- Nov 2013
He wears no quivering and changeable human face, but, as it were, a mask with dignified, symmetrical features. He does not cry; he does not even alter his voice. When a real storm cloud thunders above him, he wraps himself in his cloak, and with slow steps he walks from beneath it.
Amazing writer, I could read him all day!
The drive toward the formation of metaphors is the fundamental human drive, which one cannot for a single instant dispense with in thought, for one would thereby dispense with man himself. This drive is not truly vanquished and scarcely subdued by the fact that a regular and rigid new world is constructed as its prison from its own ephemeral products, the concepts. It seeks a new realm and another channel for its activity, and it finds this in myth and in art generally.
Incredible writing talent and perceptivity.
It seeks a new realm and another channel for its activity, and it finds this in myth and in art generally.
the stimulus for progress inventiveness
But we produce these representations in and from ourselves with the same necessity with which the spider spins. If we are forced to comprehend all things only under these forms, then it ceases to be amazing that in all things we actually comprehend nothing but these forms.
All that we comprehend exists in context to the forms and concepts we create and the webs we weave.
A painter without hands who wished to express in song the picture before his mind would, by means of this substitution of spheres, still reveal more about the essence of things than does the empirical world.
For between two absolutely different spheres, as between subject and object, there is no causality, no correctness, and no expression; there is, at most, an aesthetic relation:
Hm. Well, that's something, at least. Can we feel or sense or experience things beyond description with our sensory perception?
and that the question of which of these perceptions of the world is the more correct one is quite meaningless, for this would have to have been decided previously in accordance with the criterion of the correct perception, which means, in accordance with a criterion which is not available. But in any case it seems to me that "the correct perception"-which would mean "the adequate expression of an object in the subject"-is a contradictory impossibility.
Even if we could glimpse what lies "beyond" we have no context with which to contain or express things objectively.
Only by forgetting this primitive world of metaphor can one live with any repose, security, and consistency: only by means of the petrifaction and coagulation of a mass of images which originally streamed from the primal faculty of human imagination like a fiery liquid, only in the invincible faith that this sun, this window, this table is a truth in itself, in short, only by forgetting that he himself is an artistically creating subject, does man live with any repose, security, and consistency.
Brilliant use of imagery and metaphor. The primordial ooze of human constructed reality.
the entire universe as the infinitely fractured echo of one original sound-man; the entire universe as the infinitely multiplied copy of one original picture-man. His method is to treat man as the measure of all things, but in doing so he again proceeds from the error of believing that he has these things [which he intends to measure] immediately before him as mere objects. He forgets that the original perceptual metaphors are metaphors and takes them to be the things themselves.
A kaleidoscope of impressions derived from subjective projection of metaphors derived from fictitious concepts. "Life is a fantasy" of man's measure of the universe.
Here one may certainly admire man as a mighty genius of construction, who succeeds in piling an infinitely complicated dome of concepts upon an unstable foundation, and, as it were, on running water. Of course, in order to be supported by such a foundation, his construction must be like one constructed of spiders' webs: delicate enough to be carried along by the waves, strong enough not to be blown apart by every wind.
As a genius of construction man raises himself far above the bee in the following way: whereas the bee builds with wax that he gathers from nature, man builds with the far more delicate conceptual material which he first has to manufacture from himself. In this he is greatly to be admired, but not on account of his drive for truth or for pure knowledge of things.
Here one may certainly admire man as a mighty genius of construction, who succeeds in piling an infinitely complicated dome of concepts upon an unstable foundation, and, as it were, on running water.
and call it "civilization"
definition: • (in Kantian philosophy) a conception of what is common to all members of a class; a general or essential type or form.
As a "rational" being, he now places his behavior under the control of abstractions.
Law as abstraction.
The venerability, reliability, and utility of truth is something which a person demonstrates for himself from the contrast with the liar, whom no one trusts and everyone excludes.
The idea that truth exists only in contrast to its opposite, with no fundamental autonomous, self-determining, independent, or sovereign foundation.
Thus, to express it morally, this is the duty to lie according to a fixed convention, to lie with the herd and in a manner binding upon everyone.
The duty to lie.
Truths are illusions which we have forgotten are illusions- they are metaphors that have become worn out and have been drained of sensuous force, coins which have lost their embossing and are now considered as metal and no longer as coins.
Forgetting the emblematic property of words as concepts, we adhere false "essence" to concepts and call it "truth" for the construction of convention and thus empty rhetoric, metaphors, and illusions. Not that we can actually construct convention that is not void of essence, but we might consider the folly of acting as if "truth" is real.
For even our contrast between individual and species is something anthropomorphic and does not originate in the essence of things; although we should not presume to claim that this contrast does not correspond o the essence of things: that would of course be a dogmatic assertion and, as such, would be just as indemonstrable as its opposite.
An interesting point that "we should not presume to claim that this contrast does not correspond o the essence of things".
We obtain the concept, as we do the form, by overlooking what is individual and actual; whereas nature is acquainted with no forms and no concepts, and likewise with no species, but only with an X which remains inaccessible and undefinable for us.
That which is beyond rhetoric is beyond our conceptual reach
Interesting choice of terms.
Definition: "occult": of, involving, or relating to supernatural, mystical, or magical powers or phenomena
This awakens the idea that, in addition to the leaves, there exists in nature the "leaf": the original model according to which all the leaves were perhaps woven,
When in actuality "leaf" is merely the distinction of singularity, meaning not "leaves". Not based on an "original" model at all, but a distinction what it is related, and not equal to. Concepts and words only create "context"; the water that all distinctions, all rhetoric, and all convention swims in.
cases which are never equal and thus altogether unequal. Every concept arises from the equation of unequal things.
Concepts can only be constructed in rhetoric in their relationship to other concepts, as when "this" thing is not "that" thing. Says more of what a thing is "not" than what a thing "is".
In particular, let us further consider the formation of concepts. Every word instantly becomes a concept precisely insofar as it is not supposed to serve as a reminder of the unique and entirely individual original experience to which it owes its origin;
words are concepts and conceptual
Thus the genesis of language does not proceed logically in any case, and all the material within and with which the man of truth, the scientist, and the philosopher later work and build, if not derived from never-never land, is a least not derived from the essence of things.
If language originally evolved as a tool of preservation, its roots are naturally based in self-interest for purposes of survival. That hasn't changed, we still rely on language and its conventions for survival. The point being, that we tend to forget that definitions and conventions are based in, derived from, arbitrary inventions.
Perhaps such a person will gaze with astonishment at Chladni's sound figures; perhaps he will discover their causes in the vibrations of the string and will now swear that he must know what men mean by "sound."
good use of metaphor to illustrate
What one-sided preferences, first for this, then for that property of a thing!
selection and choices
But the further inference from the nerve stimulus to a cause outside of us is already the result of a false and unjustifiable application of the principle of sufficient reason. If truth alone had been the deciding factor in the genesis of language, and if the standpoint of certainty had been decisive for designations, then how could we still dare to say "the stone is hard," as if "hard" were something otherwise familiar to us, and not merely a totally subjective stimulation!
Rhetoric cannot be escaped through rhetoric.
Definition 3: Logic a statement that is true by necessity or by virtue of its logical form.
It is only by means of forgetfulness that man can ever reach the point of fancying himself to possess a "truth" of the grade just indicated.
Memory, selection, and choices.
He is indifferent toward pure knowledge which has no consequences; toward those truths which are possibly harmful and destructive he is even hostilely inclined.
Whatever is beyond convention, beyond rhetoric, is generally deemed impertinent as it is of no consequence within the conventional/current paradigm.
It is in a similarly restricted sense that man now wants nothing but truth: he desires the pleasant, life-preserving consequences of truth. He is indifferent toward pure knowledge which has no consequences; toward those truths which are possibly harmful and destructive he is even hostilely inclined.
"tell me lies. tell me sweet, sweet lies" The maintenance of convention. Truth and/or consequences.
And besides, what about these linguistic conventions themselves? Are they perhaps products of knowledge, that is, of the sense of truth? Are designations congruent with things? Is language the adequate expression of all realities?
Linguistic conventions that serve the above stated purposes of "selection" (for desirable rather than undesirable consequences), and not necessarily "truthful" depictions.
What men avoid by excluding the liar is not so much being defrauded as it is being harmed by means of fraud. Thus, even at this stage, what they hate is basically not deception itself, but rather the unpleasant, hated consequences of certain sorts of deception.
Critical distinction regarding the process of "selection"; from his central thesis.
If he does this in a selfish and moreover harmful manner, society will cease to trust him and will thereby exclude him.
social contract: convention
That is to say, a uniformly valid and binding designation is invented for things, and this legislation of language likewise establishes the first laws of truth. For the contrast between truth and lie arises here for the first time.
"... as it were, to engage in a groping game on the backs of things."
Creating the very basis from which a lie, or the act of lying, can become manifest, vis-a-vis, truth telling. The $25,000 question: "What is Rhetoric?"
This peace treaty brings in its wake something which appears to be the first step toward acquiring that puzzling truth drive: to wit, that which shall count as "truth" from now on is established.
Not actual truth, but a contraction of that which is generally accepted as the place of balance between good and evil, right and wrong, etc., yet is in fact, fluid and contextually based, evolving with human/societal values. convention.
That is to say, a uniformly valid and binding designation is invented for things, and this legislation of language likewise establishes the first laws of truth.
The rhetoric of society
But at the same time, from boredom and necessity, man wishes to exist socially and with the herd; therefore, he needs to make peace and strives accordingly to banish from his world at least the most flagrant bellum omni contra omnes.
The basis of the internal battle of good and evil.
Insofar as the individual wants to maintain himself against other individuals, he will under natural circumstances employ the intellect mainly for dissimulation.
Seeing the world as a hostile place, we defend with our power to deceive. Competition and survival based in theories of scarcity.
bellum omni contra omnes
"the war of all against all"
Given this situation, where in the world could the drive for truth have come from?
Will seeing behind the myth burst the bubble of ignorance, to tumble perilously down the back of the tiger?
and then suspect that man is sustained in the indifference of his ignorance by that which is pitiless, greedy, insatiable, and murderous-as if hanging in dreams on the back of a tiger.
Small, fragile, and tenuously suspended and preserved, encased in ignorance, by the same substance, ego, source of good and ill. It reminds me of the fable of a woman hanging from a cliff by a thin reed, tigers above and tigers below, and spying a ripe strawberry plucks and savors its sweetness, as a parable for life.
And woe to that fatal curiosity which might one day have the power to peer out and down through a crack in the chamber of consciousness
The "Crack in the Cosmic Egg", Joseph Chilton Pearce
She threw away the key.
God as Woman. Mother Nature as Creator.
Does nature not conceal most things from him-even concerning his own body-in order to confine and lock him within a proud, deceptive consciousness,
Dissemination and self deception as necessary for survival, innate, not contrived extensions/characteristics of the intellect for purpose of preservation
Moreover, man permits himself to be deceived in his dreams every night of his life. His moral sentiment does not even make an attempt to prevent this,
"Self interest" and "self deception" over-riding morality
Their senses nowhere lead to truth; on the contrary, they are content to receive stimuli and, as it were, to engage in a groping game on the backs of things.
Easily entertained and distracted in a battle of egos on the surface of "forms"
They are deeply immersed in illusions and in dream images; their eyes merely glide over the surface of things and see "forms."
Plato's shadow cave.
a continuous fluttering around the solitary flame of vanity-is so much the rule and the law among men that there is almost nothing which is less comprehensible than how an honest and pure drive for truth could have arisen among them
Good point. On the other hand, this "drive for truth" could arise from an innate need to see beyond the constructs of the ego.
As a means for the preserving of the individual, the intellect unfolds its principle powers in dissimulation, which is the means by which weaker, less robust individuals preserve themselves-since they have been denied the chance to wage the battle for existence with horns or with the sharp teeth of beasts of prey, This art of dissimulation reaches its peak in man.
The sword of intellect and dissimulation equated to the physical defensive characteristics of all living things for preservation, yet with the unique capacity to be misused. Highlighting the vulnerability of humans and over-reaching amplification of intellect to disguise a deep insecurity that originates in the fundamental physical inferiority of humans among beasts.
For this pride contains within itself the most flattering estimation of the value of knowing.
It is remarkable that this was brought about by the intellect, which was certainly allotted to these most unfortunate, delicate, and ephemeral beings merely as a device for detaining them a minute within existence.
Does this imply existence of a Creator?
The pride connected with knowing and sensing lies like a blinding fog over the eyes and senses of men, thus deceiving them concerning the value of existence.
The human pride, synonymous with ego.
And just as every porter wants to have an admirer, so even the proudest of men, the philosopher, supposes that he sees on all sides the eyes of the universe telescopically focused upon his action and thought.
Of Man and God
Once upon a time, in some out of the way corner of that universe which is dispersed into numberless twinkling solar systems, there was a star upon which clever beasts invented knowing. That was the most arrogant and mendacious minute of "world history," but nevertheless, it was only a minute. After nature had drawn a few breaths, the star cooled and congealed, and the clever beasts had to die.
Great use of fable to hyper illuminate his central theme right away. It's colorful, dramatic, poignant, and a little unnerving, altogether engaging.
One might invent such a fable, and yet he still would not have adequately illustrated how miserable, how shadowy and transient, how aimless and arbitrary the human intellect looks within nature
metaphor with the purpose of "perspective"
- sensory perception
- aesthetic relation
- primordial ooze
- bellum omni contra omnes
sine qua non
something absolutely indispensable or essential <reliability is="" a="" sine="" qua="" non="" for="" success="">
For I see that the scholars and teachers of this art have spent greater zeal in collecting the in-structions of the ancients and in thinking up new instructions than they have used judgment in dis-criminating among their own and others' discov-eries.
I grow weary of the endless arguments, and basing clauses on the assertions of others, whether in agreement or disproof. I like the way Ramus has reframed the divisions and agree with his assessments. But, I'd rather read them outright, unhampered with by the age-old arguments and prostrations to bettering the last.
The whole of dialectic concerns the mind and reason, whereas rhetoric and grammar concern language and speech.
divisions of dialect and rhetoric
confused dialectic itself with rhetoric, since in-vention, arrangement, and memory belong to di-alectic and only style and delivery to rhetoric.
an interesting division
I shall not object to your opinion that moral virtue is undoubtedly useful and suitable for the use of all arts, but in no way shall I admit that any art is a moral virtue.
shedding the art of implied moral and philosophical attributes
a public speech or published text in praise of someone or something
Nor is rhetoric a moral virtue as Quintilian thinks, so that whoever possesses it is incapable )f being a wicked man.
mixing metaphors: moral virtue vs. craft. I craveth a brownie, therefore I am.
If moral philosophy were a part of rhetoric, it would have to be expounded in some part f rhetoric.
In use these should be united, so that the same oration can expound purely, speak ornately, and express thought wisely. However, the precepts of pure diction, ornate delivery, and intelligent treatment must be kept separate and should not be confused.
surely, like learning to play the guitar: fingering on the keyboard, strum and pick, and annotation are studied as distinct practices, and combined together to produce the music.
If these arts have been kept separate and enclosed within their own proper limits, then certainly what grammar will teach in its rightful province will not be confused with rhetoric, and dialectic will not encroach upon what each of the others has clearly described.
an interesting approach and helpful, i think.
This is what Quintilian says, and consequently when he wishes to give a name to a human being who is an ideal leader in the republic and is perfect in every virtue and branch of knowledge, he calls him an "orator" - as if to make him a god rather than just a man skilled in a single art.
it does seem that Quintilian and some others, in arguing for rhetoric, attempt to lift it as an art or teaching practice to some higher, loftier platform, imbued with supernatural forces for goodness and the power of morality.
and is consistent within itself.
In this disputation, however, I shall, as far as I may, apply dialectic, the mentor of speaking with truth and constancy, in order that I may evaluate the subject with more incisiveness and wisdom.
admitting to use of rhetoric to discuss rhetoric
At present I am not inquiring after the su-preme virtues of other kinds, such as those accorded the Apollos or the Jupiters.
sticking to earthly functions? no lofty philosophical deluges? how refreshing!
This is the first, the mid-dle, and the final support of my argument. I do not make evil use of the testimonies of men who can lie, but I establish my argument by the truth-fulness of unwavering, natural usage, the usage, I repeat, which I have been following for so many years with the greatest effort through daily practice and by experience in the subject.
the heart of the matter
Yet I add the observation that if they had applied as many months as I have years to judg-ing these precepts accurately and to arranging them in order, I certainly do not doubt that they would have left us arts that are far truer and more distinct.
an astute observation, in consideration of the advantages of time and distance allowing objective critique.
I am discuss-ing now the precepts of dialectic and rhetoric, which I admit were almost all in fact either first discovered by those men, to the great glory of their names, or certainly were collected from others.
"discovered", or "observed" by them?
However, must those who excel in one or many virtues necessarily excel in them all? And is it necessary to think them not men, but gods in all things?
No. And I saw this attempt to have answers for the entire body of issues concerning rhetoric as a failing of many. Tedious attempts to define and redefine to the smallest detail the entire subject as though competing throughout time for authoritative license, like some rhetorical pissing contest.
In fact I shall not only gladly but also perhaps truly admit that of all the men who are, have been, and will in the future be, he was the most eloquent.
regarding Cicero: Yep, me too.
Therefore let us allow Aristotle as sharp an intelligence in various subjects and branches of knowledge as any Aristotelian could imagine, for I admit that that philosopher had an amazing fecundity of talent.
agreed. I love some of Aristotle's other works, but did not so much appreciate his lengthy assertions on rhetoric.
As a result, if the arts were taught with greater conciseness they would certainly be more easily understood, and once the true method for their use was revealed, they would be more easy to practice.
He has a point. Even just getting away from the tired argument over the right vs. evil applications of rhetoric, as so far he has done, lets some room to breath around the subject
By means of a confined, organized, and illustrated classification of subjects, my close colleague Audomarus Ta-laeus cast light on style and delivery and pointed out their deficiencies. To this extent therefore we have here expelled the darkness.
let there be light!
ten general topics - -causes, effects, subjects, adjuncts, opposites, comparisons, names, divisions, definitions, wit-nesses
ten general topics addressed by Aristotle
oh sure - we've heard that before!
a generous patron especially of literature or art
What objection then is there against calling Quintilian to the same account?
none by me, do continue...
- Oct 2013
And thus they cease to listen with submission to a man who does not listen to himself, and in despising the preacher they learn to despise the word that is preached.
discrediting the content by association
THE MAN WHOSE LIFE IS IN HARMONY WITH HIS TEACHING WILL TEACH WITH GREATER EFFECT.
adhering to personal truth and personal experience, authorship, is more persuasive. Walking your talk, and talking your walk
On the other hand, without perspicuity this style cannot give pleasure. And so the three qualities, perspicuity, beauty, and persuasiveness. are to be sought in this style also; beauty, of course, being its primary object.
an argument for "beauty" as apposed to other arguments, such as, for truth or "good"
And therefore we must be on our guard, lest, in striving to carry to a higher point the emotion we have excited, we rather lose what we have already gained.
being alert and responsive to the mood of the listener, and knowing how to adjust effectively requires "presence" and practice
But after the interposition of matter that we have to treat in a quieter style, we can return with good effect to that which must be treated forcibly, thus making the tide of eloquence to ebb and flow like the sea.
Giving the mind of the listener ways to shift, rest, breath, and alternate between different types of listening focuses makes it easier for the audience to remain engaged and listen attentively.
We can bear the subdued style, however, longer without variety than the majestic style. For the mental emotion which it is necessary to stir up in order to carry the hearer's feelings with us, when once it has been sufficiently excited, the higher the pitch to which it is raised, can be maintained the shorter time.
taking care recognize the limits of endurance and available energy of the listener
But we are not to suppose that it is against rule to mingle these various styles: taste. For when we keep monotonously to one style, we fail to retain the hearer's attention; but when we pass from one style to another, the discourse goes off more gracefully, even though it extend to greater length.
paying heed to the limits of attention of an audience
It was necessary, however, to reply to the ill-taught men who think our authors contemptible; not because they do not possess, but because they do not display, the eloquence which these men value so highly.
that they don't intentionally flaunt knowledge of, but display aptitude for speech, they are ridiculed and discredited by critics that hold to staunch precepts on rules of speech
But wisdom is his guide, eloquence his attendant; he follows the first, the second follows him, and yet he does not spurn it when it comes after him.
eloquence is inherent to wisdom?
As then I do not affirm that the apostle was guided by the rules of eloquence, so I do not deny that his wisdom naturally produced, and was accompanied by, eloquence.
making the case that eloquence is a talent that can be naturally aquired
For there are who read and yet neglect them; they read to remember the words, but are careless about knowing the meaning. It is plain we must set far above these the men who are not so retentive of the words, but see with the eyes of the heart into the heart of Scripture. Better than either of these, however, is the man who, when he wishes, can repeat the words, and at the same time correctly apprehends their meaning.
Parts: comprehension, retention, and ability to convey truth and meaning; deep insight and truth seeking study, with or without need of training in speech.
Indeed, I think there are scarcely any who can do both things--that is, speak well, and; in order to do this, think of the rules of speaking while they are speaking.
where the rules of speech may confuse and interfere with a persons natural ability to speak well from listening well
But as some men employ these coarsely, inelegantly, and frigidly, while others use them with acuteness, elegance, and spirit, the work that I am speaking of ought to be undertaken by one who can argue and speak with wisdom, if not with eloquence, and with profit to his hearers, even though he profit them less than he would if he could speak with eloquence too.
truth before eloquence
For even the art of grammar, which teaches correctness of speech, need not be learnt by boys, if they have the advantage of growing up and living among men who speak correctly.
clearly, he disagrees with the practice of "teaching" rhetoric and feels it is something more easily acquired through reading and listening to eloquent speech and written prose
And even outside the canon, which to our great advantage is fixed in a place of secure authority, there is no want of ecclesiastical writings, in reading which a man of ability will acquire a tinge of the eloquence with which they are written, even though he does not aim at this, but is solely intent on the matters treated of; especially, of course, if in addition he practise himself in writing, or dictating, and at last also in speaking, the opinions he has formed on grounds of piety them, and who speak with fluency and elegance, cannot always think of them when they are speaking so as to speak in accordance with them, unless they are discussing the rules themselves
I find him hard to read, made more difficult by the way the text stretches all the way across the page in this particular format. Plus, without context for his argument, I have no idea what he is going on about, or to what purpose.
For men of quick intellect and glowing temperament find it easier to become eloquent by reading and listening to eloquent speakers than by following rules for eloquence.
better learnt through exposure, than taught by route
Who is such a fool as to think this wisdom? Since, then, the faculty of eloquence is available for both sides, and is of very great service in the enforcing either of wrong or right, why do not good men study to engage it on the side of truth, when bad men use it to obtain the triumph of wicked and worthless causes, and to further injustice and error?
making a case for rhetoric to be put to good uses, defending against notions that the art of rhetoric is only a tool of dishonest discourse?
Not that I think such rules of no use, but that whatever use they have is to be learnt elsewhere; and if any good man should happen to have leisure for learning them, he is not to ask me to teach them either in this work or any other.
His concern is with the use of rhetoric rather than the teaching of it
An inquiry has been also started, though by a very few writers, concerning the instrument of oratory. The instrument I call that without which material cannot be fashioned and adapted to the object which we wish to effect
rhetoric as a tool
I might reply to this in the words of Cicero, in whom I find this passage: "In my opinion, no man can become a thoroughly accomplished orator unless he shall have attained a knowledge of every subject of importance and of all the liberal arts," but for my argument, it is sufficient that an orator be acquainted with the subject on which he has to speak
knowledge with all things, knowledge with which one speaks
Cicero, too, in one passage, calls the material of oratory the topics which are submitted to it for discussion, but supposes that particular topics only are submitted to it.
reference to Cicero
For Socrates in Plato seems to say to Gorgias that the matter of oratory is not in words but in things.
reference to Socrates in Plato
AS to the material of oratory, some have said that it is speech, an opinion which Gorgias in Plato is represented as holding. If this be understood in such a way that a discourse, composed on any subject, is to be termed a speech, it is not the material, but the work, as the statue is the work of a statuary, for speeches, like statues, are produced by art
reference to Gorgias in Plato
People think that morals are corrupted in schools; indeed they are at times corrupted, but such may be the case even at home.
There are problems inherent in the notion that there is ONE right way to do everything.
et it is not to be concealed that there are some, who from certain notions of their own, disapprove of this almost public mode of instruction.
examining public vs. private education: an ongoing argument. wonder if we ever might like to try something else.
Moreover, we must not even trust to the first learning by heart; it will be better to have syllables repeated and to impress them long upon the memory; and in reading too, not to hurry on, in order to make it continuous or quick, until the clear and certain connection of the letters become familiar, without at least any necessity to stop for recollection
Teaching to long memory, more effective than to short memory
Let reading, therefore, be at first sure, then continuous, and for a long time slow, until, by exercise, a correct quickness is gained.
learning at their own pace and building confidence along the way.
let him never feel pleased that he does not know a thing;
ah, but Homer knows best.
if he is unwilling to learn, let another be taught before him, of whom he may be envious.
Let us not then lose even the earliest period of life, and so much the less, as the elements of learning depend on the memory alone, which not only exists in children, but is at that time of life even most tenacious.
However, I do agree that providing a structure of learning early on is crucial. Children of college graduates learn to organize input by example and given structure, where children of uneducated parents struggle much more
This advancement, extended through each year, is a profit on the whole, and whatever is gained in infancy is an acquisition to youth.
In our time, we have pushed this to the limit - emphasis on early learning, that is - and I suspect children are pushing back on the pressure they are under at earlier ages by acting out
Of which opinion a great many writers say that Hesiod was, at least such writers as lived before Aristophanes the grammarian, for he was the first to deny that the Hypothecae, in which this opinion is found, was the work of that poet
cultural references that require the present context for effectiveness. he uses a lot of these
The study of Latin ought, therefore, to follow at no long interval, and soon after to keep pace with the Greek; thus it will happen that when we have begun to attend to both tongues with equal care, neither will impede the other.
Languages were taught in grade school as a rule in modern times, but are no longer integral to public secondary education, as a rule.
The best of rules, therefore, are to be laid down, and if any one shall refuse to observe them, the fault will lie not in the method, but in the man.
It may just be my perception, but it seems to me that the study of learning is most often left to the pupil to figure out, these days.
Nor is their misconduct less prejudicial to the manners of their pupils;
like I said above
Since they disdain to yield to those who are skilled in teaching and, growing imperious, and sometimes fierce, in a certain right, as it were, of exercising their authority (with which that sort of men are generally puffed up), they teach only their own folly.
Authority is not a good teacher. Humility is needed in order to be teachable, and also to teach.
Of paedagogi this further may be said, that they should either be men of acknowledged learning, which I should wish to be the first object, or that they should be conscious of their want of learning; for none are more pernicious than those who, having gone some little beyond the first elements, clothe themselves in a mistaken persuasion of their own knowledge.
With or without loads of knowledge, people teach best when also learning.
Before all things, let the talk of the child's nurses not be ungrammatical.
the speech in the home greatly influences a child's ability to learn throughout life.
there is no one who has not gained something by study
Unless hampered by difficulties unrecognized and not accommodated for in the teaching style or approach used
The principles of good diction can be so taught, and therefore we have men of ability in this direction too, who win prizes in their turn, as well as those speakers who excel in delivery -- speeches of the written or literary kind owe more of their effect to their direction than to their thought.
He seems to be attempting to degrade delivery simply on the basis that it doesn't conform to his idea of a systematic teaching method.
Although, it may have been a trend of the times, and over-used. So he might just be trying to steer popular opinion to a more elevated level of taste an appreciation.
Now it was because poets seemed to win fame through their fine language when their thoughts were simple enough, that the language of oratorical prose at first took a poetical colour, e.g. that of Gorgias.
fame or persuasion? Part of persuasion is to engage the listener.
Nobody uses fine language when teaching geometry.
Not true, actually. In teaching, delivery is of particular impact.
Still, the whole business of rhetoric being concerned with appearances, we must pay attention to the subject of delivery, unworthy though it is, because we cannot do without it.
a rather stuffed-shirt attitude distinguishing and elevating some areas of study over others. Acting was not considered a high function at the time. But also, style is something largely developed through observance and mimicry, and given to natural charisma - things that do not lend themselves to teaching and pedagogy
Besides, delivery is -- very properly -- not regarded as an elevated subject of inquiry.
Underrating technique and style as merely theatrics, though admittedly most influential
No systematic treatise upon the rules of delivery has yet been composed; indeed, even the study of language made no progress till late in the day.
emphasis on pedagogy
so it is in the contests of public life, owing to the defects of our political institutions.
all style and no substance; all bark and no bite; context without content; empty or menaingless rhetoric
These are the three things -- volume of sound, modulation of pitch, and rhythm -- that a speaker bears in mind.
in a pleasing way that draws in the listener and enages the audience
A third would be the proper method of delivery; this is a thing that affects the success of a speech greatly; but hitherto the subject has been neglected.
invoking the ethos - style
The second is how to set these facts out in language.
organization and arrangement, placing of emphasis, us of technique to derive desired affect
how persuasion can be produced from the facts themselves.
first form of persuasion is to determine how compelling or persuasive are the facts, and how the facts will be perceived by the audience.
The second is how to set these facts out in language.
with consideration to audience and purpose
For it is not enough to know what we ought to say; we must also say it as we ought;
(1) by working on the emotions of the judges themselves, (2) by giving them the right impression of the speakers' character, or (3) by proving the truth of the statements made.
three types of persuasion
In making a speech one must study three points: first, the means of producing persuasion; second, the style, or language, to be used; third, the proper arrangement of the various parts of the speech. We have already specified the sources of persuasion.
1st, the approach to take, 2nd, consider the audience, and, 3rd, organization and arrangement
Men do speak in this strain when they are deeply stirred, and so, once the audience is in a like state of feeling, approval of course follows. This is why such language is fitting in poetry, which is an inspired thing.
emphatic, colorful, and exaggerated expressions of speech
- Sep 2013
Refutation. An argument may be refuted either by a counter-syllogism or by bringing an objection. Objections may be raised in four ways: (a) by directly attacking your opponent's own statement; (b) by putting forward another statement like it; (c) by putting forward a statement contrary to it; (d) by quoting previous decisions.
four basis of refute/objection
Fables are suitable for popular addresses; and they have this advantage, that they are comparatively easy to invent, whereas it is hard to find parallels among actual past events.
We like stories, they engage us.
they enable a speaker to gratify his commonplace hearers by expressing as a universal truth the opinions which they themselves hold about particular cases
Establishing common ground for the listener instills confidence through a sense of belonging or sameness, elevating them to feel "on par" with the argument, as though respectful of their own intellectual abilities and moral character.
A maxim is a general statement about questions of practical conduct. It is an incomplete enthymeme. Four kinds of maxims. Maxims should be used (a) by elderly men, and (b) to controvert popular sayings. Advantages of maxims: (a) they enable a speaker to gratify his commonplace hearers by expressing as a universal truth the opinions which they themselves hold about particular cases; (b) they invest a speech with moral character.
In regard to each emotion we must consider (a) the states of mind in which it is felt; (b) the people towards whom it is felt; (c) the grounds on which it is felt.
Grounding the argument in a tone reflective of the conditions and circumstances at hand with regard to "influencing the emotions [and] moral affections" in political and forensic demonstration.
The above is a sufficient account, for our present purpose, of virtue and vice in general, and of their various forms.
Aristotle's "virtue and vice".
Prudence is that virtue of the understanding which enables men to come to wise decisions about the relation to happiness of the goods and evils that have been previously mentioned.
Magnanimity is the virtue that disposes us to do good to others on a large scale; [its opposite is meanness of spirit]. Magnificence is a virtue productive of greatness in matters involving the spending of money. The opposites of these two are smallness of spirit and meanness respectively.
Liberality disposes us to spend money for others' good; illiberality is the opposite.
Liberality: Thrift as opposed to "Scrooge".
Next comes liberality; liberal people let their money go instead of fighting for it, whereas other people care more for money than for anything else.
Interesting to see liberty and liberalism defined.
Justice is the virtue through which everybody enjoys his own possessions in accordance with the law; its opposite is injustice, through which men enjoy the possessions of others in defiance of the law.
Justice defined as possessions rightly enjoyed.
Temperance is the virtue that disposes us to obey the law where physical pleasures are concerned; incontinence is the opposite.
Tempering rather than pissing on, or away?
Virtue is, according to the usual view, a faculty of providing and preserving good things; or a faculty of conferring many great benefits, and benefits of all kinds on all occasions.
The Noble is that which is both desirable for its own sake and also worthy of praise; or that which is both good and also pleasant because good. If this is a true definition of the Noble, it follows that virtue must be noble, since it is both a good thing and also praiseworthy
Nobility defined, good and also praiseworthy, and virtuous.
The forms of Virtue are justice, courage, temperance, magnificence, magnanimity, liberality, gentleness, prudence, wisdom.
Forms of virtue.
The ways in which to make them trust the goodness of other people are also the ways in which to make them trust our own.
On gaining favor, for ourselves and others, the same applies.
We have now considered the objects, immediate or distant, at which we are to aim when urging any proposal, and the grounds on which we are to base our arguments in favour of its utility.
We shall learn the qualities of governments in the same way as we learn the qualities of individuals, since they are revealed in their deliberate acts of choice; and these are determined by the end that inspires them.
Qualities of governments and qualities of the individual.
We must also notice the ends which the various forms of government pursue, since people choose in practice such actions as will lead to the realization of their ends.
The importance of understanding various forms of government and their primary ends
The most important and effective qualification for success in persuading audiences and speaking well on public affairs is to understand all the forms of government and to discriminate their respective customs, institutions, and interests. For all men are persuaded by considerations of their interest, and their interest lies in the maintenance of the established order.
On being well versed for appealing to people on the basis of their particular values and interests, and understanding the order at the base of individual community and personal structures.
and those in which no worthless man can succeed, for such things bring greater praise:
Things of value and worth
Good also are the things by which we shall gratify our friends or annoy our enemies;
Things that are admirable and coveted.
Good, too, are things that are a man's very own, possessed by no one else, exceptional; for this increases the credit of having them.
Good through virtue of their scarcity.
The acquisition of a greater in place of a lesser good, or of a lesser in place of a greater evil, is also good, [1362b] for in proportion as the greater exceeds the lesser there is acquisition of good or removal of evil.
Regarding Goodness and Utility: All things being in proportion to greater and lesser Good or Evil.
Now the political or deliberative orator's aim is utility: deliberation seeks to determine not ends but the means to ends, i.e. what it is most useful to do.
There is, indeed, a capacity for long life that is quite independent of health or strength; for many people live long who lack the excellences of the body; but for our present purpose there is no use in going into the details of this.
Or independence, getting to my earlier point.
The constituents of honour are: sacrifices; commemoration, in verse or prose; privileges; grants of land; front seats at civic celebrations; state burial; statues; public maintenance; among foreigners, obeisances and giving place; and such presents as are among various bodies of men regarded as marks of honour.
Interesting, honor being a public pursuit vs. private. Huh, live and learn.
Honour is the token of a man's being famous for doing good.
Can one have honor and derive happiness from, without being famous for it? This sounds more like fame.
The phrases "possession of good children" and "of many children" bear a quite clear meaning.
What is there to do to for people with bad or ugly children, just be unhappy?
A man cannot fail to be completely independent if he possesses these internal and these external goods; for besides these there are no others to have.
It sounds like he is placing "independence" at the base of all happiness. I do not disagree, but I would hope it is debatable, since it is not possible for all people at all times to be independent.
It may be said that every individual man and all men in common aim at a certain end which determines what they choose and what they avoid.
What is left out is as important to shaping the argument and what is chosen.
It is useful, in framing laws, not only to study the past history of one's own country, in order to understand which constitution is desirable for it now, but also to have a knowledge of the constitutions of other nations, and so to learn for what kinds of nation the various kinds of constitution are suited.
"Know [your] song well before [you] start singing" Regarding the breadth and depth of background knowledge needed, generalizing, for each subject.
The truth is, as indeed we have said already, that rhetoric is a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics; and it is partly like dialectic, partly like sophistical reasoning.
in short, the breadth of rhetoric
The main matters on which all men deliberate and on which political speakers make speeches are some five in number: ways and means, war and peace, national defence, imports and exports, and legislation.
5 main matters
t is evident from what has been said that it is these three subjects, more than any others, about which the orator must be able to have propositions at his command. Now the propositions of Rhetoric are Complete Proofs, Probabilities, and Signs. Every kind of syllogism is composed of propositions, and the enthymeme is a particular kind of syllogism composed of the aforesaid propositions.
As laid out and defined in detail, with relation to subject, each concerning time, purpose, goal, listener, and methods, and degrees, understand appropriateness of the propositions applying to each.
These three kinds of rhetoric refer to three different kinds of time. The political orator is concerned with the future: it is about things to be done hereafter that he advises, for or against. The party in a case at law is concerned with the past; one man accuses the other, and the other defends himself, with reference to things already done. The ceremonial orator is, properly speaking, concerned with the present,
Time orientation of political, forensic, and ceremonial, respectively, future, past, and present
Rhetoric falls into three divisions, determined by the three classes of listeners to speeches. For of the three elements in speech-making -- speaker, subject, and person addressed -- it is the last one, the hearer, that determines the speech's end and object.
regarding the listener, subdivided for forensic, political, and theatrical display
In the same way the theory of rhetoric is concerned not with what seems probable to a given individual like Socrates or Hippias, but with what seems probable to men of a given type; and this is true of dialectic also
shared camp of rhetoric and dialectic
The example is an induction, the enthymeme is a syllogism, and the apparent enthymeme is an apparent syllogism. I call the enthymeme a rhetorical syllogism, and the example a rhetorical induction. Every one who effects persuasion through proof does in fact use either enthymemes or examples: there is no other way.
defining enthymeme, syllogism, induction, their use and purpose
There are, then, these three means of effecting persuasion. The man who is to be in command of them must, it is clear, be able (1) to reason logically, (2) to understand human character and goodness in their various forms, and (3) to understand the emotions-that is, to name them and describe them, to know their causes and the way in which they are excited.
means of persuasion: ethos, logos, pathos
[1356a] Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself.
Modes of persuasion: character of speaker, appeal, proof
Of the modes of persuasion some belong strictly to the art of rhetoric and some do not.
unlike, say, a paintings, which could be said to persuade, do not belong to the art of rhetoric?
But rhetoric we look upon as the power of observing the means of persuasion on almost any subject presented to us; and that is why we say that, in its technical character, it is not concerned with any special or definite class of subjects.
Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion. This is not a function of any other art.
definition and distinction
What makes a man a "sophist" is not his faculty, but his moral purpose. In rhetoric, however, the term "rhetorician" may describe either the speaker's knowledge of the art, or his moral purpose. In dialectic it is different: a man is a "sophist" because he has a certain kind of moral purpose, a "dialectician" in respect, not of his moral purpose, but of his faculty.
defining terms, sophist/dialectic and rhetoric/rhetorician, and moral purpose
It is clear, then, that rhetoric is not bound up with a single definite class of subjects, but is as universal as dialectic; it is clear, also, that it is useful. It is clear, further, that its function is not simply to succeed in persuading, but rather to discover the means of coming as near such success as the circumstances of each particular case allow. In this it resembles all other arts. For example, it is not the function of medicine simply to make a man quite healthy, but to put him as far as may be on the road to health; it is possible to give excellent treatment even to those who can never enjoy sound health.
defining rhetoric's worth and limitations
No other of the arts draws opposite conclusions: dialectic and rhetoric alone do this.
the shared domain of rhetoric and dialectic
The enthymeme is a sort of syllogism, and the consideration of syllogisms of all kinds, without distinction, is the business of dialectic, either of dialectic as a whole or of one of its branches.
enthymeme, syllogism, and dialectic.
It is clear, then, that rhetorical study, in its strict sense, is concerned with the modes of persuasion. Persuasion is clearly a sort of demonstration, since we are most fully persuaded when we consider a thing to have been demonstrated. The orator's demonstration is an enthymeme, and this is, in general, the most effective of the modes of persuasion.
rhetoric vs. persuasion?
The reason for this is that in political oratory there is less inducement to talk about nonessentials. Political oratory is less given to unscrupulous practices than forensic, because it treats of wider issues. In a political debate the man who is forming a judgement is making a decision about his own vital interests. There is no need, therefore, to prove anything except that the facts are what the supporter of a measure maintains they are. In forensic oratory this is not enough; to conciliate the listener is what pays here.
Defines useful types of rhetoric for forensics vs. political arenas.
The only question with which these writers here deal is how to put the judge into a given frame of mind. About the orator's proper modes of persuasion they have nothing to tell us; nothing, that is, about how to gain skill in enthymemes.
Written description to date deals with the structure of judicial process and is not instructive of modes of persuasion.
Now, it is of great moment that well-drawn laws should themselves define all the points they possibly can and leave as few as may be to the decision of the judges; and this for several reasons.
Designing judicial process.
It is not right to pervert the judge by moving him to anger or envy or pity -- one might as well warp a carpenter's rule before using it.
In favor of modes of persuasion over emotional appeal, distinguishing proper and improper methods.
These writers, however, say nothing about enthymemes, which are the substance of rhetorical persuasion, but deal mainly with non-essentials. The arousing of prejudice, pity, anger, and similar emotions has nothing to do with the essential facts, but is merely a personal appeal to the man who is judging the case.
still not grasping "enthymemes"
The modes of persuasion are the only true constituents of the art: everything else is merely accessory.
modes vs. accessory
Both ways being possible, the subject can plainly be handled systematically, for it is possible to inquire the reason why some speakers succeed through practice and others spontaneously; and every one will at once agree that such an inquiry is the function of an art.
Rhetoric as a legitimate system because the inquiry is the function of an art, which can be handled systematically.
[1354a] Rhetoric is the counterpart of Dialectic. Both alike are concerned with such things as come, more or less, within the general ken of all men and belong to no definite science.
common among men, and not to science
The "non-technical" (extrinsic) means of persuasion -- those which do not strictly belong to the art of rhetoric. They are five in number, and pertain especially to forensic oratory: (1) laws, (2) witnesses, (3) contracts (4) tortures, (5) oaths.
5 extrinsic means of persuasion
The characters and circumstances which lead men to commit wrong, or make them the victions of wrong.
character and circumstance of wrongdoing
Actions just and unjust may be classified in relation to (1) the law, (2) the persons affected.
just and unjust action affecting 1) the law 2) the person
Definition of pleasure, and analysis of things pleasant. -- The motives for wrongdoing, viz. advantage and pleasure, have thus been discussed in chapters 6, 7, 11.
definitions of pleasure and motives for wrongdoing
The Forensic speaker should have studied wrongdoing -- its motives, its perpetrators, and its victims. Definitions of wrongdoing as injury voluntary inflicted contrary to law. Law is either (a) special, viz. that written law which regulates the life of a particular community, or (b) general, viz. all those unwritten principles which are supposed to be acknowledged everywhere. Enumeration and elucidation of the seven causes of human action, viz. three involuntary, (1) chance, (2) nature, (3) compulsion; and four voluntary, viz. (4) habit, (5) reasoning, (6) anger, (7) appetite. All voluntary actions are good or apparently good, pleasant or apparently pleasant. The good (or expedient) has been discussed under political oratory. The pleasant has yet to be considered.
Forensic rhetoric and understanding of wrongdoing. types of wrongdoing. Voluntary and involuntary actions.
The Epideictic speaker is concerned with virtue and vice, praising the one and censuring the other. The forms of virtue. Which are the greatest virtues? Some rhetoric devices used by the epideictic speaker: "amplification," especially. Amplification is particularly appropriate to epideictic oratory; examples, to political; enthymemes, to forensic.
Examples of Epideictic rhetoric. virtue and vice