70 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2019
    1. duce

      It's really cool to see "reduce" used this way. I've never seen it like this in English, but it makes perfect sense.

      "duce" is from "ducere" which means "to lead." "reduce" is "to lead again."

      Actually, now that I ponder it, I'm having trouble seeing the metaphor we employ when we use it today.

      Edit: Holy smokes ok so the metaphor is "leading back to a more primordial state." Fascinating.

  2. Jan 2019
    1. Most of the fine lines that separate mental entities from one another are drawn only in our own head and, therefore, totally in­visible. And yet, by playing up the act of "crossing" them, we can make mental discontinuities more "tangible." Many rituals, indeed, are designed specifically to substantiate the mental segmentation of reality into discrete chunks. In articulating our "passage" through the mental partitions separating these chunks from one another, such rituals, originally identified by Arnold Van Gennep as "rites of passage,"107 certainly enhance our experience of discontinuity.

      Rituals help connect the frame to the spatial qualities of the mental models we create to understand complex ideas.

    2. Such mental geography has no physical basis but we experience it as if it did

      Evokes Moser's cognitive mental models and Borditsky's spatial metaphor work on how we use the language of physical space to carve out understanding about self and the social/cultural concepts.

  3. Aug 2018
    1. The exclusion of non-symbolic expressions from social science analysis has not only resulted in a highly problematic conceptualisation of nature and natural time but it has also meant the omission of artefacts and technology from social science. As Carlstein ( I 982: 8-9) points out, 'social scientists have commonly refused to see 'dead things' as social or have left them aside for the natural scientists. Social scientists have also commonly Time for Social Theory: Points of Departure 157 refused to look upon artefacts as social in the sense that they impinge on how individuals interact with each other. These 'dead things' are, at best, seen as symbols and are not considered to be genuine ingredients in social situations and processes.' Yet, with respect to time, it is difficult to see how we can understand society without the time aspects of those 'dead things', those created artefacts and machines that shape our lives and our understanding of reality.

      Interesting perspective on how sociotemporality is also influenced by artifacts and technology. Adam argues this is a missing opportunity in social theory. I suspect STS theorists would vehemently disagree. But in 1990 (when this book was published) STS, ANT, etc., were still relatively new ideas.

      This passage sets up the discussion on metaphor.

    1. And if Weick has drawn the correct conclusion about how the past is used to enact the present, being able to note the differences may be even more im­portant than being able to see the similarities. This is especially so in equivocal enactments, which Weick (1979, p. 201) described as involving a figure-ground construction, one in which the ground consists of the strange and unfamiliar

      Weick describes the need to discern differences over similarities to effectively use past-present metaphors as a sense-making device.

    2. Among the reasons this may be so is that the simple future tense is more open-ended than the future perfect tense, the latter seeming to con­vey a sense of closure and a focus on specific events, which is unlike the sim­ple future tense in which anything is possible (Weick 1979, pp. 198-99). It is well to note that although Weick did not explicitly frame his argument in terms of metaphor, it is really another example of the past-as-metaphor-for- the-future idea developed in this chapter, albeit a more precise manifestation of it. The precision comes in Weick’s conclusion that some futures are more like the past, are more similar to it than others. In his argument, the future described in future perfect terms is more similar to the past than the future de­scribed in simple future terms.

      future perfect tense appears to generate a sense of focus and closure while simple future tense is more open-ended.

      Weick theorizes that future perfect tense casts the description of a future event in more detail.

    3. To consider the future, it may help to treat it like the past, that is, as ifit had already happened. This is the premise Weick proposed in his discussion of fu­ture perfect thinking (1979, pp. 195-200). Future perfect thinking is a gram­matical prescription instructing managers and planners and all who consider the future to do so in the future perfect tense. Thus rather than the simple fu­ture tense as used in a statement like “We shall overcome,” the future perfect128Eternal Horizonstense would have us say, “We shall have overcome.” Alfred Schutz believed that the “planned act bears the temporal character of pastness' (Schutzs emphasis), be­cause the actor projects the act as completed and in the past, a paradox that places the act in both the past and the future at the same time, something the future perfect tense makes possible (1967, p. 61). These were insights that Weick both noted (1979, p. 198) and built upon to explain why future perfect thinking may make it easier to envision possible futures.

      Interesting proposal to use future perfect tense to envision the future.

      is that happening to an extent with the multiple uses/tenses of "update" in the SBTF transcripts?

    4. Weick argued that the past was used to understand the present and the future, that neither could be understood without the past. And how the past can provide this understanding, this meaning, is a major insight

      Weick connects sensemaking in present and future constructs to retrospection of the past.

      See also: Fraisse (1963, p. 172) and Schutz (1967, p. 51)

    5. Unfortunately, the similarities, the likenesses, may overwhelm the differ­ences (see Morgan 1997, pp. 4-5). And according to Weick, “people who select interpretations for present enactments usually see in the present what they’ve seen before” (1979, p. 201). In terms of the past-as-metaphor perspective de­veloped in this chapter, “what they’ve seen before” implies the use of “an eye for resemblances,” the ability to see the similarities. But as Aristotle, Morgan, and Neustadt and May all noted, there is more to the mature use of metaphor than detecting the similarities between events and situations; the differences matter too. They matter, in part, because the ability to detect and deal with novelty may be a key to both organizational learning and performance (Butler т995> PP· 944-46)

      Using the past to metaphorically describe the present.

  4. Jul 2018
    1. Thus, people have historically relied on visual or auditory signals to estimate, determine, or track time. Initially, these time signals were derived from nature: theposition of the sun in the sky orthe sound of a rooster in the morning. Eventually, these time signals became technology-based. Many people now rely on displays, or signals, of time that derive from our world of pervasive devices: digital time displayed on a device screen, a notification sound from a calendar application.

      Curious why temporal semiotics (see Zerubavel) is not mentioned here.

    1. The “going back” is indicative of the back-and-forth pattern of polychronic behavior, because it is another way of engaging several activities during the same tim

      use of spatial metaphor to describe polychronic behavior.

    1. metaphor is a potentially powerful tool for understanding human beliefs and behavior, and the meta­phors people hold about organizations (which encompass much of the way they define organizational reality) explain much about the decisions they make and the actions they take (see Morgan 1997, especially p. 4).

      Background on the relationship between the origin of the escapement (device that powers gear movements of equal duration) in the mechanical clock and divine intervention >> "God set the clocks to ticking" (pg. 11).

      Section describes the origins and importance of metaphor in temporal studies for understanding human beliefs, behavior, motives, and actions.

    1. While interest and credit had been known and documented since 3000 BC in Babylonia, it was not until the late Middle Ages that the Christian Church slowly and almost surrepti­tiously changed its position on usury,6 which set time free for trade to be allocated, sold and controlled. It is against this back�round that we have to read the extr�cts from Benjar1_1in Franklin's text of 1736, quoted at length m chapter 2, which contains the famous phrases 'Remember, that time is money ... Remember that money begets money.'7 Clock time, the created time to human design, was a precondition for this change in value and practice and formed the perfect partner to abstract, decontextualized money. From the Middle Ages, trade fairs existed where the trade in time became commonplace and calculations about future prices an integral part of commerce. In addition, internatio�al trade by sea required complex calculations about pote�ual profit and loss over long periods, given that trade ships might be away for as long as three years at a time. The time economy of interest and credit, moreover, fed directly into the monetary value of labour time, that is, paid employme�t as an integral part of the production of goo?s and serv_1ce�. However it was not until the French Revolunon that the md1-vidual (�eaning male) ownership of time became enshrined as a legal right

      Historical, religious, economic, and political aspects of how time became a commodity that could be allocated, sold, traded, borrowed against or controlled.

      Benjamin Franklin metaphor: "time is money ... money begets money"

    1. There was a wind like ice. People went flitting by, very fast; the men walked like scissors; the women trod like cats. And nobody knew—nobody cared. Even if she broke down, if at last, after all these years, she were to cry, she’d find herself in the lock-up as like as not.

      Intriguing are the similes here. Perhaps we could run a search for such key words of metaphor such as 'like' in the story, and find out how Katherine Mansfield's usage of them linked to the themes.

    1. bels. To date, we have found that our subjects have a minimal ability, and almost no language, to discuss the vagaries of time. In general, people attempt to negotiate their subjective experiences of time through the assumptions of the dominant temporal logic outlined a

      So true, in my study too.

      Cite this graf.

    2. Thedominant temporal logicalso conceptualizestime aslinear. In other words,one chunk of time leads to another in a straight progression. While chunks of time can be manipulated and reordered in the course of a day (or week, or month), each chunk of time has a limited duration and each activity has a beginning and an end. An hour is an hour is an hour, and in the course of a day (or a lifetime) hours stack up like a vector, moving one forward in a straightforward progression.

      Definition of linear time.

      WRT to temporal linguistics, linear time drives moving-ego and moving-time metaphors.

  5. May 2018
    1. It was a strong effort of the spirit of good, but it was ineffectual. Destiny was too potent, and her immutable laws had decreed my utter and terrible destruction.

      Destiny and Nature fight within Victor's mind over what's "right". Destiny is encouraging Victor to continue on to his pursuits of reanimating the dead as she wants to destroy Victor. Nature wants Victor to leave her alone, let her preside over things the way they are supposed to be. Though Nature is correct and following this path will ultimately lead Victor to safety- Destiny is far more alluring and attractive, fooling Victor into the terrible trap she has laid.

  6. Apr 2018
    1. Sauruman, it easily represents bullies, drugs, gangs, violence, abuse, prejudice, or any of the obstacles placed before our young, modem-day heroes.

      For different age groups of students, different difficult topics could be introduced. For example, it may not be appropriate to talk about drugs with 1st graders, but using a fantasy book to discuss bullying in a first grade classroom could be extremely beneficial.

    2. ulf. We speak in metaphor when we don't have better poetry, and fantasy liter- ature, over time, has evolved as a metaphor for hu- man experienc

      Fantasy can be used to teach about metaphors, relating the fantasy stories to real life.

  7. Mar 2018
    1. Like guns and cars, cameras are fantasy-machines whose use is addictive.

      I love the metaphoric tone between guns and cars in this section.

  8. Nov 2017
  9. Jun 2017
    1. These growing feathers pluck’d from Caesar’s wing Will make him fly an ordinary pitch, Who else would soar above the view of men, And keep us all in servile fearfulness.

      Shakespeare utilises this extended metaphor to highlight the apprehensive sentiment that many higher class Romans had towards the newfound power Caesar had gained, and the upper class' incredulity of Caesar’s overwhelming support with the plebeians. In context, this scene is a dialogue between two Tribunes, Flavius and Murellus, with them fearing the ever-increasing power and arrogance of Caesar, and their concern that the blind worship of him would elevate Caesar to an untouchable god-status.

      They discuss about plucking the feathers from Caesar’s wing to make him fly an ordinary pitch, which is to tow Caesar back from the lofty status of power he has assumed. In this scene, they disrobe the lavish ornaments placed on the monuments of Caesar in an attempt to bring Caesar down to the level of an ordinary man, and in a bid to remove the perception of a deity the plebeians had towards Caesar. The uneasiness they had was that if they did not bring Caesar down, he would ‘soar above the view of men’, and would rule over the people by keeping them in a subservient status.

      It is debatable whether or not the Tribunes and Senators who were against Caesar did so in fear of him gaining too much power, or if they were against him to further their own ambitions and desires. However, this scene helps foreshadow the further conflicts that will occur, and helps define the higher classes and their viewpoints. In fact, in Act1 Scene2, it is stated that Murellus and Flavius were put to silence for defacing Caesar’s images, which helps solidify the concerns of many Romans as to whether or not Caesar’s rule would be dictatorial.

  10. Apr 2017
    1. My mouth is a motherlode.

      I really like that this section, that is very much concerned with location and identity, starts with identifying the mouth and tongue as a location for rhetoric. It also identifies it with a metaphor of wealth, that there's an internal treasure that is being pulled from her.

  11. Mar 2017
    1. Marius brooding among the ruins of Carthage

      Gaius Marius is a famous Roman general turned statesman who is considered to be “The Third Founder of Rome” for his infamous restructuring of the Roman armies to include the common Romans (known as the “Marian Reforms” that lifted the strict enlistment restrictions based around land ownership) and a long list of other populist reforms. Before his rise to fame and power, he served under the family of the Scipii, stationed with a massive army led by Scipio Africanus that would go to conquer the Carthaginians by sacking their capitol, Carthage. Though Marius would see Carthage in ruin as a common soldier, this is not what is being referenced by Melville. Marius would climb the political ladder over the years in order to achieve such fame, but his populist view alienated him from the other jealous (and wealthy) politicians, and he would see many of his reforms dismantled. A civil war broke out, and though Marius tried his best to defend Rome, he was forced to flee or he would face death at the hands of his opposition. This is when Marius would return to the ruins of Carthage. However, this time he was disillusioned, and was often found “brooding” by his few supporters assisting him in this form of exile to keep hidden from those who would see him killed. Bartleby finds himself in a similar situation; a grim form of imprisonment born of ideals, that stood for the greater good, only to be tested in contemplation by the jailer that is the opposition.

    1. The opposition of meaning ... to its metaphorical signifier ... is sedimented-another metaphor-by the entire history of philosophy."

      Nietzsche would like this: metaphors on metaphors.

    1. Write! and your self-seeking text will know it-self better than flesh and blood, rising, insurrec-tionary dough kneading itself, with sonorous, perfumed ingredients, a lively combination of flying colors, leaves, and rivers plunging into the sea we feed.

      Another line building on the use of texts to construct the self, and I'm interested in her move to go from "flesh and blood" to baking bread to this autumnal estuary. Less of a singular organism to a networked ecosystem, perhaps?

  12. Feb 2017
    1. alchemic opportunity

      I like the metaphor here; the phrase "alchemic opportunity" hints at both the promising possibilities that can come from such ambiguity, and also the danger of the process. In this case, I think the danger is those philosophers who (as seen in the opposite column of this page) become fixated with deconstructing a term lauded by the opposition because of it's ambiguity, while overlooking the ambiguity of the term(s) they embrace.

    1. By using the telescopic metaphor (similar to Nietzsche)

      Fantastic linkage around vision, which was important the Enlightenment. It's also interesting how metaphorical Willard's articulation of the truth: the "full-orbed revelation" doesn't necessary have the ring of science to it.

  13. Jul 2016
  14. Apr 2016
    1. Scott owns the blog, Amy’s a sharecropper on it.

      I've been thinking about this metaphor, and about comments on blogs vs. blogs linking to blogs. In some ways this is another part of the Wikipedia vs. Federated Wiki question. I say "vs." because the alternatives do become binary at some point in the conversation. But back to the owning vs. sharecropping: in terms of web presence, maybe; in terms of discourse and rhetoric and the ways call and response differ, maybe not. I'll keep thinking. And I'm grateful for the heads-up that Hypothes.is is at last up and running!

  15. Jan 2016
    1. As there is a 'digital divide' so there is a 'linguistic divide'.

      Access as metaphor. Security metaphor? If you don't have the key, the password, the magic symbols/handshake/medium of exchange, then you don't get in.

    1. information quality
      1. We can rule informaton by separating the good (credible, fair, good-faithed) from the bad (inaccurate, unfair, hate-filled)
    2. solving “information overload

      Problem-solution template/metaphor:

      1. We can rule information with tools (the technocratic solution)
      2. We can rule the information but only so long as we acknowledge the truth that we are not multitaskers but serial taskers who have to learn how to codeswitch.
      3. We can rule the information by allowing ourselves to not be ruled by fear of missing out.
    3. “information overload.”

      burden metaphor

      Make up your mind. Which is it? Here tossed salad of a paragraph is indicative of the confusion we all have in face of this thing called the Internet or the web or mediarich ecosystem. See. We can't even agree with a noun to call the thing out.

    4. consume all

      eating metaphor

    5. more access

      security metaphor

  16. Dec 2015
    1. That which makes abundance appear to be lack is entirely in the standpoint. It depends entirely on which end of the binoculars you are looking through. As I have said before, you have a habit of switching ends quite frequently. This is what is frustrating you. When you receive a telephone call, or a statement in the mail, which claims that your Supply is not omnipresent—some part of your universe is coming up short—you must recognize this as being totally false. Your Being is omnipresently present and active. Since that is the Fact, then it would be foolish for you to go out and attempt to correct that illusion on the basis of the phone call or statement. The attempt is made on the basis of a false assumption.

      This is an effective metaphor: what is perceived depends on which end of the binoculars you are looking through.

      It is important to be aware of claims that what is false is true so they can be effectively addressed. This is why mindfulness or awareness is such an important component of the journey of awakening.

      What tag to use?? An event has arisen that claims Paul is in lack when that is not possible in Truth - only in illusion. How best to tag things like this?

    1. PAUL: I feel like I’m going crazy. RAJ: I know you do. But remember, Paul, that is just an idea, just one of an infinitude of ideas, and it therefore holds no position of authority or dominance in your experience. Do not credit it with any value, for it has no more value that any other spurious thought which states an absurd impossibility. Do not attempt to handle it, but simply pass on by.

      Paul's concepts are being challenged and he feels like he's going crazy.

      Raj says not to give that idea any authority, it has no more value than any other spurious thought which states an absurd impossibility.

      This advice is similar to the metaphor of thoughts being as clouds passing through a clear blue sky. They arise and pass away. There is no need to clink to any given cloud...

    1. Although we are going to be conversing more continuously today and tomorrow than we have in the past, it need not involve any sense of urgency or rush. Let it flow at its own rate, and you float with the current. The river will get to its destination. the river, of course, is the flow of your own Being unfolding Itself as Itself, and constituting your conscious experience of Being.

      River is a metaphor the unfolding of your conscious experience of Being.

    1. I want you to consider that in everything we are doing, we are harmonizing and flowing with the divine energies—with the outpouring of the river of Life, right at Its source. This river of Life flows freely and totally through and as your conscious experience of Being. It is always doing this, whether or not you have placed yourself properly in that Place. This is important to understand, since it makes clear that the only thing we need to do in order to find the resolution to whatever situation we are faced with, is simply go to the Source as the Door.

      The simplicity of life comes in harmonizing with the source of life that is continuously flowing freely through your conscious experience of Being.

    1. And the result is a book, which is being released this month by Polity Press.

      The metaphor behind "release" is pretty profound. Released into the wild. Like the book is a injured wild thing that has been nursed to health and now returns to the zeitgeist from whence it came? More like a domesticated thing that we allow in and out through the pet flap in the door?

      I am thinking more in terms of 'reader response' theory which argues among other things that the book as a stable thing that the authors have control over no longer exists once it is 'released' into the reader wild. As lit-crit David Bleich once noted, "Knowledge is made by people, not found."

  17. Nov 2015
    1. RAJ: Very well, Paul. I want you to consider the fact that “pedestals” are for show. They exist for the purpose of exhibiting whatever is resting upon them. As a matter of fact, the pedestal itself has become an object of art. I want you to consider the fact that a pedestal is used to set something apart from everything else. It is a divisive structure, three-dimensionally speaking. It is also divisive from an inner standpoint, wherein it equates with “ego”—”a liar and the father of it.“1 It is the liar, in that it holds up that which is not separate and says, “This is separate.” It is the father of the lie, in that what it holds up as separate is concocted of its own fantasy. The pedestal, together with what it shows off, is total illusion. One truly does not exist without the other.

      The pedestal is used as metaphor for ego and specialness. It is divisive in its claims as separate a thing that is not separate.

      The pedestal along with that which it holds as separate, is total illusion.

    1. RAJ: The pink chrysanthemum stands as the radiant beauty of Itself as though there is no other thing going on. The image, as you see it, symbolizes the absolute disregard for the supposed existence of any other thing, purpose, or concept outside of Its purpose of radiating Its fullness, Its beauty—the fact that it is a glorious pink chrysanthemum. Being is that way. It radiates Itself, and there is no other than It.

      The pink chrysanthemum is a symbol for living Life to its fullest and to Shine Forth the abundance and beauty of your Being no matter what is demanding that you find another purpose.

      This is what it means to Love Thyself!!

      Holy Shit Batman, I don't think we're in Kansas anymore!! (...forget this world, forget this Course, and come with wholly empty hands unto your God.)

    1. Ego behaves exactly like a drug. As one gets used to it, it requires a bigger “fix” in order to get the thrill. It also engages one in a quest which had no foundation to begin with. Each additional “fix” requires the further development of a personality and an intellectual originality which can then become identified in a “thrilling” way, so that a higher “high” can be achieved.

      Ego is like a drug (Analogy/Simile), it engages one on a quest with no foundation which moves deeper into development of personality and intellectual originality.

    2. April 29, 1982 Thursday

      Review this chapter - there's a lot in it.

  18. Oct 2015
    1. However, the symmetry of “friending” on Facebook remains an important feature of the software and of the social graph that the company continues to build. Different software platforms and different social networks are shaped by how the software imagines relations between users—that is, by different ethical programs.

      It's interesting to see how FB incorporates the asymetry that other social networks (like twitter, tumblr, Instagram, et al) started with. You can see how the initial symmetrical relationships (born in large part within the metaphors of "friending" as Brown mentions here) determined a certain kind of future for FB.

      It's fascinating to see FB try to work against that initial framing to redefine its ethos/habitat.

    1. Davis, the Western city is rapidly coming unglued. It is a runaway train fuelled by equal parts hubris and fear. It is Roadrunner suspended over the abyss. In tapping in to this anxious tradition of writing on cities, Davis is hardly alone. For example,

      This detailed metaphor, "Roadrunner suspended over the abyss" is quite a fear inducing way of representing the city and urban representation. My analysis of this quote is that it seems we have a lot of potential energy that provides a substantive way of creation, but the problem is that the embodiment of this conception is surrounded by darkness, an inescapable void similar to a black hole so that our fate seems to be known and not a good one. This makes me anxious.

  19. May 2015
    1. Sensation alone is meaningless

      A claim like this seems to work by positing meaning as something not only separable but already separate from sensation. And yet so much of how we metaphorize is by appealing to senses in order to construct & share meaning...

  20. Nov 2013
    1. The drive toward the formation of metaphors is the fundamental human drive, which one cannot for a single instant dispense with in thought, for one would thereby dispense with man himself. This drive is not truly vanquished and scarcely subdued by the fact that a regular and rigid new world is constructed as its prison from its own ephemeral products, the concepts. It seeks a new realm and another channel for its activity, and it finds this in myth and in art generally.

      Incredible writing talent and perceptivity.

    2. Only by forgetting this primitive world of metaphor can one live with any repose, security, and consistency: only by means of the petrifaction and coagulation of a mass of images which originally streamed from the primal faculty of human imagination like a fiery liquid, only in the invincible faith that this sun, this window, this table is a truth in itself, in short, only by forgetting that he himself is an artistically creating subject, does man live with any repose, security, and consistency.

      Brilliant use of imagery and metaphor. The primordial ooze of human constructed reality.

    3. Perhaps such a person will gaze with astonishment at Chladni's sound figures; perhaps he will discover their causes in the vibrations of the string and will now swear that he must know what men mean by "sound."

      good use of metaphor to illustrate

    4. One might invent such a fable, and yet he still would not have adequately illustrated how miserable, how shadowy and transient, how aimless and arbitrary the human intellect looks within nature

      metaphor with the purpose of "perspective"

    5. it is we who impress ourselves in this way. In conjunction with this, it of course follows that the artistic process of metaphor formation with which every sensation begins in us already presupposes these forms and thus occurs within them. The only way in which the possibility of subsequently constructing a new conceptual edifice from metaphors themselves can be explained is by the firm persistence of these original forms That is to say, this conceptual edifice is an imitation of temporal, spatial, and numerical relationships in the domain of metaphor.

      Because a belief exists within us it is already present in a sensation when we feel it.

      Hmmmm...the beliefs we build is a copy of the metaphorical realm of the world, space and numbers.

    6. Truths are illusions which we have forgotten are illusions- they are metaphors that have become worn out and have been drained of sensuous force, coins which have lost their embossing and are now considered as metal and no longer as coins.

      Money was originally precious metals, and then signs for precious metals (paper money), and then signs for the signs for precious metals (debit/credit cards), and is now turning into signs for the signs for the signs for precious metals (apps that represent debit/credit cards). Just as money underwent this transition, so did truth. We now take truth to mean something fixed, but we have just forgotten that truth is a sign for a social illusion.

    1. Cicero seems to have spoken in an age of gold, Quin-tilian in an age of iron. But nevertheless, com-pared to the eloquent men of that time, he was without doubt counted among the eloquent.

      Cicero mastered eloquence but Quintilian was also eloquent.

  21. Oct 2013
    1. see, then, that I must say something about the eloquence of the prophets also, where many things are concealed under a metaphorical style, which the more completely they seem buried under figures of speech, give the greater pleasure when brought to light. In this place, however, it is my duty to select a passage of such a kind that I shall not be compelled to explain the matter, but only to commend the style.
    1. Words are proper when they signify that to which they were first applied; metaphorical, when they have one signification by nature, and another in the place in which they are used.
    1. Now strange words simply puzzle us; ordinary words convey only what we know already; it is from metaphor that we can best get hold of something fresh. When the poet calls "old age a withered stalk," he conveys a new idea, a new fact, to us by means of the general notion of bloom, which is common to both things

      Interesting observation. The impact and usefulness of metaphor vs ordinary and unfamiliar words.

    2. "It is fitting that Greece should cut off her hair beside the tomb of those who fell at Salamis, since her freedom and their valour are buried in the same grave." Even if the speaker here had only said that it was right to weep when valour was being buried in their grave, it would have been a metaphor, and a graphic one; [1411b] but the coupling of "their valour" and "her freedom" presents a kind of antithesis as well.
    3. It is also good to use metaphorical words; but the metaphors must not be far-fetched, or they will be difficult to grasp, nor obvious, or they will have no effect. The words, too, ought to set the scene before our eyes; for events ought to be seen in progress rather than in prospect. So we must aim at these three points: Antithesis, Metaphor, and Actuality.

      Effective metaphors are easy to understand.

    1. Good riddles do, in general, provide us with satisfactory metaphors: for metaphors imply riddles, and therefore a good riddle can furnish a good metaphor. Further, the materials of metaphors must be beautiful; and the beauty, like the ugliness, of all words may, as Licymnius says, lie in their sound or in their meaning. Further, there is a third consideration -- one that upsets the fallacious argument of the sophist Bryson, that there is no such thing as foul language, because in whatever words you put a given thing your meaning is the same.

      Types of metaphors

    2. Prose-writers must, however, pay specially careful attention to metaphor, because their other resources are scantier than those of poets. Metaphor, moreover, gives style clearness, charm, and distinction as nothing else can: and it is not a thing whose use can be taught by one man to another. Metaphors, like epithets, must be fitting, which means that they must fairly correspond to the thing signified: failing this, their inappropriateness will be conspicuous: the want of harmony between two things is emphasized by their being placed side by side

      Metaphors are a powerful tool in prose, they connect ideas for the reader.

    3. metaphor is of great value both in poetry and in prose. Prose-writers must, however, pay specially careful attention to metaphor, because their other resources are scantier than those of poets. Metaphor, moreover, gives style clearness, charm, and distinction as nothing else can: and it is not a thing whose use can be taught by one man to another. Metaphors, like epithets, must be fitting, which means that they must fairly correspond to the thing signified: failing this, their inappropriateness will be conspicuous: the want of harmony between two things is emphasized by their being placed side by side.
    1. Three chief features of these clever, pointed sayings are: (1) antithesis, (2) metaphor, and (3) actuality or vividness (i.e. the power of "setting the scene before our eyes").
    2. Rare, compound, and invented words must be used sparingly in prose; in which, over and above the regular and proper terms for things, metaphorical terms only can be used with advantage, and even these need care.

      Use common terminology

    1. The Simile also is a metaphor; the difference is but slight. When the poet says of Achilles that he Leapt on the foe as a lion, this is a simile; when he says of him 'the lion leapt', it is a metaphor -- here, since both are courageous, he has transferred to Achilles the name of 'lion'. Similes are useful in prose as well as in verse; but not often, since they are of the nature of poetry. They are to be employed just as metaphors are employed, since they are really the same thing except for the difference mentioned.

      I think it's interesting that Aristotle is teaching the functional difference between simile and metaphor. Instead of saying similes use "like" or "as," he has to give examples. I'm glad teachers teach it differently today.

    1. The address of Gorgias to the swallow, when she had let her droppings fall on him as she flew overhead, is in the best tragic manner. He said, "Nay, shame, O Philomela." Considering her as a bird, you could not call her act shameful; considering her as a girl, you could; and so it was a good gibe to address her as what she was once and not as what she is.

      The specificity of the chosen metaphor is important. If chosen correctly, it can create a vivid image, but if chosen badly can confuse the audience.

  22. Sep 2013