1,736 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
      • for: futures - neo-Venetian crypto-networks, Global Chinese Commons, GCC, cosmolocal, coordiNation, somewheres, everywheres, nowheres, Global System One, Global System Two, Global System Three, contributory accounting, fourth sector, protocol cooperative, mutual coordination economics

      • summary

      • learned something new
        • I learned a number of new ideas from reading Michel's article. He gives a brief meta-history of our political-socio-economic system, using Peter Pogany's framework of Global System One, Two and Three and within this argues for why a marriage of blockchain systems and cosmolocal production systems could create a "fourth sector" for the transition to Global System Three.
        • He cites evidence of existing trends already pointing in this direction, drawing from his research in P2P Foundation
    1. If the Somewheres are the locally rooted people, and the Nowheres are digital nomads who have lost their connection to such local communities, then the Everywhere’s are those that are able to connect, and enrich the local through their connection with the global.
      • for: definition - somewheres - nowheres - everywheres
    2. protocol cooperatives
      • for: definition - protocol cooperative, question - protocol cooperative

      • question: protocol cooperative

        • this seems to be the same definition as cosmolocal. Why not call it a cosmolocal cooperative?
    3. Humans however, do not just need bread and butter, they need identity and belonging just as much, if not more, hence the emergence of what I believe we can best call, at this moment of history, ‘CoordiNations’.
      • for: portmanteau - coordiNation, definition - coordiNations
    4. Global System Two
      • for: definition - Global System Two
    5. Global System One
      • for: definition - Global System One
    1. what you're referring to is the idea that people come together and through language culture and story they have narratives that then create their own realities like the 00:12:04 sociologist abely the sociologist wi Thomas said if people think people believe things to be real then they are real in their consequences
      • for: Thomas Theorem, The definition of the situation, William Isaac Thomas, Dorothy Swain Thomas, definition - Thomas Theorem, definition - definition of the situation, conflicting belief systems - Thomas theorem, learned something new - Thomas theorem

      • definition: Thomas Theorem

      • definition: definition of the situation
        • "The Thomas theorem is a theory of sociology which was formulated in 1928 by William Isaac Thomas and Dorothy Swaine Thomas:

      If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.[1]

      In other words, the interpretation of a situation causes the action. This interpretation is not objective. Actions are affected by subjective perceptions of situations. Whether there even is an objectively correct interpretation is not important for the purposes of helping guide individuals' behavior.|

  2. Nov 2023
    1. talking about a double overshoot and that language isn't well established in the literature yet that 00:06:58 folks get the overshoot that is ecological that we're in ecological overshoot but they don't understand that we're also in cultural and even civilizational overshoot and those are 00:07:10 new concepts that are just emerging they're not well established in the literatur
      • for: double overshoot, definition - double overshoot

      • definition: double overshoot

        • ecological and cultural overshoot
    1. permanent security”
      • for: definition - permanent security, examples - permanent security

      • definition: permanent security

        • Extreme responses by states to security threats, enacted in the name of present and future self defence.
        • Permanent security actions target entire civilian populations under the logic of ensuring that terrorists and insurgents can never again represent a threat. It is a project, in other words, that seeks to avert future threats by anticipating them today.
      • example: permanent security

        • Russian-Ukraine war
          • Vladimir Putin reasons that Ukraine must be forcibly returned to Russia so that it cannot serve as a launching site for NATO missiles into Russia decades from now.
        • Myanmar-Rohingya conflict
          • The Myanmarese military sought to squash separatism by expelling and killing the Rohingya minority in 2017
        • China-Uyghur conflict
          • China sought to pacify and reeducate Muslim Uyghurs by mass incarceration to forestall their striving for independence forever
        • Israel-Palestine conflict
          • Israel seeks to eliminate Hamas as a security threat once and for all after the 2023 Hamas attack on Israel
        • US-Iraq-Afghanistan
          • The US sought to eliminate Saddam Hussein's nuclear capabilities and to eliminate Osama Bin Laden for his bombing of the World Trade center.
    1. dans un monde numérique connecté, exister signifie être éditorialisé.

      Est-ce que ça ne s'applique pas aussi dans la première définition?

    2. ce qui signifie, en somme, que toute pratique visant à comprendre, à organiser ou à interpréter le monde, est un acte d'éditorialisation.

      si je comprend bien, toute action entreprit dans un environnement numérique est synonyme d'éditorialisation. Reste une définition très large

    3. L'éditorialisation désigne l'ensemble des dynamiques qui produisent et structurent l'espace numérique. Ces dynamiques sont les interactions des actions individuelles et collectives avec un environnement numérique particulier.
    1. “Insider Principle” of game design makes gameplay unique and builds on thestrengths that players bring to the game:
    2. Gamification is the application of complex game elements in non-game contexts.
    3. transfer is “a dynamic activity through which students . . . actively make use of priorknowledge as they respond to new writing tasks”
    1. the word dharma before buddha meant something like law religion something that holds you in a pattern holds you like traps you in a pattern where you can bear to live or something like that 00:03:49 but buddha said dharma means reality holds you in freedom from suffering he flipped the meaning into the opposite meaning where it holds you in freedom
      • for: definition - dharma

      • definition: dharma

        • the Buddha flipped the meaning - dharma means reality holds you in freedom from suffering
    1. epoche is a form of suspense of judgment -- a way to let the phenomena speak while `bracketing' the usual presuppositions that are in force in any given situation.
      • for: definition - epoche, bracketing

      • definition: epoche

        • the epoche is a form of suspense of judgment,
        • a way to let the phenomena speak while `bracketing' the usual presuppositions that are in force in any given situation.
    1. there are people who are diminishers and they're illuminators the diminishers are not curious about other people they 00:11:09 stereotype they ignore they don't ask questions
      • for: personality types - diminishers and illuminators, definition - illuminator, definition - diminisher

      • definition: illuminator

        • a curious, empathetic person who genuinely listens to you, pays attention to you, asks questions, make you feel heard, seen and acknowledged. In short, they treat others as sacred
      • definition: diminisher

        • a person who has lost sight of the sacred and are not interested in others. They are not curious about others, stereotype, ignore and don't ask questions. They make you feel unheard, unseen and unacknowledged.
    1. the answer to the question what is experience is rather simple my experience is made of the sensations 00:10:43 feelings emotions thoughts and actions that i live instant after instant
      • for: definition, definition of experience, question, question - what is experience?

      • question : experience

        • what use experience?

      definition: experience - it just the sum of the sensations feelings emotions thoughts and actions that i live instant after instant

    1. alterity
      • for: learned a new word

      • definition: alterity

        • Merriam Webster
          • OTHERNESS specifically : the quality or state of being radically alien to the conscious self or a particular cultural orientation
    1. I'm in the same boat haha I enjoyed some parts of Obsidian but came back to Notion due to the user experience. I use a Zettelkasten system in the sense of a daily note but the big part that was missing for me was the ability to query all your todos into one view which I had to build an integration for. I talk about it more here if you're interested: https://www.reddit.com/r/Notion/comments/17kfm1k/aggregating_all_todos_into_one_view/

      via u/mannyocean at https://www.reddit.com/r/Notion/comments/17mg82a/zettelkasten_in_notion/

      He seems to define "zettelkasten" in a productivity sense and not in the currently broader Luhmannian sense.

    1. An identifier embodies the information required to distinguish what is being identified from all other things within its scope of identification. Our use of the terms "identify" and "identifying" refer to this purpose of distinguishing one resource from all other resources, regardless of how that purpose is accomplished (e.g., by name, address, or context).
  3. Oct 2023
    1. geomorphology. That's   my favorite word. I always tell my students this,  I'm like, "If there's just one thing I want you   00:29:44 to learn in this class, if you do never come back,  and you're just here the first two days of class,   geomorphic, conforming to the shape of the land."  This is, in my opinion, the fundamental flaw of   our civilization is that our political boundaries  and our land management units, property boundaries   are not conforming to the shape of the land. Because if they did, then decisions we made would   00:30:15 have an integrated holistic landscape scale impact  instead of a fragmented or fractured impact
      • for: key insight, key insight - Andrew Millison, key insight - geomorphology, quote, quote - Andrew Millison, quote - geomorphology

      • definition: geomorphology, geomorphic

        • geomorphology.is the study of the shape of the land and geomorphic means conforming to the shape of the land.
      • quote: Andrew Millison

        • The fundamental flaw of our civilization is that our political boundaries and our land management units, property boundaries are not conforming to the shape of the land. Because if they did, then decisions we made would have an integrated holistic landscape scale impact instead of a fragmented or fractured impact.
      • date: 2023
    1. Toillustrate this principle, an HTML page typically provides the user with a num-ber of affordances, such as to navigate to a different page by clicking a hyperlinkor to submit an order by filling out and submitting an HTML form. Performingany such action transitions the application to a new state, which provides theuser with a new set of affordances. In each state, the user’s browser retrievesan HTML representation of the current state from a server, but also a selec-tion of next possible states and the information required to construct the HTTPrequests to transition to those states. Retrieving all this information throughhypermedia allows the application to evolve without impacting the browser, andallows the browser to transition seamlessly across servers. The use of hyperme-dia and HATEOAS is central to reducing coupling among Web components, andallowed the Web to evolve into an open, world-wide, and long-lived system.In contrast to the above example, when using a non-hypermedia Web service(e.g., an implementation of CRUD operations over HTTP), developers have tohard-code into clients all the knowledge required to interact with the service.This approach is simple and intuitive for developers, but the trade-off is thatclients are then tightly coupled to the services they use (hence the need for APIversioning).
    1. At the time of the publication of Aspects of the Theory of Syntax it seemed that all of the semantically relevant parts of the sentence, all the things that determine its meaning, were contained in the deep structure of the sentence. The examples we mentioned above fit in nicely with this view. “I like her cooking” has different meanings because it has different deep structures though only one surface structure; “The boy will read the book” and “The book will be read by the boy” have different surface structures, but one and the same deep structure, hence they have the same meaning.

      This section helped me understand a key feature

    1. De-Evangelist


    2. The Grift Shift is a new paradigm of debating technologies within a society that is based a lot less on the actual realistic use cases or properties of a certain technology but a surface level fascination with technologies but even more their narratives of future deliverance. Within the Grift Shift paradigm the topics and technologies addressed are mere material for public personalities to continuously claim expertise and “thought leadership” in every cycle of the shift regardless of what specific technologies are being talked about.


    1. the double bind was an evolutionary principle an evolutionary principle 00:36:26 so that every organism at some point right every organism is in relationship to all these other organisms and all those organisms are always changing a little bit 00:36:40 and so one day the moment comes when that organism cannot do what it used to do to survive if it does what it knows how to do it dies 00:36:54 but it doesn't know how to do anything else
      • for: double bind, definition - double bind - evolutionary, Gregory Bateson - definition of double bind
    2. the definition of a double bind is that you have a a problem a bind 00:35:07 in one context and you can't actually solve it in that context because it's caught in another context and so you can't solve it in that 00:35:20 context because it's caught in these other contexts
      • for: definition, definition - double bind

      • definition: double bind

        • the definition of a double bind is that you have a problem (a bind) in one context and you can't actually solve it in that context because it's caught in another context
        • Gregory Bateson defined the double bind as an evolutionary trait of species due to their changing nature.
          • Since individuals of a species are constantly changing, there comes a day when all that it knows what to do in order to survive is outdated due to the changing environment. When it repeats the old behavior that served its survival in the past, it dies.
      • comment

        • adjacency
          • between
            • double bind
            • progress trap
        • adjacency statement
          • progress traps are related to double binds because in a progress trap, an implemented solution to a problem in one context gives rise to a new problem in another context.
          • the original problem (bind) in one context appears to be resolvable but actual isn't. Future unfolding of the implemented solution unfold a future unexpected problem.
          • The two problems are not simultaneously occurring as in a double bind, but time-delayed
          • both double bind and progress traps emerge from the same root of violating holism
          • in not grasping the implications of the emptiness of phenomena, we ignore intertwingled nature of reality, we circumvent Indra's meet of jewels at our own peril
    1. Moloch is a coordination failure where rational choices of individuals produce positive short-term effects for themselves at the expense of producing negative long-term effects for everyone, i.e. self-termination of humanity. Thus, Moloch is a system dynamics that is a cumulation of all the n-th order side effects that result from the totality of all self-interested "intelligent" action of all humans.
    1. analogical reasoning
      • for: definition, definition - analogical reasoning

      • definition: analogical reasoning

        • comparing archeological and paleontological evidence of past life forms with behavior, anatomy and morphology of existing living species to shed light on past life
    2. the idea of evolutionary convergence is relatively simple it's the idea that similar environmental conditions can give rise 00:09:05 to similar biological adaptations
      • for: definition, definition - evolutionary convergence, evolutionary convergence

      • definition: evolutionary convergence

        • similar environmental conditions can give rise to similar biological adaptations
      • example: evolutionary convergence
        • during Cambrian explosion, over a period of 40 million years, a diverse range of species developed with the ability to see
        • a number of species have the same arm appendages:
          • human
          • bird
          • bat
    1. Plex is a scientific philosophy. Instead of claiming that science is so powerfulthat it can explain the understanding of understanding in question, we takeunderstanding as the open question, and set about to determine what scienceresults. [It turns out to be precisely the science we use every day, so nothingneed be discarded or overturned - but many surprises result. Some very simpleexplanations for some very important scientific observations arise naturally inthe course of Plex development. For example, from the First Definition, thereare several Plex proofs that there was no beginning, contrary to StephenHawking's statement that "this idea that time and space should be finite withoutboundary is just a proposal: it cannot be deduced from some other principle."(A Brief History of Time, p. 136.) The very concept of a "big bang" is strictlyan inherent artifact of our science's view of the nature of nature. There was no"initial instant" of time.]Axioms are assumptions. Plex has no axioms - only definitions. (Only) Noth-ing is assumed to be known without definition, and even that is "by definition" ,

      It doesn't claim that science can explain everything, but rather, it uses science to explore and understand our understanding of the world. The surprising part is that the science it uses is the same science we use daily, so nothing new needs to be learned or old knowledge discarded.

      One example of a surprising discovery made through Plex is that, contrary to Stephen Hawking's theory, there was no beginning to time and space. This contradicts the popular "big bang" theory, which suggests there was an initial moment when time and space began. According to Plex, this idea of a "big bang" is just a result of how our current science views the nature of the universe.

      Plex also differs from other scientific approaches in that it doesn't rely on axioms, which are assumptions made without proof. Instead, Plex only uses definitions, meaning it only accepts as true what can be clearly defined and understood.

      We're saying let's consider the concept of a "big bang". In traditional science, we might assume the existence of a "big bang" like this:

      instead of thinking big_bang = True

      But in Plex, we would only accept the "big bang" if we can define it:

      python def big_bang(): # Define what a "big bang" is # If we can't define it, then it doesn't exist in Plex pass

      Let's not assume reality but rather just try to define the elements we need to use

    1. this other sort of development also happened in the last couple years just clip models um and this enables us to do predictive 00:09:47 modeling across domains um what do I mean by that it means that you can understand and provide the model information in one modality and it can essentially translate it into another
      • for: definition, definition - CLIP models

      • definition: CLIP model

        • contrastive language-image pre-training (CLIP) model allows model information in one modality - predictive modeling in one domain to be translated to another domain
    1. We define a FET as either a MET or a MCT that is absolutely necessary, yet insufficient alone, to set into motion a cascade of events that result in a MST.
      • for: definition, definition - FET

      • definition: FET

        • an MET or MCT that is absolutely necessary but insufficient by itself to trigger processes that result in MST
      • example: FET

        • eukaryotic single-cell organisms are an MET and FET.
        • other events are required to lead to MST
          • biotic - other living organisms such as bacteria or viruses
          • abiotic - environmental change such as rising levels of free oxygen
    2. We define such remarkable morphological adaptations as Major Competitive Transitions (MCTs), while acknowledging the definition’s subjective nature.
      • for: definition, definition - MCT, definition - major competitive transition

      • definition: major competitive definition

        • remarkable morphological adaptations that confer major competitive advantages in survival or reproduction.
        • example:
          • water-to-land transition,
          • land-to-water transition,
          • creation of new niche - evolution of flying organisms
          • vascular tissue of plants
    3. there are two broad classes of adaptations that qualify as gains in “organismal complexity” and constitute METs.
      • for: definition, definition - fusions, definition - information leap, organismal complexity, fusions, information leap, traditional METs

      • paraphrase

        • there are two classes of adaptations that qualify as gains in organismal complexity and constitute traditional METs:
          • definition start: fusion
            • a process whereby independently reproducing entities are incentivized into combining into higher, integrated levels of obligate reproductive cooperation, due to factors such as:
              • selective advantages of division of labor and mutual dependence.
              • maximization of inclusive fitness
              • ability to punish cheaters
          • definition end
          • definition start: information leap
            • novel forms of information storage or transmittal across individuals, ranging from
              • genes
              • symbolic writing
          • definition end
    1. The field of sensory ecology is based on studying the sensory systems of animals in order to understand what they perceive in their environments and how that is going to affect their interactions with that environment (Dangles et al. 2009).
  4. Sep 2023
    1. in the Middle Ages, and still in the usual meanings of words in English, transcendent and transcendental are almost synonymous. It means beyond, beyond what? Beyond appearances. Beyond experience. Something that explains experience, but it's not directly experienced. But Kant distinguished between the two meanings. 00:08:30 He said, as soon as we posit with the unconditioned, outside of all possible experience, the ideas become transcendent. So this is the usual meaning of transcendent. Kant uses transcendental in a completely different sense. It's not what is beyond appearances. But what is below appearances. And becomes the condition of possibility 00:08:58 of these appearances. It's from where appearances appear. That is the new sense of transcendental by Kant.
      • for: transcendent, transcendental, definition - transcendental, Kant - transcendental, phenomenology
      • definition: transcendental

        • not what is BEYOND appearances (the usual colloquial meaning of transcend) but what is BELOW appearances
        • in other words, it is the condition of possibilities of these appearances, it is from where appearances appear
      • perspective shift: transcendental

        • Until encountering this explanation, I battled with and puzzled over the explanation of the transcendental given by all other authors. I found them overly complex and unintelligible without understanding many other major hidden assumptions
        • In my view, this proves Bilbot's mastery as a an educator on the most profound ideas in philosophy
          • Above all, he has a deep understanding of the salience landscape of his audience, something which almost all other author's and educators miss
    2. The case of experience is more tricky because there is no way to get a third person view of experience. 00:06:39 And therefore, you only have experience seen from the first person standpoint. Yet, there are features that are typical of this experience. For instance, the analog of a vanishing point is called by philosophers such as Heidegger, situatedness.
      • for: experience replaces objects, nondual replaces dual, Heidegger, situatedness

      • comment

        • there is a parallel between objective reality and the private experience
          • visual field
            • vanishing point indicates presence of the seer
          • interior, first person experience
            • situatedness indicates presence of experience being had from somewhere (specific) - situatedness
      • definition start

        • this is called by Heidegger and Husserl the transcendental deduction
      • definition end
      • definition: phenomenological reduction (aka epoche)
        • There is an experience in which it is possible for us to come to the world with no knowledge or preconceptions in hand;
        • it is the experience of astonishment.
          • The “knowing” we have in this experience stands in stark contrast to
          • the “knowing” we have in our everyday lives, where we come to the world with
            • theory and
            • “knowledge” in hand,
            • our minds already made up before we ever engage the world.
        • However, in the experience of astonishment,
          • our everyday “knowing,” when compared to
          • the “knowing” that we experience in astonishment,
        • is shown up as a pale epistemological imposter and is reduced to mere opinion by comparison.
        • The phenomenological reduction (aka epoche)
        • is at once
          • a description and
          • prescription
        • of a technique that allows one to voluntarily sustain the awakening force of astonishment
          • so that conceptual cognition can be carried throughout intentional analysis,
          • thus bringing the “knowing” of astonishment into our everyday experience.
    1. I draw inspiration and guidance from Václav Havel, the Czech playwright.  When he and other cultural dissidents in the 1970s faced a totalizing, repressive system impervious to change – in his case, the totalitarian Czech government – Havel had a counter-intuitive response.  He called for the development of a "parallel polis." A parallel polis is a community-created safe space in which people can mutually support each other, directly produce what they need, and build a kind of shadow society – outside of the machinery of the dominant political system.

      -for: parallel polis, parallel alternative society, Vaclev Havel, definition, definition - parallel polis

      • definition: parallel polis
        • a community-created safe space in which people can mutually support each other, directly produce what they need, and build a kind of shadow society – outside of the machinery of the dominant political system.
    1. PLV

      Phase-locking value. A statistical measure of the extent to which oscillatory activity in different brain networks is synchronized, for the purpose of determining how interconnected those brain networks are.

    1. . It should be noted that stress can be seen as the inverse of “satisfaction” [22], and is relative to a contextual and non-stationary target.
      • for: stress - satisfaction, lack project, poverty mentality, David Loy
      • comment
        • what is interesting is that there is strong emphasis on Buddhist and other contemplative teachings on acceptance of the present state and cessation of searching.
        • In Buddhist teachings, desire is an expression of a dissatisfaction of some aspect of the present and drives change
        • and last but perhaps most importantly, Buddhist teachings teach that the source of the desire is indicative of attachment to the constructed self narrative
        • hence, at first read, it would seem the goal-oriented nature of the definition is at odds with Buddhist teachings.
        • David Loy refers to desires as a way to fulfill something we feel is missing. He refers to this as a "Lack project"
        • If we penetrate the self construct and see it's constructed, provisional nature, then we also expose the greater already existent reality that we already are.
        • It seems paradoxical. While we are strongly reifying the self-construct, we will be goal-seeking and a priority goal may be to experience the self as a construct, which has the effect of ending root level goal seeking.
    2. Self is an illusory modelling construct created by perceptual systems of Agents
      • for: definition, definition - self, compassion, science - compassion, self-illusion, self-illusory, nilhism
      • definition
        • Self is an illusory modelling construct created by perceptual systems of Agents
      • paraphrase

        • Self is an illusory modelling construct created by perceptual systems of Agents
        • Agents construct models of causal Selves for others, and for ourselves, using the same machinery.
        • The same mechanisms that cause an agent to act toward stress reduction in itself
          • (even though the beneficiary of those actions is in an important sense impermanent)
        • can be expanded to extend to other Selves.
        • In this way, while our focus is on understanding and formulating Self in a way that is applicable to a broad range of scientific contexts,
          • we also see ourselves as here contributing to the treatment of perennial issues in contemporary Buddhist philosophy
            • such as the feasibility of genuine care in a world without real individuals
      • comment

        • the last statement has always been a paradox for me
        • Buddhist teachers often warn of how mistaken, immature views of emptiness can lead to harmful action
          • Indeed, if no selves exist, then over can easily mistaken nilhism as the logical behavioural conclusion
          • yet, teaching texts make clear that there is something critical the student has missed it they come to that conclusion
        • the transformation is missing its most important element of that false conclusion persists
    3. “stress” (the delta between current state and optimal state, or the difference between the goals at different subsystems’ levels)
      • for: definition, definition - stress, stress
      • comment
        • this is a generalized definition of stress that includes basal cognitive organisms
      • definition: stress
        • In the context of a generalized definition of intelligence applied beyond the traditional definition that applies only to organisms with neurons and nervous systems to include organisms that display basal cognition,
          • stress is defined as the delta between
            • current state and
            • optimal state,
          • or the difference between the goals at different subsystems’ levels
        • Reduction of this stress parameter is a driver that keeps the system exerting energy in action to move and navigate within the problem space.
        • The authors note that stress can be seen as the inverse of “satisfaction”, and is relative to a contextual and non-stationary target.
    4. The field of basal cognition [14,15,16,17,18] emphasizes a continuum of intelligence, which originated in the control loops of microbes but was scaled up throughout multicellular forms to the obvious kinds of intelligent behavior observed in advanced animals.
      • for: basal cognition, definition - basal cognition
      • definition: basal cognition
        • cognitive behavior of non-neural organisms
      • paraphrase
        • Long before the appearance of neurons and nervous systems, evolution had already laid a solid foundation of capacities to enable organisms to
          • become familiar with
          • value
          • exploit
          • evade
        • features of their surroundings to further existential goals.
      • source
    1. It is wiser to become less foolish instead of more wise, which avoids “wisdom signaling.”
      • for: wisdom signaling, ego - reifying, foolbodied, definition, definition - foolbodied, definition - wisdom signaling, humbleness
      • definition: foolbodied
        • to be aware of how ignorant (foolish) one is in an embodied way
      • definition: wisdom signaling

        • the act of talking about wisdom that conveys a sense of epistemic authority or that may sound wise regardless of the actual presence of wisdom
      • comment

        • this subtle shift is actually quite important
        • the centrality of our ignorance, in contrast to the focus on our wisdom is a natural antidote to reifying ego
        • Wisdom signaling appears to be a movement towards the direction of reifying ego and self-righteousness
        • Many of the greatest minds (and hearts) of humanity talk genuinely about how ignorant they are about reality because of the paradox that
          • the more you know, the greater your discovery of how much you don't know, and therefore the awareness of how expansive our ignorance is
        • in this sense, the continual reminder and awareness of the enormity of one's ignorance creates authentic sense of humbleness, not a contrived one
    1. Myths among some Apache groups are a unique type of storytelling that we call, “placemaking.”
    2. “Placemaking” whereby the story-telling connects their cultural stories to a physical location that can be visited.

      when a myth is grounded to a specific place

    3. A myth is a sacred story that reflects and reinforces a community’s worldview.

      This definition does not follow that of the general social connotation this word generally carries. The question is not whether or not it is true or false, but rather, what does a myth say about a society's history/beliefs/opinions/etc?

    4. attempting to write down these previously unwritten myths and stories. In so doing, Anthropologists coined the word ‘folklore’ – since these had been traditional oral traditions passed down from generation to generation.

      When a story gets written down it becomes folklore?

    5. Anthropologists define “art” as, “symbolic representations of thought, feeling and ideas.” Art is central to the foundation, establishment, and maintenance of all human societies.

      Art is an expression of things that often cannot be easily described by words. Art can be coping mechanisms, art can be part of a process itself. Art can simply be how or why we did something. There is no easy way to define it, so we have established a more contextual definition, but overall, "art" is a very loose term.

    1. These protocols work for both transactional (one to one) and marketing email (one to many or “bulk”).
  5. Aug 2023
    1. This “heat dome” phrase is not a common phrase within the scientific community
      • for: definition, definition - heat dome, Pacific Northwest heatwave
      • paraphrase

        • This event was widely described in the media as a “heat dome”, wherein
          • subsidence/adiabatic warming,
          • “trapped air”, and
          • sensible heating
        • are the dominant mechanisms driving the anomalous heat.
        • This conceptual model ignores the role of upstream diabatic heating,
          • which our analysis
        • shows is a significant heat source.
        • This “heat dome” phrase is not a common phrase within the scientific community
      • comment

        • the authors do not refer to this event as a heat dome, as is popularly used in the media because diabatic heating was involved
    1. Political scientists and political economists argue governments, public servants, the media and indeed the majority of decision-makers and influencers become captured by vested interests.
      • for: definition, definition - state capture, state capture
      • definition: state capture
        • when governments, public servants, the media and the majority of decision-makers and influencers become captured by vested interests.
    1. Life emerged from an out-of-equilibrium thermodynamic process known as dissipative adaptation

      Dissipative Adaptation, I should really add this to my vocabulary

    1. One of the core principles of Hermetic philosophy is the principle of Mentalism, which states that all things are created from and expand from the mind.
      • for: definition, definition - mentalism, hermetic philosophy
      • definition: Mentalism
        • things are created from and expand from the mind
      • paraphrase
      • quote
        • There are different ways that you can interpret this,
          • but in its simplest form it means that
          • everything that we do in life begins with a thought or a feeling.
        • The thought or feeling always precedes the action. / Comment: This is part of the philosophy of Deep Humanity that entangles inner transformation with outer transformation /
        • Therefore the inner world, the spiritual world, drives the physical world. It is a mirror. / Comment: A Deep Humanity way to express this is to say that the outer world is a reflection of the cumulative inner world's of humanity/
        • Everything that humans have ever done throughout our entire history
          • has begun as thoughts and feelings,
          • which then manifested as actions in the physical world.
        • Our society is therefore shaped by the interaction between
          • our inner worlds and
          • the laws of nature.
        • We cannot change the laws of nature
          • and so if we want to change the world,
          • we must focus our attention inwards. / Comment: Again, this is reflected in the Deep Humanity phrase: A stimuli occurs, the heart feels, the mind thinks, the body acts and an impact appears in our public, shared reality/
    2. define spirituality
      • for: definition, definition - spirituality
      • definition
      • paraphrase
        • spirituality is simply
          • the process of exploring the mysteries of the self and the universe, and
          • believing that there is more to life than material survival,
          • even if we don’t know what.
          • If the material world is what we can observe with our five physical senses,
          • the spiritual world is everything else.
      • author: Tom Greenwood
      • date: Aug. 23, 2023

      • comment

        • Tom'w working definition is similiar to neuroscientist David Eangleman's definition of possibilian and possibilianism
      • reference
    3. triple bottom line
      • for: definition, definition - triple bottom line, triple bottom line
      • adjacency: definition, John Elkington, triple bottom line
      • definition: triple bottom line
      • author: John Elkington
    1. Technological change is an accelerant and acts on the social ills like pouring gasoline on a fire
      • for: quote, quote - Stowe Boyd, quote - progress trap, quote - unintended consequences, unintended consequences, progress trap, cultural evolution, technology - futures, futures - technology, progress trap
      • quote:
        • Technological change is an accelerant and acts on the social ills like pouring gasoline on a fire
      • author: Sowe Boyd
        • consulting futurist on technological evolution and the future of work
      • paraphrase
        • In an uncontrolled hyper-capitalist society,
          • the explosion in technologies over the past 30 years has only
            • widened inequality,
            • concentrated wealth and
            • led to greater social division.
          • And it is speeding up with the rise of artificial intelligence,
            • which like globalization has destabilized Western industrial economies while admittedly pulling hundreds of millions elsewhere out of poverty.
        • And the boiling exhaust of this set of forces is pushing the planet into a climate catastrophe. -The world is as unready for hundreds of millions of climate refugees as it was for the plague.
        • However, some variant of social media will likely form the context for the rise of a global movement to stop the madness
          • which I call the Human Spring
        • which will be more like
          • Occupy or
          • the Yellow Vests
        • than traditional politics.
        • I anticipate a grassroots movement
          • characterized by
            • general strikes,
            • political action,
            • protest and
            • widespread disruption of the economy
          • that will confront the economic and political system of the West.
        • Lead by the young, ultimately this will lead to large-scale political reforms, such as
          • universal health care,
          • direct democracy,
          • a new set of rights for individuals and
          • a large set of checks on the power of
            • corporations and
            • political parties.
        • For example,
          • eliminating corporate contributions to political campaigns,
          • countering monopolies and
          • effectively accounting for economic externalities, like carbon.
    1. what is second order science and i'm sure we're gonna again go into it in this like fractal convo but and how does everyone play a role in it
      • for: definition, definition - second order science, first order science, second order science, entanglement, complexity
      • definition
        • second order science
          • "Second Order" science contrasts with first order science.
          • In first order science, the scientist is an observer standing apart from that which is observed.
          • Second order science is science in which the scientist is part of the observed phenomena and experiment itself.
          • Second order science is value driven, in contrast to first order science.
      • paraphrase
        • first order science is what we humans have participated in most of our history
        • but second order science is really what's applicable now
        • second order science is reflective and involves both science world and stakeholders
          • a group of stakeholders want something to happen and science is engaged in building towards that aspiration, so it's a bit like engineering
            • this makes it value driven
        • second order science still requires first order science in many cases but it needs a level of transparency that states the desired goal of the science
    1. the way we think about a decentralized city is that it's not all in one place um and so if you know you think about cities being built around the dominant technology of the 00:10:37 era uh for the past century that was cars we want to build cities around the dominant technology of this century which is the internet and blockchains and we think how that works is that people will be connected through this 00:10:51 mesh network online and through the dow but then they will actually live in you know physical locations that are spread out all over the world you can think of each of those as like a neighborhood in the city
      • for: definition, definition - decentralized city, decentralized city, network city, definition - network city, question, question - decentralized city, question - network city
      • definition
        • decentralized city
        • network city
          • a virtual city united by rules of governance for its members via the internet but with physical buildings and infrastructure all over the planet. Each physical location is considered a neighborhood of the decentralized or network city
      • questions
        • does this mean that each networked city is really only defined by its membership and virtual governance framework?
        • these physical settlements would still have to abide by the bylaws of the actual physical location (ie. ward or district of a city) they are located in
    1. I can tell you that   my experience is that intentional communities  are not only not fun, but a disaster.   00:51:53 And one of the reasons they're both not fun and  a disaster is that they have a mission statement.   They already know where they're going and there's  some abstracted map-like idea that everyone thinks   that they're cohering to. But then it turns  out that everyone actually interpreted that   differently and the way they interpreted it  yesterday changed. And so that thing becomes   00:52:16 the territory on which you are in polarity with  each other and not the thing that you agree about.   The thing you fight about most is the mission  statement.
      • for: ecological civilization
        • Nora Bateson
          • Nora shares about the many diverse intentional communities she has lived in and found them all dysfunctional.
          • The problem is that they have a mission statement, a purpose.
          • The perspectival knowing is different for each person.
          • How do you nurture unintentional community?
          • support unintentional possibility
          • top-down instructional is an unecological process
          • The question "who can you be when you are with me?" is preferred over "what should you be?"
    1. The Tweedledums
      • for: definition, definition - Tweedledums, Tweedledees
      • definition
        • Tweedledums
          • This is a Reactionary Caste that believes that salvation lies in a return to a non-existent nostalgic past, characterized by respect for
            • authority,
            • order,
            • hierarchy,
            • individual initiative, and
            • ‘traditional’ ways of doing things,
          • governed by a
            • strict,
            • lean,
            • paternalistic elite
          • that leaves as much as possible up to individual families guided by
            • established ‘family values’ and
            • by their interpretation of the will of their god.
    2. The Tweedledees
      • for: definition, definition - tweedledees, tweedledees
      • definition
        • Tweedledees
          • This is a PM (Professional-Managerial) Caste that believes that salvation lies in striving for an impossibly idealistic future characterized by
            • mutual care,
            • affluence
            • relative equality for all,
          • governed by a
            • kind,
            • thoughtful,
            • educated,
            • informed and
            • representative
          • elite that appreciates the role of public institutions and regulations, and is guided by principles of
            • humanism and
            • ‘fairness’.
    1. Thus, we seek to build a conceptual evolutionary model of the human socio-ecological system that is consistent with these insights from agricultural systems but is more evolutionary and more general and incorporates extra-somatic energy, defined as energy that is used by humans but not used in direct human metabolism (Price 1995).
      • definition
        • extra-somatic energy
          • energy that is used by humans but not used in direct human metabolism
    1. die Utopie ist schon in uns, sie ist der handfeste Stoff, aus dem Träume gewoben werden. Das Utopische ist ein Samen in jedem Menschen, aber auch eine historische Erfahrung. Utopisten sind jene, die das Undenkbare aussprechen, um es vorwegzunehmen.
    1. Loss of bone mass, along with microar-chitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leads to enhancedbone fragility and increased fractures—the bone diseaseknown as osteoporosis (1).

      Definition of Osteoporosis

  6. Jul 2023
    1. If I can pick up on that, Rex is going back to   something I said a little bit earlier about  unsustainability, or at least unsustainable   00:46:47 behavior being a natural phenomenon, because  we are far better than any other species   at exploiting our habitats.
      • for: ecological civilization
        • William Rees
    2. Well, I'll say there's a danger in that question.  It's a good question and it's a question we should   be asking, but there's a danger, and that  is that we're going to come up with a model   for ecological community and then we're going  to make it happen. And that right away violates   everything that Nora just pointed out. That's  absolutely critically important.
      • for: ecological civilization
      • Rex
        • danger is we will build a model
        • question to Rex:
          • what then is the alternative?
          • admit we are animals
          • if we overshoot, we have to contract
    1. The common definition of a progress trap is derived from the book’s cover text: “..it is the condition in which we find ourselves when science, technology and industry create more problems than they can solve. Often inadvertently.”
      • for: progress trap
      • definition
      • quote
        • progress trap
          • A progress trap is the condition in which we find ourselves when science, technology and industry create more problems than they can solve. Often inadvertently.
      • author
        • Dan O'Leary
      • source
    1. snowy peaks problem.
      • definition
        • snowy peak problem
      • if you are a minority looking up at management in politics, business or other hierarchical organizations, you often see old, white males at the top.
    1. hypostatising abstractions

      In other word, "reification" or treating abstractions as if they were concrete real events or physical entities.

    2. memory engrams in the brain

      A theoretical construct in neuroscience/neuropsychology that is

      a unit of cognitive information imprinted in a physical substance, theorized to be the means by which memories are stored[1] as biophysical or biochemical[2] changes in the brain or other biological tissue, in response to external stimuli. (wiki)

      Cf. this note to a 2015 neuroscience paper that purports that it's been "found/discovered".

    1. XMI is a standard which defines how to serialise object instances. Although XML is a very good way to store information in a tree structured way, it is not object oriented. XMI extends XML to make it object oriented.
    1. Sometimes it refers to an abstract formalization of the objects and relationships found in a particular application domain
    2. A data model[1][2][3][4][5] is an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another and to the properties of real-world entities.
    1. So where do priors come from? They are engineering assumptions, chosen to help themachine learn. The flat prior in Figure 2.5 is very common, but it is hardly ever the best prior.You’ll see later in the book that priors that gently nudge the machine usually improve infer-ence. Such priors are sometimes called regularizing or weakly informative priors.They are so useful that non-Bayesian statistical procedures have adopted a mathematicallyequivalent approach, penalized likelihood. These priors are conservative, in that theytend to guard against inferring strong associations between variables.

      p. 35 where [[Richard McElreath]] defines [[weakly informative priors]] aka [[regularizing priors]] in [[Bayesian statistics]]. Notes that non-Bayesian methods have a mathematically equivalent approach called [[penalized likelihood]].

    1. How can we accept the physical theory of light and believe at thesame time that information about an external object must be conveyedby light? The latter is implied whenever we say that the object stimulatesthe eye. The outline of an answer was suggested in Chapter 1 (pp. 12-13,14-15). We can escape the paradox by distinguishing between radiantlight and ambient light - that is, between light emitted from an energysource and light reflected by the environment as a source. The convey-ing of information about surfaces by light of the latter kind is conceiv-able. To justify such a theory, however, the known laws of physicaloptics need to be supplemented with quite unfamiliar laws of ecologicaloptics

      Argues that distinguishing between

      • "radiant light" (light emitted from an energy source)

      • "ambient light" (light reflected by the environment as a source)

      resolves issue of - wanting a physical theory of light - wanting info about objects to be conveyed by light

      But needs ecological optics to be combined with physical optics to justify this theory.

    2. The difference between energy and information has been emphasizedin all of these chapters but the difference has not yet been made explicit.I have suggested that while energy is relevant to receptor-cells, informa-tion is relevant to organs, and that the stimulus for an organ or a per-ceptual system is of higher order than the stimulus for a cell. The heartof the question, however, is to explain how stimulus energy may carryor contain information. It is not how information might be picked upthat needs to be decided first, but simply whether it exists

      Defines - stimulus energy as relevant to [[receptor-cell]]s - stimulus information as relevant to [[organ]] or [[perceptual system]]

    3. A clear distinc-tion has been made between things that are sources of stimulation, eitherin the environment or in a laboratory, and the stimuli themselves. Theformer are objects, events, surfaces, places, substances, pictures, and otheranimals. The latter are patterns and transformations of energy at re-ceptors. A stimulus may specify its source, but it is clearly not the samething as its source.

      Defines "stimulus".

    4. In speaking, painting, sculpting, and writing, the human animal learnedto make sources of stimulation for his fellows, and to stimulate himselfin doing so. These sources, admittedly, are of a special sort, unlike thesources in the "natural" environment. They are "artificial" sources. Theygenerate a new kind of perception in man, which might be called knowl-edge, or perception at second hand. The so-called accumulation of knowl-edge in a society of men, however, depends wholly on communication,

      on ways of getting stimuli to the sense organs of individuals.

      Defines "knowledge" as "perception at second hand".

    5. The atmosphere, then, is a medium. A medium permits more or lessunhindered movements of animals and displacements of objects. Funda-mentally, I suggest, this is what is meant by "space." But a medium hasother equally important properties. It also permits the flou; of informa-tion. It permits the flux of light, it transmits vibration, and it mediatesthe diffusion of volatile substances. Only by illumination do animals"see" things, only by vibration do they "hear" things, and only by diffu-sion do they "smell" things. I shall argue that in these three ways variousproperties of a thing are broadcast, as it were, when it is illuminated, orvibrating, or chemically volatile.

      Gives definition of "medium": - allows animals move - allows objects get displaced - allows the "flow of information"

    1. Penrose is a framework for specifying how mathematical statements should be interpreted as visual diagrams. A clean separation between abstractmathematical objects and their visual representation provides new capabilities beyond existing code- or GUI-based tools. Here, for instance, the same set ofstatements (left) is given three different visual interpretations (right), via Euclidean, spherical, and hyperbolic geometry. (Further samples are shown in Fig. 29.)

      A definition of what Penrose is.



    1. As for meter, Arom adds that “it is in fact the most elementary manifestationof rhythm,” 17 made of identical durations with regular stress patterns.
    2. “The pulse, as it has just been defined, is notrhythm. Rhythm is created by a succession of sound events with contrastingfeatures. This contrast may be generated by accents, timbres and durations.”15This is how these three components operate:

      Accents: Contrast is created by means of highlighting certain elements of the music, either regularly or irregularly. When timbre or duration are not at play, accents are the only rhythmic criteria. Timbre: Contrast is produced by hearing/playing different tone colors in turn, either regularly or irregularly. When accents or duration are not at play, timbre is the only rhythmic criterion. Duration: Contrast is produced by the succession of unequal time val- ues. When accents or timbre are not at play, durations are the only rhythmic criteria. 16 As for meter, Arom adds that “it is in fact the most elementary manifestation of rhythm,” 17 made of identical durations with regular stress patterns. Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff suggest other definitions of the accent, of which they see three types:

    1. egregores. Egregores don’t necessarily map onto humans. Rather than a hard-and-fast distinction, it’s more helpful to think of tulpas as a subtype of egregores, perhaps of the highest intensity. This is because egregores leech off of our tulpas. They are artificial entities that feel real (like actual beings), precisely because they’re parasitic. So brands, for instance, are egregores. An organization (workplace) or symbol (flag) or abstract idea can be egregoric. Fictional characters seem like tulpas insofar as they’re ‘people’, but they’re also egregores in that they’re not ‘real’.

      Is there a data structure for these? These things are key to building Westworld IRL

    2. Enneagram


    3. A tulpa is an internal representation of another person.
    1. finite time singularity
      • finite time singularity

        • when the mathematical solution to the growth equation becomes infinitely large at some finite time
      • comment

        • this is also salient for the accumulation of unresolved progress traps
        • the Anthropocene can perhaps be viewed as the occurence of finite time singularities due to unresolved problems arising from progress traps that innovation is too slow to solve
  7. Jun 2023
    1. In addition to the ii 7–V7–Imaj7 and ii≤57–V7–i progressions, there are other harmonicprogressions that often occur in standard tunes. Probably the most recognizableprogression is a turnaround, also known as a turnback. The turnaround is a two- orfour-bar progression, usually with a faster harmonic rhythm, that typically occurs at theend of 8- or 16-bar phrases. One of the formal functions of the turnaround is to effectivelyprepare the arrival of the “top of the chorus” by ushering in a familiar chord progression. 1Just as the ii 7 –V 7 –Imaj 7 progression can be transformed with different harmonicsubstitutions, so too can turnarounds
    2. Chapter 13 investigates two- and four-bar idiomatic jazz progressions. It also focuses onaural identification and keyboard realization of non-modulatory and modulatoryprogressions with various ii7–V7 or ii≤57–V7 interpolations, as well as miscellaneous four-bar phrases
    3. Chapter 2 identifies the main characteristics of jazz rhythm
    5. voice leading
    6. The musical depiction of the lyrics from Figure 9.2 illustrates an additional aspect of bluesperformance practice—the use of call and response. Originally practiced by a large groupof people, this improvisational technique involves sharing ideas between the leader andher/his followers. Mastering the call and response technique is especially important at thebeginning of our encounter with jazz improvisation. It engages us in a meaningfuldialogue that includes exchanging and communicating musical ideas. The communicativeaspect of call and response is relatively straightforward in the context of verbal conversation.

      In a musical setting, however, when spoken words and sentences are replaced with motifs and melodic phrases, the structure of the call and response might not be as obvious. To be a good communicator, we have to know how to listen, pay close attention to what the other musicians are playing, and try to be receptive to their ideas. In certain scenarios, however, the use of call and response technique might create less than desirable effects. For instance, when the call and response takes the form of exact and immediate repetition, it might be impressive but not necessarily in keeping with the surrounding musical context. A much more subtle way of thinking about the call and response technique involves musical interaction at the level of the entire performance in which non-adjacent sections relate to one another, and where the flow of the performance is regulated by logically introduced musical ideas. In creating a musical narrative, then, we can also respond to each other’s playing, but these responses are not as obvious as simple repetitions tend to be. We can demonstrate our listening skills, for instance, by incorporating an idea that we have previously heard (i.e. a rhythmic motive from the drummer, or a melodic gesture from the guitarist) and develop it in such a way that leads to a more satisfying musical discourse. The call and response aspect of improvisation means that musicians understand each other’s intentions, have an unspoken agreement, so to speak, and project them with a high level of personal expression and musical commitmen

    7. Broadly speaking, voice leading controls the interaction between chords and lines withinharmonic progressions. The principles of voice leading encompass several general topics,such as the role of outer-voice counterpoint, the types of melodic motion, the retentionof common tones, the treatment of dissonances, and others that will be discussedthroughout the book.At the surface level, jazz voice-leading conventions seem more relaxed than they are incommon-practice music. After all, jazz musicians use forbidden parallel perfect fifths andoctaves, move all the voices in the same direction, and tolerate voice crossings of differentsorts. The rules of jazz voice leading are different because the syntax of jazz is largelyincompatible with common-practice classical or other types of music. These differencesdo not mean, however, that the rules of jazz voice leading are any less strict. When jazzmusicians think about dissonance treatment or highlight a linear approach to harmony asopposed to a vertical one, they rely just as much on well-defined rules of voice leading asdo composers of common-practice music. The conventions of jazz voice leading dependgreatly on the soprano and bass, so-called outer-voice counterpoint.
    8. When using Roman numerals, however, complex five-, six-, orseven-part formations will be translated to their essential four-part framework. For instance,F7(≤13) in the key of C major will be simply notated as IV7
    9. The use of dynamics, legato, and especially articulation can substantially improve the overallpresentation of melodic lines. Generally, the use of dynamics should roughly follow thecontour of the melodic lines. Rising lines are typically played with a slight crescendo anddescending lines with a slight diminuendo. Additionally, melodic lines should be playedalmost legato with barely perceptible note detachment. Carefully distributed articulations(dynamic accents, staccato, tenuto, marcato, etc.) are also an essential component ofphrasing.
    10. The term “swing” has multiple meanings and associations. Sometimes it refers to a specificmusical style from the 1930s called Swing. It may also refer to a performance practicetradition or a specific rhythmic attribute attached to the quality of 8th notes
    1. my editor who's from completely outside this world just Mark that and said you know I don't know what these words mean the Evangelical subculture 00:36:03 right I was like okay take it out and let me let me show don't tell and but the truth is like it's invisible to people on the outside what the Evangelical subculture is

      my editor who's from completely outside this world just Mark that and said you know I don't know what these words mean the Evangelical subculture right I was like okay take it out and let me let me show don't tell and but the truth is like it's invisible to people on the outside what the Evangelical subculture is

    1. my editor who's from completely outside this world just Mark that and said you know I don't know what these words mean the Evangelical subculture 00:36:03 right I was like okay take it out and let me let me show don't tell and but the truth is like it's invisible to people on the outside what the Evangelical subculture is
      • definition
        • Evangelical Subculture
      • This is a culture that Evangelical Christians are immersed in
        • which constitutes a kind of bubble of repetitive indoctrination of
          • aggressive, male, patriarchal value system that is antithetical to
          • the traditional teachings of Christianity that once focused on values of
            • collaboration
            • compassion
            • empathy
            • tolerance
      • It is widespread deeply aculturated meme that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide
      • one of its distinguishing features is the carefully controlled and orchestrated propaganda
    1. My attempt to answer the question “What is mbaqanga?” in terms ofits musical influences is that it is a vocal and instrumental genre of music that emerged in the early 1960s from a fusion between kwela, marabi, isicathamiya and jazz coupled with indigenous and traditional melodies of the Zulu-speaking people of South Africa. My attempt to answer the question “What is mbaqanga?” as it relates tomusical performance is that it is a vibrant, punchy genre of music where the drum set, bass guitar and electric guitar or electric organ are the primary instruments. A basic description of a mbaqangasong is where the drum set plays a kick drum and snare drum (rim) on all four beats while the hi-hats play up-beats or in an eighth-note division. The electric bass plays the root on the first beat of the bar while interjecting small melodic phrases within the harmonic rhythm. The electric guitar or electric organ plays the main melodic and cyclical phrase that the song will be based on. The basic harmonic rhythm has a chord changing at four beat intervals and the chord structure is based on a I-IV-V-I chord progression.
    2. Contextualizing and Defining Mbaqanga and Ghoema
    1. Information ecology was defined by Nardi and O’Day (1999) to be “a system of people, practices, values, and technologies in a particular local environment” (p. 49).
    2. an “information ecology” is a local environment enriched with multiple heterogeneous technologies, such as personal computers, handheld devices, interactive screens, which are interlinked as a unified system.
    1. Communication studies is a science that studies messages effectively from the sender of the message to the message’s recipient through various platforms. In this department, you will research communication at multiple levels, from an individual, media, advertising/publicity, intercultural communication, to social media communication.
    1. The music style Marabi was characterized by a repeating, ostinato accompaniment, usually in the harmonic pattern I–IV–I64–V, upon which potentially endlessly melodies were improvised. These melodies often consisted of sections of popular pieces of any provenance (folk music, religious music, US jazz, dance music such as Vastrap, etc.) which, like the underlying pattern, could also be repeated at will. Marabi was mostly played on electric organs or pianos, with a percussive accompaniment of cans filled with stones
    1. Like that of itsantecedents, the harmonic base of mbaqanga is the cyclical repetition of four primary chords. Shortmelodies, usually the length of the harmonic cycle, are repeated and alternated with slight variations, andcall-and-response generally occurs between solo and chorus parts. The characteristics that differentiatembaqanga from previous styles are a driving, straight beat, rather than swung rhythms; melodicindependence between instrumental parts, the bass and lead guitars providing particularly strongcontrapuntal lines; and electric rather than acoustic guitars and bass guitar
    2. Mbaqanga
    1. From the fusion of marabi music and the American element ofswing, developed a style sometimes referred to as “African Jazz”, a term which Ballantineuses interchangeably with “mbaqanga” (Ballantine, 1993:6; Ballantine 2012:7). However,there is some discrepancy about the interchangeable use of these terms. Authors, such asAllen (1993: 26) and Thorpe (2018:36), distinguishes between the two terms, mentioning thatthe former developed before the latter as a description of a style of music that contain elementsof both African music and jazz. According to Allen, mbaqanga was also used to describe acompletely different musical style, which became popular during the 60s, and therefore Allenprefers the term “African jazz” to avoid confusion. She states, however:The most popular and long-lasting name for this style (African jazz), however, wasmbaqanga, which is Zulu for the maize bread which constitutes the staple diet of themajority of South Africans. (Allen 1993:26, 27).Thorpe mentions, the name developed as an expression of “an independent and valuableblack South African urban identity” (Thorpe, 2018:36; Allen, 1993:26, 27). Since marabi wasalready waning in popularity and performance, this new style acted almost as a “regenerationof marabi” (Ballantine 1993:61). Ballantine, similarly, describes the ideological importance ofthis style:The explicit and conscious acceptance of aspects of a social and political philosophy – inthis case New Africanism – into the very constitution of music, was a turning-point in thehistory of black South African jazz (Ballantine 1993:62)
  8. www.slj.com www.slj.com
    1. orthographic

      refers to the norms and rules about how to write correctly in a particular language, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.

    2. phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming
      • Phonological awareness is the ability to hear and identify the individual sounds (phonemes) in words.

      *Rapid automatic naming is the ability to quickly and accurately name objects, colors, numbers, letters, or other visual stimuli.