47 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2013
    1. Let us now consider Pity, asking ourselves what things excite pity, and for what persons, and in what states of our mind pity is felt.
    2. So much for the mental conditions under which we feel pity.
    1. People do not believe this when they are, or think they a are, in the midst of great prosperity, and are in consequence insolent, contemptuous, and reckless


    2. As for our own state of mind, we feel confidence if we believe we have often succeeded and never suffered reverses, or have often met danger and escaped it safely.


    1. Emotions are all those feelings that so change men as to affect their judgements, and that are also attended by pain or pleasure
    2. But since rhetoric exists to affect the giving of decisions -- the hearers decide between one political speaker and another, and a legal verdict is a decision -- the orator must not only try to make the argument of his speech demonstrative and worthy of belief; he must also make his own character look right and put his hearers, who are to decide, into the right frame of mind
    3. Take, for instance, the emotion of anger: here we must discover (1) what the state of mind of angry people is, (2) who the people are with whom they usually get angry, and (3) on what grounds they get angry with them


    4. Emotions


    1. (1) the example, (2) the enthymeme; the maxim being part of the enthymeme.


    2. The character of elderly men.


    3. (1) make his own character look right and (2) put his hearers, who are to decide, into the right frame of mind. As to his own character; he should make his audience feel that he possesses prudence, virtue, and goodwill. This is especially important in a deliberative assembly.

      to make worthy of belief

    1. for the man who commits crimes for which terrible penalties are provided will not hesitate over crimes for which no penalty is provided at all. -- So much, then, for the comparative badness of criminal actions.


    2. here the crime is worse because it consists of many crimes; and that the crime was committed in the very place where criminals are punished, as for example perjurers do -- it is argued that a man who will commit a crime in a law-court would commit it anywhere.


    1. Moreover, as all actions due to ourselves are done voluntarily and actions not due to ourselves are done involuntarily,
    2. The things that happen by chance are all those whose cause cannot be determined, that have no purpose, and that happen neither always nor usually nor in any fixed way.
    1. We have also briefly considered the means and methods by which we shall gain a good knowledge of the moral qualities and institutions peculiar to the various forms of government-only, however, to the extent demanded by the present occasion; a detailed account of the subject has been given in the Politics.


    2. A Democracy is a form of government under which the citizens distribute the offices of state among themselves by lot, whereas under oligarchy there is a property qualification, under aristocracy one of education.


    1. (1) it is possible to do them, (2) it is easy to do them.
    2. This principle usually holds good, but not always, since it may well be that our interest is sometimes the same as that of our enemies. Hence it is said that "evils draw men together"; that is, when the same thing is hurtful to them both.
    1. Happiness in old age is the coming of old age slowly and painlessly; for a man has not this happiness if he grows old either quickly, or tardily but painfully.

      growing old

    2. prosperity combined with virtue; or as independence of life; or as the secure enjoyment of the maximum of pleasure; or as a good condition of property and body, together with the power of guarding one's property and body and making use of them.


    1. It is useful, in framing laws, not only to study the past history of one's own country, in order to understand which constitution is desirable for it now, but also to have a knowledge of the constitutions of other nations, and so to learn for what kinds of nation the various kinds of constitution are suited.


    2. ways and means, war and peace, national defence, imports and exports, and legislation.

      deliberate and make speeches

    3. For we turn a thing over in our mind until we have reached the point of seeing whether we can do it or not.
    1. infallible

      i get excited when i see this word

    2. A statement is persuasive and credible either because it is directly self-evident or because it appears to be proved from other statements that are so


    3. (1) to reason logically, (2) to understand human character and goodness in their various forms, and (3) to understand the emotions-that is, to name them and describe them, to know their causes and the way in which they are excited.
    4. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself.

      logos, ethos, and pathos

    5. Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion

      i love straight forward defintions

    1. We must make as it were a fresh start, and before going further define what rhetoric is.
    2. Rhetoric is useful (1) because

      rhetoric is useful because...5 things

    3. It is clear, then, that rhetorical study, in its strict sense, is concerned with the modes of persuasion.
    4. everything else is merely accessory
    1. (1) laws, (2) witnesses, (3) contracts (4) tortures, (5) oaths.


    2. Definition of pleasure, and analysis of things pleasant. -- The motives for wrongdoing, viz. advantage and pleasure, have thus been discussed in chapters 6, 7, 11.


    3. Definition and analysis of things "good."
    4. (1) the speaker's power of evincing a personal character which will make his speech credible (ethos ); (2) his power of stirring the emotions of his hearers (pathos ); (3) his power of proving a truth, or an apparent truth, by means of persuasive arguments (logos )

      this is why it cannot be treated systematically

    5. It is a subject that can be treated systematically.

      i disagree

  2. Sep 2013
    1. But I now find myself in a curious position; for I am going to be frank even if some will say that I shift my ground too easily. A little while ago I said that many good men had been misled about philosophy, and are consequently harshly disposed toward it.
    2. people nowadays do not look at things in the same way as those who lived in the city in former times.

      funny how different things are now

    3. Now for this I deserved praise rather than prejudice.


    4. Now in the introduction and in the opening words of that discourse I reproach monarchs because they who more than others ought to cultivate their understanding are less educated than men in private station.
    5. I beg you now to listen to my defense,

      I feel a lot of rhetoric coming on

    6. eulogy

      there is a lot of rhetoric in a Eulogy

    7. I stood fairly well in the opinion of all the lay public.
    1. Then according to you, one wise man may often be superior to ten thousand fools, and he ought to rule them, and they ought to be his subjects, and he ought to have more than they should. This is what I believe that you mean (and you must not suppose that I am word-catching), if you allow that the one is superior to the ten thousand?