67 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2019
    1. no place for that more abominable one of betraying and seducing un­wary Innocence.

      Is Astell setting a standard for persuasion here? She doesn't want to "betray" or "seduce" the audience, so I wonder if she'll suggest alternatives.

    2. PerswasiJre

      We know it's serious business because of the W.

  2. Jan 2019
    1. why so many commentators have thought Cicero's De oratore, which does con-front the issue from time to time, so much more one-sided an argument than it is.

      Aristotle's definition of rhetoric likens the notion of public speaking to persuasion. When addressing an issue of concern, using all available means of persuasion at one's disposal aids in constructing a sound argument.

  3. Dec 2018
  4. Jul 2018
  5. Apr 2018
    1. Interesting parts on the more manipulative aspects of persuasion. They are not necessarily evil, or fallacious.

      Parts look a lot like a this 2007 article : https://via.hypothes.is/https://www.copyblogger.com/persuasive-writing/

    2. Storytelling Ideally, all other persuasion techniques culminate in this one. If you can deftly blend other techniques while simultaneously telling a compelling story, you’ll be the most persuasive person on the block.

      That is very important. Where the novelist and the PR person or politician meet.

  6. Apr 2017
  7. Mar 2017
    1. rticular" audiences repre-sent a group of people united by shared values, su

      So a "particular party" would the people taking part in a political rally or something of the sort where the mind is mostly closed to the other ideas. A universal audience is a group of people with open minds, willing to accept the persuasion of the speaker if presented with logical information?

  8. Feb 2017
    1. slavery's opponents should have as little to do with this evil government as pos-sible, instead attempting to abolish slavery by persuading iL<; advocates that it was morally wrong.

      For some reason I keep thinking of the famous Audre Lorde line, "For the master's tools will never dismantle the master's house," even though I think it's application here is fairly flawed. Garrison wanted abolitionists to work outside the politics and economics of government that helped to support slavery as a way of defeating that very system (see: Lorde), but I'm lost as to how "persuading" advocates of slavery of its immorality (especially by using Christian moral tropes as his main source of appeal) is not participating within that system? I guess I'm surprised that Garrison considered persuasion as being rhetorically separate from the political, and I'm curious about what he might consider the distinction of non-political persuasion to be?

  9. Jul 2016
    1. A law professor's response to a student's complaint about his (or her) Black Lives Matter t-shirt. It is a lesson in critical thinking and persuasive writing -- as well as a reply to general hostility toward BLM.

  10. May 2016
    1. "God is more dear than all of His cre-ation."

      They believe they are sacrificing themselves for a greater purpose. The author is reminding them and helping them to convince themselves of this.

    2. Read al-Tawba and Anfal [suras 8 and 9, traditional war chapters from the Quran] and reflect on their meanings and remember all of the things God has promised for the martyrs.

      Here the author provides specific textual support for the task they are going to carry out.

  11. Jun 2015
    1. Gilbert, Tafarodi and Malone's paper was entitled "You Can't Not Believe Everything You Read". This suggests —to say the very least—that we should be more careful when we expose ourselves to unreliable information, especially if we're doing something else at the time. Be careful when you glance at that newspaper in the supermarket.

      I wonder if this accounts for the bad design of pseudoscience publications.

  12. Oct 2013
    1. For teaching, of course, true eloquence consists, not in making people like what they disliked, nor in making them do what they shrank from, but in making clear what was obscure

      Clarity vs. Persuasion. Haven't really come across this yet.

    2. For as the function of all eloquence, whichever of these three forms it may assume, is to speak persuasively, and its object is to persuade, an eloquent man will speak persuasively, whatever style he may adopt;

      Link of eloquence and persuasion--seems a little contradictory to earlier statements

    3. even though he do not carry with him the assent of his hearer

      Eloquence is separate from persuasion and not affected by it

    4. And as he is pleased if you speak with sweetness and elegance, so he is persuaded if he be drawn by your promises, and awed by your threats

      persuasion defined

    1. Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself. Persuasion is achieved by the speaker's personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible. We believe good men more fully and more readily than others: this is true generally whatever the question is, and absolutely true where exact certainty is impossible and opinions are divided. This kind of persuasion, like the others, should be achieved by what the speaker says, not by what people think of his character before he begins to speak. It is not true, as some writers assume in their treatises on rhetoric, that the personal goodness revealed by the speaker contributes nothing to his power of persuasion; on the contrary, his character may almost be called the most effective means of persuasion he possesses. Secondly, persuasion may come through the hearers, when the speech stirs their emotions. Our judgements when we are pleased and friendly are not the same as when we are pained and hostile. It is towards producing these effects, as we maintain, that present-day writers on rhetoric direct the whole of their efforts. This subject shall be treated in detail when we come to speak of the emotions. Thirdly, persuasion is effected through the speech itself when we have proved a truth or an apparent truth by means of the persuasive arguments suitable to the case in question.
    2. The man who is to be in command of them must, it is clear, be able (1) to reason logically, (2) to understand human character and goodness in their various forms, and (3) to understand the emotions-that is, to name them and describe them, to know their causes and the way in which they are excited.

      When trying to be persuasive you must keep these tactics in mind.

    3. persuasion may come through the hearers, when the speech stirs their emotions.

      interesting point.

    4. Persuasion is achieved by the speaker's personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible.

      The art of persuasion

    5. Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion. This is not a function of any other art. Every other art can instruct or persuade about its own particular subject-matter; for instance, medicine about what is healthy and unhealthy, geometry about the properties of magnitudes, arithmetic about numbers, and the same is true of the other arts and sciences. But rhetoric we look upon as the power of observing the means of persuasion on almost any subject presented to us; and that is why we say that, in its technical character, it is not concerned with any special or definite class of subjects.

      He states "any given case" before later stating "almost any", referring to subjects. I justthink Aristotle is trying to express the extensive range rhetoric has.

    6. (1) to reason logically, (2) to understand human character and goodness in their various forms, and (3) to understand the emotions-that is, to name them and describe them, to know their causes and the way in which they are excited.
    7. A statement is persuasive and credible either because it is directly self-evident or because it appears to be proved from other statements that are so.

      Persuasion and credibility come from proof.

    8. Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion. This is not a function of any other art. Every other art can instruct or persuade about its own particular subject-matter; for instance, medicine about what is healthy and unhealthy, geometry about the properties of magnitudes, arithmetic about numbers, and the same is true of the other arts and sciences. But rhetoric we look upon as the power of observing the means of persuasion on almost any subject presented to us; and that is why we say that, in its technical character, it is not concerned with any special or definite class of subjects.
    1. Now it was because poets seemed to win fame through their fine language when their thoughts were simple enough, that the language of oratorical prose at first took a poetical colour, e.g. that of Gorgias.

      fame or persuasion? Part of persuasion is to engage the listener.

    2. how persuasion can be produced from the facts themselves.

      first form of persuasion is to determine how compelling or persuasive are the facts, and how the facts will be perceived by the audience.

    3. (1) by working on the emotions of the judges themselves, (2) by giving them the right impression of the speakers' character, or (3) by proving the truth of the statements made.

      three types of persuasion

    4. We have shown that these are three in number; what they are; and why there are only these three: for we have shown that persuasion must in every case be effected either (1) by working on the emotions of the judges themselves, (2) by giving them the right impression of the speakers' character, or (3) by proving the truth of the statements made.
    1. as if you had failed to do right rather than actually done wrong. You may be able to trust other people to judge you equitably.

      Persuading oneself that one isn't actually in the wrong. Rhetoric can be used to change one's own perspective, it seems.

    1. We can now see that a writer must disguise his art and give the impression of speaking naturally and not artificially. Naturalness is persuasive, artificiality is the contrary; for our hearers are prejudiced and think we have some design against them, as if we were mixing their wines for them.

      It is an interesting contradiction that naturalness is persuasive and artificiality contrary, but the rhetorician must use artificiality to create the naturalness that will persuade.

    1. It is plain from all this that we can prove people to be friends or enemies; if they are not, we can make them out to be so; if they claim to be so, we can refute their claim; and if it is disputed whether an action was due to anger or to hatred, we can attribute it to whichever of these we prefer.

      Rhetoric can make anything sound good or right.

    1. Clearly the orator will have to speak so as to bring his hearers into a frame of mind that will dispose them to anger, and to represent his adversaries as open to such charges and possessed of such qualities as do make people angry.
    1. good sense, good moral character, and goodwill.

      perceived good sense, etc.

    2. But since rhetoric exists to affect the giving of decisions -- the hearers decide between one political speaker and another, and a legal verdict is a decision -- the orator must not only try to make the argument of his speech demonstrative and worthy of belief; he must also make his own character look right and put his hearers, who are to decide, into the right frame of mind.
    1. arguments put side by side are clearer to the audience;

      Of course they are, it is a very effective rhetorical strategy for the rhetorician. But are they clearer for the audience or do they make the rhetorician's point seem more clear? The arguments are side by side for a reason, to get the audience to believe.

    2. This is especially important in a deliberative assembly. In the law courts it is especially important that he should be able to influence the emotions, or moral affections, of the jury who try the case.
    3. (1) the example, (2) the enthymeme; the maxim being part of the enthymeme.

      persuasion

    1. The most important and effective qualification for success in persuading audiences and speaking well on public affairs is to understand all the forms of government and to discriminate their respective customs, institutions, and interests.

      Is this then the realm that rhetoricians should be well versed in? Aristotle said earlier, or so I thought, that it is no longer rhetoric if the said person knows too much about another subject because they need know only how to argue. So it would seem that law and government are the rhetorician's realm, which makes sense when it comes to cases regarding law. However, that is not all that rhetoricians do.

    1. The orator's demonstration is an enthymeme, and this is, in general, the most effective of the modes of persuasion.

      Deductive reasoning does not always sound so persuasive; as in Zeno's paradox about the Tortoise and the Hare. Everyone knows that the Hare will pass the Tortoise.

    2. The modes of persuasion are the only true constituents of the art: everything else is merely accessory. These writers, however, say nothing about enthymemes, which are the substance of rhetorical persuasion, but deal mainly with non-essentials.

      Persuasion and enthymemes are essential for rhetoric.

    1. Now in the introduction and in the opening words of that discourse I reproach monarchs because they who more than others ought to cultivate their understanding are less educated than men in private station. After discussing this point, I enjoin upon Nicocles not to be easy-going and not to feel that he had taken up the royal office as one takes up the office of a priest, but to put aside his selfish pleasures and give his mind to his affairs. And I try to persuade him also that it ought to be revolting to his mind to see the base ruling over the good and the foolish giving orders to the wise, saying to him that the more vigorously he condemns folly in other men, the more should he cultivate his own understanding

      It seems Isocrates is proving that he is actually not a bad man who take money, or takes wealth from royalty. However he is a man who is good, that teaches royalty how to take care of problems. Isocrates is trying to prove that all his ways of discourse was used to bring justices or in a good morality.

    2. As to the hegemony, then, it is easy enough for you to make up your minds from what has been read to you that it should by right belong to Athens. But, I beg of you, consider well whether I appear to you to corrupt the young by my words, or, on the contrary, to inspire them to a life of valor and of dangers endured for their country; whether I should justly be punished for the words which have been read, or whether, on the contrary, I deserve to have your deepest gratitude for having so glorified Athens and our ancestors and the wars which were fought in those days that the orators who had composed discourses on this theme have destroyed them all, being ashamed of their own efforts, while they who today are reputed to be clever dare no longer to speak upon this subject, but confess the feebleness of their own powers

      This is a convincing way to make the reader view iscorates differently in a good way.

  13. Sep 2013
    1. we must be able to employ persuasion, just as strict reasoning can be employed, on opposite sides of a question, not in order that we may in practice employ it in both ways (for we must not make people believe what is wrong), but in order that we may see clearly what the facts are, and that, if another man argues unfairly, we on our part may be able to confute him. No other of the arts draws opposite conclusions: dialectic and rhetoric alone do this.

      In order to persuade one must address and understand all facts in a situation. Art of opposites.

    2. Persuasion is clearly a sort of demonstration, since we are most fully persuaded when we consider a thing to have been demonstrated.

      Rhetoric = persuasion = demonstration

    1. (1) make his own character look right and (2) put his hearers, who are to decide, into the right frame of mind. As to his own character; he should make his audience feel that he possesses prudence, virtue, and goodwill.
    1. The "non-technical" (extrinsic) means of persuasion -- those which do not strictly belong to the art of rhetoric. They are five in number, and pertain especially to forensic oratory: (1) laws, (2) witnesses, (3) contracts (4) tortures, (5) oaths

      Persuasion is out of the rhetoricians control. Other factors always play into persuading others

    1. But as a symptom, not only of their confusion of mind, but of their contempt for the gods, they recognize that Persuasion is one of the gods, and they observe that the city makes sacrifices to her every year,121 but when men aspire to share the power which the goddess possesses
    2. for he was by nature as inept in courting the favor of men as he was gifted in handling affairs.

      We cannot succeed despite out virtues if we cannot persuade, gain favor

    1. SOCRATES: Shall we then assume two sorts of persuasion,—one which is the source of belief without knowledge, as the other is of knowledge?

      Perhaps one of Socrates' main criticisms of rhetoric.

    2. SOCRATES: And that, Gorgias, was what I was suspecting to be your notion; yet I would not have you wonder if by-and-by I am found repeating a seemingly plain question; for I ask not in order to confute you, but as I was saying that the argument may proceed consecutively, and that we may not get the habit of anticipating and suspecting the meaning of one another's words; I would have you develope your own views in your own way, whatever may be your hypothesis. GORGIAS: I think that you are quite right, Socrates.

      Socrates himself seems to be a master of persuasion via making the opinions of his opponents sound an awful lot like his own.

    3. in a contest with a man of any other profession the rhetorician more than any one would have the power of getting himself chosen, for he can speak more persuasively to the multitude than any of them, and on any subject. Such is the nature and power of the art of rhetoric!

      Rhetoric is about being able to present material in a way the audience can understand, a skill that is not found in other discourses or arts.

    4. GORGIAS: No: the definition seems to me very fair, Socrates; for persuasion is the chief end of rhetoric.

      Rhetoric is persuasion

    5. Do you know any other effect of rhetoric over and above that of producing persuasion?

      Rhetoric as solely the art of persuasion

    6. Now I want to know about rhetoric in the same way;—is rhetoric the only art which brings persuasion, or do other arts have the same effect? I mean to say—Does he who teaches anything persuade men of that which he teaches or not?

      If this is that, then is that also this?

      Socrates method of persuasion seems to be to tease out distinguishing elements in such a manner as to expand the view and scope of the proposition. it feels like kind of a psychological exercise. I feel like he is going somewhere with this and that he has used several rhetorical tactics and tricks of persuasion that are about be revealed.

    7. Does he who teaches anything persuade men of that which he teaches or not?

      This can lead to what we call "The Authority Bias." Saying something is true simply because a person of power, like a teacher, said it was so. "Dr. Cruise from L. Ron Hubbard College University said e-meters really work, so they must."

    1. discourse is a great potentate, which by the smallest and most secret body accomplishes the most divine works; for it can stop fear and assuage pain and produce joy and make mercy abound.

      In the investigation of “what is rhetoric?”, this one line of Gorgias sums up the reason rhetoric is such an important topic. Its subtlety is overlooked and mistaken for something inconsequential. However, as Gorgias points out, this small secret body has great power. The implicit use of the word body gives rhetoric an almost physical existence and ability to move an object; as if rhetoric had the physical ability to push, pull, or lift another body. In defining what rhetoric is, this statement tells us first why it is even important to know what rhetoric is. Gorgias’ thoughts on what rhetoric is suggests it is persuasion by “trickery” or “magic”. This further describes rhetoric’s power as not just physical, but perhaps supernatural. The comparison is made between rhetoric and drugs. Just as a drug can impair judgment, making one vulnerable, rhetoric, too, can play tricks on the mind. Furthermore, the power of rhetoric can be a great force for good, persuading one or many to do good. The drug analogy applies here also as many drugs heal, promote health, and ward off sickness. This two-edged sword aspect of rhetoric is just another example of the power this small body possesses. The great power of rhetoric, which is only known to be had by humans, has given them undisputed superiority among all animals on earth. The ability to read, write, speak, or otherwise communicate rhetoric is one of the greatest gifts given to man.