpt, the Pope was is referencing Peter's words and is in a way asking for his help. This reference of the Bible shows that he values his religion and is using the words of the Bible when disagreeing with Luther.

    8. Germans, truly germane to the Catholic faith, have always been the bitterest opponents of heresies, as witnessed by those commendable constitutions of the German emperors in behalf of the Church's independence

      Here Pope Leo is accusing the Germans of being bitter toward the Catholic religion. His statement is showing that he condemns the Germans for not following the beliefs and in the interest of religion.

    1. Now that Italy is sucked dry, they come to Germany and begin very quietly; but if we look on quietly Germany will soon be brought into the same state as Italy.

      While many people can find salvation in religion, this passage speaks about how it brought Italy nothing but destruction and loss of money. Instead of having a positive impact on the country, it was negative. Once the cardinals had taken all of Italy's money they were forced to move on to Germany to accomplish their task of leaving it in the same state as they did Italy.

    2. He wears a triple crown, whereas the mightiest kings only wear one crown.

      Here, he is saying that the Pope is more powerful than even the mightiest of kings. He says that the while kings are powerful, their power does not compare to that of the Church and the Pope.

    3.  Now that Italy is sucked dry, they come to Germany and begin very quietly; but if we look on quietly Germany will soon be brought into the same state as Italy.

      Luther was discouraged by the Catholic Church and how they were looking for money in exchange for forgiveness of sins. His concern in this statement is how people are true to their religion and he doesn't feel as though Catholics have been and doesn't want that to happen in Germany.

  14. Apr 2017
    1. jesuitically

      The Society of Jesus, called the Jesuits, an order of Catholic priests, was established in 1540 by Ignatius of Loyola. The Jesuits were renowned for being teachers and scholars. They also had a reputation for being wily and able to twist words and rules to their own ends. Hence, calling something "jesuitical" means that the logic or reasoning behind it is suspect.

    1. in Adam all sinned

      The doctrine of original sin was originally developed by St. Augustine. As a part of Christian theology, it explains humanity's tendency towards sin as the direct result of Adam and Eve eating the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden. Adam and Eve, on the Sistine Chapel ceiling, by Michelangelo

    1. Mahomet like

      "Mahomet" refers to the Prophet Muhammad. Europeans in the eighteenth century had a very negative view of Islam. This may refer to Voltaire's 1742 play Mahomet, a direct attack on the character of Muhammad, in which Mahomet is depicted as using his power, religious fanaticism, and the pretense of divine right to act as an absolute ruler.

    1. Popish

      Popish is a (slightly derogatory) term for Catholics. Most Protestants believed that Catholicism was overly ritualistic to the point of idolatry and that the Pope was no better than a despot. To be under "Popish" rule was the worst fear of many Englishmen.

    1. "When I was a child my father had a slave who taught me to pray the Christian prayer in my own language, and told me many things about Lela Marien. The Christian died, and I know that she did not go to the fire, but to Allah, because since then I have seen her twice, and she told me to go to the land of the Christians to see Lela Marien, who had great love for me. I know not how to go. I have seen many Christians, but except thyself none has seemed to me to be a gentleman. I am young and beautiful, and have plenty of money to take with me. See if thou canst contrive how we may go, and if thou wilt thou shalt be my husband there, and if thou wilt not it will not distress me, for Lela Marien will find me some one to marry me. I myself have written this: have a care to whom thou givest it to read: trust no Moor, for they are all perfidious. I am greatly troubled on this account, for I would not have thee confide in anyone, because if my father knew it he would at once fling me down a well and cover me with stones. I will put a thread to the reed; tie the answer to it, and if thou hast no one to write for thee in Arabic, tell it to me by signs, for Lela Marien will make me understand thee. She and Allah and this cross, which I often kiss as the captive bade me, protect thee."

      Davary also mentions that Mary is very well revered in muslim society especially amongst women. This conflicts with the author's words that Zoraida was introduced to Mary through a christian slave of her fathers. Zoraida most likely was exposed to the Virgin her entire life, even before the slave that introduced to her christian prayer.

    1. so that the blessed news had to circulate from individual to individual

      On plantations slaves were often not allowed to practice religion or anything of their choice because they were not looked at a people. They had to find other ways to do this, so instead of having things like churches or massing they usually told stories that passed down from person to person

  15. Mar 2017
    1. Meanwhile, since this devilish state of things is not only an open robbery, deceit, and tyranny of the gates of hell, but also destroys Christianity body and soul, we are bound to use all our diligence to prevent this misery and destruction of Christendom.

      I’m glad that Martin Luther used religious adjectives such as “Devilish” to describe what his opponent’s actions; just as they do with everyone else. The church always identifies something they differ to as demonic or devilish. They spiritualize everything they do not agree with. Back then a woman was not able to speak in the church or be in ministry, it was considered not Biblical, devilish. Today, is a norm in the Christian church. It shows how dangerous extremist religious perspectives could be.

    2.  What has brought us Germans to such a pass that we have to suffer this robbery and this destruction of our property by the Pope? If the kingdom of France has resisted it, why do we Germans suffer ourselves to be fooled and deceived? It would be more endurable if they did nothing but rob us of our property; but they destroy the Church and deprive Christ’s flock of their good shepherds, and overthrow the service and word of God.

      It is evident in this passage how Luther feels about the Pope and his decisions. Back then, it was thought that the Pope would lead people to salvation and by listening to him, you would be guaranteed a place in heaven. Luther argued that through faith alone, you would gain a spot in heaven, which is why he states that Germans were being "robbed" of their property. Luther is saying that by listening to the Pope, you are going against your faith because the Pope is teaching its people the wrong ideas and beliefs.

    1. We restrain all in the virtue of holy obedience and under the penalty of an automatic major excommunication

      In my opinion, terminologies such as to “restrain”, “penalty” or “excommunicate” have a connotation to power and a very dogmatic sentiment. The excommunication process was a censorship and an exclusion. Since it is a penalty, it suggests guilt. To me, religion has always wanted to add guilt in people to have power over them.

    2. Finally, let the whole church of the saints and the rest of the universal church arise. Some, putting aside her true interpretation of Sacred Scripture, are blinded in mind by the father of lies. Wise in their own eyes, according to the ancient practice of heretics, they interpret these same Scriptures otherwise than the Holy Spirit demands, inspired only by their own sense of ambition, and for the sake of popular acclaim, as the Apostle declares. In fact, they twist and adulterate the Scriptures. As a result, according to Jerome, "It is no longer the Gospel of Christ, but a man's, or what is worse, the devil's."

      In this passage, the pope Leo x affirms that the cathlic church is the universal church, accuses the prostesant religin of twisting the words of the holy scripture. This pasage and other passages show that the pope cared more about the cathlic religion being the dominent religion than having political control over land.

    3. Against the Roman Church, you warned, lying teachers are rising, introducing ruinous sects, and drawing upon themselves speedy doom. Their tongues are fire, a restless evil, full of deadly poison. They have bitter zeal, contention in their hearts, and boast and lie against the truth.

      In Catholicism, we were taught that Peter was made the first Pope through Jesus Christ. In Peters' teachings, he elaborates and warns us on how there will be false accusations, false teachings, and false prophesies (in other words, the devil and his temptations will be against us). Pope Leo is referring to those teachings in this passage, and is relying on his faith and his beliefs when referring to and disagreeing with Luther's teachings and beliefs.

    1. In comparison with Vedic usage

      This is an interesting subject. If Zoroastrianism is characterized by a rejection of the devás of Indic religions, then there's an interesting parallel with Judaism's rejection of Mesopotamian gods beside Yahweh. It's as if they made an effort to distinguish themselves from their cultural heritage through intolerance.

      Another parallel would be that Judaism eventually became the dominant religion in Babylon, while Zoroastrianism became the dominant religion of the Persian world. One could ask themselves if there's a correlation between religious intolerance and cultural success. Although, admittedly, chance has been a big factor in Judaism's success, so this may well be mere speculation.

  16. Feb 2017
    1. volver la mirada a las ciudades de sal

      Aquí se alude a un pasaje bíblico del Génesis en el que la esposa de Lot fue convertida en estatua de sal al desobedecer a Dios y mirar hacia atrás para ver cómo ardían las ciudades de Sodoma y Gomorra. ¿Cómo relacionarías esto con la reflexión de Filiberto sobre la juventud?

    1. Religion is an affair of the heart

      Sounds like blind faith to me.

    2. Willard was also convinced that the American economic system was unjust and un-Christian

      Interesting that government was expected to have a religious aspect. Whereas, today people hate that politicians use God's time to justify their choices.

    1. Just as the Romans and Etruscans cut , +w.-up the heavens with rigid mathematical lines and,. Ci\. l~ confined a god within each of the spaces thereby ,,,,..lb~op_h'. delimiied, as within a temp/um, 16 so every people of,\~ \>l"'-has a similarly mathematically divided concep-tual heaven above themselves and henceforth :., l' ' thinks that truth demands that each conceptual god be sought only within his own sphere.

      This could actually be read as a really fascinating criticism, or I suppose observation, about the relationship between man and society and religion. In that man carefully constructs, or calculates, truth and god(s) and heaven and all other ruling social concepts. It's a weird mix of math/science/logic with religion/heavens/abstraction.

    1. All that man can say or do can never elevate us, it is a work that must be effected between God and ourselves. And how'! By dropping all political discussions in our behalf, for these, in my opinion, sow the seed of discord, and strengthen the cord of preju-dic

      Oh, so maybe the personal is not political for Stewart. . . .

    1. such a person concerning beauty would, beyond doubt, be a perfect standard for the taste of all others.

      I was going to make a joke earlier that the Protestant approach would be to declare all taste equally bad in the eyes of God, but he's actually kind of doing that here. "Why are there differences in taste?" "Because we live in a sin-cursed world."

    1. when we have given up the vivifying, energetic language, stamped by God himself upon our natures, for that which is the cold, life-less work of art, and invention or mun?

      According to Sheridan, Rhetoric inspired by God is stronger than the language that man created, because even though our language may be more complicated than utterances, it does not communicate our thoughts, feelings, etc. as well as our natural "groaning" (I'm not sure what our natural noise would be?). Agrees with Astell in terms of divine inspiration correlating to rhetoric, but is different in that for Astell, people of the Christian faith were divinely inspired to be better rhetoricians by virtue of their beliefs, but Sheridan is saying we should "get back to our roots," as it were, and not ignore our natural rhetorical inclinations as inspired by God.

    1. As a consequence, 4""~ those whose only concern is abstract truth experi· <J I i...dt . ence great difficulty in achieving their means, vuvt1$ and greater difficulty in attaining their ends

      Mirrors Astell's religious language

    1. Besides, by being True Chrislians we have Really that Love for others which all who desire to persw.ade must pretend to; we've that Probity and Prndence, that Civility and Mode.I'/)' which the Masters of this Art say a good Orator must be cndow'd with; and have pluck'd up those Vicious Inclinations from whence the most distastful faults of Writing proceed.

      Interesting that Astell draws a parallel between rhetorical ability and Christianity, that by being a Christian you are automatically a better rhetorician by virtue of your beliefs. Is she suggesting rhetoric is divinely inspired, or just that the virtuous Christian life leads to better rhetorical abilities?

  17. Jan 2017
    1. And hence we see that, in the interpretation of laws, whether divine or human, there is no end; comments beget com• ments, and explications make new matter for ex-plications; and of limiting, distinguishing, vary-ing the signification of these moral words there is no end.

      "There is no end." Another useful way to think through rhetoric in light of Muckelbauer.

      But, of course, there are often temporary ends achieved.

    1. "If a husband takes a second wife and doesn't behave equally toward her, when he dies he will be handicapped in the hereafter and go to hell," he said.
    2. Islamic scholars washed their feet as they debated the merits of a second marriage.

      QUESTIONING POLYGAMY

    3. Polygamy is creating cultural clashes in a country struggling to reconcile the secularism of the republic with its Muslim traditions.

      religion is competing with politics

    4. The practice is generally accepted under the Koran.

      accepted in koran for muslims

    1. Punctually at midday he opened his bag and spread out his professional equipment, which consisted of a dozen cowrie shells, a square piece of cloth with obscure mystic charts on it, a notebook and a bundle of palmyra writing. His forehead was resplendent with sacred ash and vermilion, and his eyes sparkled with a sharp abnormal gleam which was really an outcome of a continual searching look for customers, but which his simple clients took to be a prophetic light and felt comforted. The power of his eyes was considerably enhanced by their position—placed as they were between the painted forehead and the dark whiskers which streamed down his cheeks: even a half-wit’s eyes would sparkle in such a setting. To crown the effect he wound a saffron-coloured turban around his head. This colour scheme never failed. People were attracted to him as bees are attracted to cosmos or dahlia stalks. He sat under the boughs of a spreading tamarind tree which flanked a path running through the Town Hall Park. It was a remarkable place in many ways: a surging crowd was always moving up and down this narrow road morning till night. A variety of trades and occupations was represented all along its way: medicine-sellers, sellers of stolen hardware and junk, magicians and, above all, an auctioneer of cheap cloth, who created enough din all day to attract the whole town. Next to him in vociferousness came a vendor of fried groundnuts, who gave his ware a fancy name each day, calling it Bombay Ice-Cream one day, and on the next Delhi Almond, and on the third Raja’s Delicacy, and so on and so forth, and people flocked to him. A considerable portion of this crowd dallied before the astrologer too. The astrologer transacted his business by the light of a flare which crackled and smoked up above the groundnut heap nearby. Half the enchantment of the place was due to the fact that it did not have the benefit of municipal lighting. The place was lit up by shop lights. One or two had hissing gaslights, some had naked flares stuck on poles, some were lit up by old cycle lamps and one or two, like the astrologer’s, managed without lights of their own. It was a bewildering crisscross of light rays and moving shadows. This suited the astrologer very well, for the simple reason that he had not in the least intended to be an astrologer when he began life; and he knew no more of what was going to happen to others than he knew what was going to happen to himself next minute. He was as much a stranger to the stars as were his innocent customers. Yet he said things which pleased and astonished everyone: that was more a matter of study, practice and shrewd guesswork. All the same, it was as much an honest man’s labour as any other, and he deserved the wages he carried home at the end of a day.He had left his village without any previous thought or plan. If he had continued there he would have carried on the work of his forefathers—namely, tilling the land, living, marrying and ripening in his cornfield and ancestral home. But that was not to be. He had to leave home without telling anyone, and he could not rest till he left it behind a couple of hundred miles. To a villager it is a great deal, as if an ocean flowed between.He had a working analysis of mankind’s troubles: marriage, money and the tangles of human ties. Long practice had sharpened his perception. Within five minutes he understood what was wrong. He charged three pies per question and never opened his mouth till the other had spoken for at least ten minutes, which provided him enough stuff for a dozen answers and advices. When he told the person before him, gazing at his palm, ‘In many ways you are not getting the fullest results for your efforts, ’ nine out of ten were disposed to agree with him. Or he questioned: ‘Is there any woman in your family, maybe even a distant relative, who is not well disposed towards you?’ Or he gave an analysis of character: ‘Most of your troubles are due to your nature. How can you be otherwise with Saturn where he is? You have an impetuous nature and a rough exterior.’ This endeared him to their hearts immediately, for even the mildest of us loves to think that he has a forbidding exterior.

      Using Durkheim's concepts of the "sacred" and the "profane", what do these paragraphs reveal about what Narayan is saying about India?

      Or in short, how are the paragraphs like the image below?

  18. Dec 2016
    1. When people speak of religion and argue about which is best or truest or has God's blessing to the greatest degree, we must always ask, "What do you do for practice? What are you doing that is advancing yourself and enabling you to be exemplary to others?" That is the only question we need to ask about religion. God is not interested in religion, only in advancement. That is all that matters. If you think of it like this, it will make sense to you. You can leave all sectarian controversies behind for those who cannot practice.
    1. Thoughtful blog by Grete Howland, about being raised as an evangelical Christian -- and then discovering that it isn't for her.

      For those raised in more liberal, free-thinking denominations, such as certain Episcopal congregations or the Unitarian-Universalist church, the religious molding might not be such a bad thing. In those cases, you might have been taught that everyone is unconditionally welcome in the love of God, that all belief systems are worthy of respect, that decolonization is mandatory practice, to have a community service mindset, and the basic lesson of self-reliance. These are examples of habits and traditions one might want to continue practicing, regardless of personal faith or continued church involvement.

      ...

      I had been taught (1) to put my faith in God regarding everything--finances, relationships, and so on--and (2) that the way to deal with stress and pain was to pray for their causes to be gone. I was not supposed to change my thinking; God was supposed to change my circumstances.

  19. Oct 2016
    1. The evening before All Saints Day was referred to as All Hallows’ Eve, which eventually became Halloween.

      They honor the saints in celtic religion

    1. Gentile or Jew

      A biblical reference. Who's side are you on?

    2. O you

      This feels like a direct address to the reader. It feels didactic and adds to the overall sense of a religious sermon or teaching that comes from the section as a whole. It implicates the reader in the poem and asks the reader to address their own mortality.

    3. Son of man

      In Christian scripture, Jesus often refers to himself as the "Son of man." This shows his humanity, rather than solely identifying his divinity.

    4. Shantih     shantih     shantih

      There is peace in the rubbish. (Spelling?)

  20. Sep 2016
  21. online.salempress.com.lacademy.idm.oclc.org online.salempress.com.lacademy.idm.oclc.org
    1. Most Salvadorans are Christian. About 57 percent of the population identifies with the Roman Catholic Church, and much of the remainder is Protestant.

      What are the other religions in El Salvador? And how do they celebrate there religion? Like what are there traditions?

  22. online.salempress.com.lacademy.idm.oclc.org online.salempress.com.lacademy.idm.oclc.org
    1. 90 percent of Colombians are Roman Catholic, while Protestants, Jews, and practitioners of native religions account for the remaining 10 percent.

      religion RC

  23. Aug 2016
  24. Jul 2016
    1. Abraham‘s seed

      She likens the English Protestants to the Israelites.

    2. Gog

      A Biblical figure who made war against Israel (Ezek. 38), often a figure for the Antichrist. Here the term is used to describe Islam.

    3. Romes whore

      An alarming revision of the Catholic idea that the Church itself is the bride of Christ.

    4. Copes

      A long mantle worn by a priest; a liturgical vestment.

    5. Crossiers

      A bishop's staff, curled into a spiral on top.

    6. Mytires

      Mitre; a tall headdress worn by bishops.

    7. Surplices

      A white linen vestment worn by clergymen

    8. Baals

      A demon, here referring to Catholic vestments as those of the devil.

    9. Popelings

      Catholics

    10. Popery

      Derogatory term for Catholicism

    11. help the Church,

      The House of Commons also volubly opposed Catholic practices in England before and during the Civil War.

    12. Rochel

      The Catholic Louis XIII of France laid siege to Rochelle in 1627-1628, defeating the Protestant Huguenot forces.

    13. Rome

      Roman Catholicism, due to the perceived Catholic leanings of Charles I.

    14. flying for the truth

      Puritans migrated to New England in the 17th century due to the Catholic leanings of Charles I and rising religious tension in England.

    15. Masters

      God

    16. Belzebub

      Satan

    17. Church Offices were sold and bought

      A practice known as simony.

    18. men of might

      Due to his marriage to the Catholic Henrietta Maria of France, Charles I gained the mistrust of Puritans such as Bradstreet.

    19. Idolatry

      One critique of Roman Catholicism was the inclusion of statues and images in the Church, which Protestants often condemned as the worship of idols. As a Puritan, Bradstreet would have been particularly opposed to this.

  25. Jun 2016
    1. Economically rational voters should not vote

      Which means that democracy has to take a quasi-religious character...

  26. May 2016
  27. annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. curate

      "A member of the clergy engaged as assistant to a vicar, rector, or parish priest", or "A minister with pastoral responsibility" (OED). In this context, Henry either has engagements (appointments) to keep with his assistant, or he has engagements (duties) of his own as a clergyman.

  28. Apr 2016
    1. uma ligação direta com Deus justifica a violação de quaisquer refreamentos e considerações meramente humanos. Resumindo, os fundamentalistas não se tornaram diferentes dos comunistas Stalinistas “sem deus”, para os quais tudo foi permitido, já que viam a si mesmos como instrumentos diretos de sua divindade, a Necessidade Histórica do Progresso em Direção ao Comunismo.

      Todas as vezes que criamos um Deus, acabamos por criar uma ferramenta totalitária (?) que justifica conceitos de certo (nós) / errado (eles).

  29. annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. divine service

      Although religion was a daily ritual in the life of Jane Austen, with her father being a clergyman, it is never a focus and sometimes scarcely even mentioned in her novels. Austen has actually composed several sermons and prayers, but the lack of religion in her novels suggests that it was considered a more private affair.

  30. Feb 2016
    1. Y tú has venido entre nubes, entre nieblas. Como que esto era lo que nos habían dejado dicho los reyes, los que rigieron, los que gobernaron tu ciudad:

      Cortés debía de ser muy arrogante por aceptar el rol del dios de otra cultura entera.

    2. Diálogo de Motecuhzoma y Cortés

      Este fragmento es muy raro - ¿Qué dirías tú a un dios violento?

    3. Mas aguardad que muy presto veréis el castigo sobre vosotros que hace nuestro dios Quetzalcohuatl.

      Parece que los cholultecas creen que los conquistadores no son una manifestación de Quetzalcohuatl.

    1. With these religious justifications, and with obvious economic motives, Spain’s rivals arrived in the New World.

      --Noted for the motives behind rivalry from the nations listed below

  31. Jan 2016
  32. Nov 2015
    1. spiritually-orientedpeople are less likely to experience depression. Nowthose findings beg the question of why: what is it about feeling like you have a spiritualpractice? One hypothesis is, it’s really community.

      (paraphrase) it could also be awe

    2. Edmund Burke.And what he does, and really one of the most impressive books on awe ever written, is hesecularizes awe. He takes this emotion and he shows how it really is a part of everyday,perceptual experience. So he writes about how patterns of light and dark can triggerawe, how things that are powerful like oxen can trigger awe. He kind of maps out what sortof sensations create this experience that used to be the domain of religion.
    1. And I also read this call to action by a (seemingly of French origin Muslim convert?) journalist who calls for Muslims to react after such violent attacks. To lead the fight against what we Muslims consider a hijacking of the message of Islam rather than distance ourselves from it. Because yeah – my natural reaction every time is “they don’t represent me. I don’t need to defend this because it doesn’t represent me”.  But in reality, for people who don’t know me or people like me, the violent ones speak louder than me.
  33. Oct 2015
    1. conducted a national survey of nearly 1,500 Americans, asking the degree to which each person practiced and experienced forgiveness (of others, of self, and even if they thought they had experienced forgiveness by God). Participants also reported on their physical and mental health. Toussaint and his colleagues found that older and middle-aged people forgave others more often than did young adults and also felt more forgiven by God. What’s more, they found a significant relationship between forgiving others and positive health among middle-aged and older Americans.

      From an atheist's vantage, a perceived forgiveness by a "god" might represent a breach in social contract. It is a bit like cheating: getting the benefits without giving back anything, at least directly (though I suppose the improved happiness the subject experiences may make others around them happier indirectly).

  34. Aug 2015
    1. Dinerstein explores the idea of technology as a kind of secular American religion, focusing primarily on the exclusionary practices of such a posthuman theology.

  35. Jun 2015
    1. northern corner of the country, where dozens of workers were separated by religion

      This location is where the Peace Corps was established.

  36. May 2015
    1. Eternal Return

      The concept of eternal return has a chequered history through philosophy and culture, but Alasdair Roberts is invoking the particular use of the term by the religious historian Mircea Eliade. The Wikipedia entry) says that Eliade's eternal return is "a belief, expressed... in religious behaviour, in the ability to return to the mythical age, to become contemporary with the events described in one's myths".

      Thus, through the medium of song, we are taken back to become contemporary with, among other things, the Crusades and the falls of Jericho and of Babylon.

      From Alasdair's interview by Tyler Wilcox in 2009:

      the first song in some ways explores the idea of “eternal return” – I was reading Mircea Eliade on the subject, and Nietzsche obviously wrote about it – I became obsessed with the idea and the various ways in which it could be configured. There’s obviously the classic image of the ouroboros serpent… but I was also think about it in terms of the myth of progress – when what we think of as progress is actually destruction. Like Kekulé’s ring, Benzene. And the fact that I personally constantly return to Song as a form of “expression” or creation rather than, say, improvisation or composition.

  37. www.jstor.org.mutex.gmu.edu www.jstor.org.mutex.gmu.edu
    1. Annual Reviews is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Annual Review of Anthropology. http://www.jstor.org The Globalization of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity

      Finally an open-source, open access option for sharing research!

  38. Mar 2014
    1. Hdt. 1.154. W see the story of Pactyes as an example of how characters in Herodotus are treated and how he is cautious with religious matters. First of all, Pactyes was the Lydian who Cyrus had entrusted with booty taken from Croesus and the Lydians. In short, Herodotus tells us: Pactyes seizes the gold, hides in Kyme to escape his Persian pursuers and then the Kymaeans consult Apollo's oracle at Branchidae in an unmarked, direct-speech narrative, in identical manner from what precedes it. The unique thing here is that the oracle chastises the Kymeans here for even asking about whether or not they should give up the suppliant. Thus a parallel can be seen here and when Herodotus explains a tale about asking the Indians how much money it would it take for them to burn the bodies of their fathers. Some things were just taboo and the mere thought of them meant that you were in trouble with the gods.

  39. Feb 2014
  40. theaccidentalmissionary.wordpress.com theaccidentalmissionary.wordpress.com
    1. God is not a behavioral psychologist.

      This hits the core of everything wrong with popular narratives of relating with God. If religion has as a purpose the fostering of community through morality it fails to achieve where it retreats to rewards and punishment as a means of control.

  41. Oct 2013
    1. The Epideictic speaker is concerned with virtue and vice, praising the one and censuring the other.

      I thinks religious rhetoric falls under this category.