1,175 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. the “unit system,” in which a candidate would have to win a majority of votes and a majority of counties to claim victory.

      This system is still used today and is a popular form of system all over the world. The author includes this as a sign of relief as in how even out of something bad, a good thing was produced. Rather than simply listing out the bad things from this era, he also listed what good things came out of this. By doing this, the audience understands that he is not biased and improves his credibility. Also, the inclusion of the definition is needed here as some people may not know the meaning of the unit system.

  2. Feb 2021
    1. A Monad wraps a value or a computation with a particular context. A monad must define both a means of wrapping normal values in the context, and a way of combining computations within the context.
    1. This text wound up founding the discipline which we today call "metaphysics", and one way to describe what this subject encompasses is that it covers things at a level of abstraction above physics.
    1. A free cultural work (free content) is, according to the definition of Free Cultural Works, one that has no significant legal restriction on people's freedom to: use the content and benefit from using it, study the content and apply what is learned, make and distribute copies of the content, change and improve the content and distribute these derivative works.
    2. A free cultural work (free content) is, according to the definition of Free Cultural Works, one that has no significant legal restriction on people's freedom to:
    3. A free content, libre content, or free information, is any kind of functional work, work of art, or other creative content that meets the definition of a free cultural work.
    1. a framework containing the basic assumptions, ways of thinking, and methodology that are commonly accepted by members of a scientific community. such a cognitive framework shared by members of any discipline or group:
    1. The balance of paymentsof a country is a record (usually for a year) of all transactions between the residents of the country and the residents of other countries

      Definition of BOP



    1. Person - definition of entropy

      • Clausius - entropy from Greek "Transformation"
      • Leon Cooper (1968) - lost heat
      • dictionaries - unavailable energy
      • Arieh Ben-Naim - missing information (or uncertainty)



    1. The basic classification of a form object is a class that contains writable attributes, validations and logic to persist the attributes to ActiveRecord objects. These forms can also include other side-effects like background job triggers, emails, and push-notifications etc. The simplest way to understand the concept is to think of them as a representation of a controller action where all of the business logic that happens in that controller action is abstracted into a form object.

      This definition may be a bit too broad. Others (like Reform) define it to have smaller scope — only the part where it persists/validates attributes. The other side effects might be better to put in a different location, like the controller action, or a service/processor object that has a form object.

    1. I take my own definition of the word “community” from educational theorists Etienne and Beverly Wenger: “communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do, and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.” I like this definition because it is so broad while capturing a really specific truth about groups.
    1. Turbolinks is a Single-Page Application Turbolinks doesn't just give you some of the benefits of a single-page app. Turbolinks is a single page app. Think about it: When someone visits your site, you serve them some HTML and Javascript. The JavaScript takes over and manages all subsequent changes to the DOM. If that's not a single-page app, I don't know what is.
    1. Keep your personal burn rate low.  This alone will give you a lot of opportunities in life.

      Burn rate — how much time you have to invest in stuff before you have a “positive cash flow”

    1. innovative learning involves both major and minor excursions into the unfamiliar, including efforts to formulate, explore, and test possibilities regarding the design of a learning experience in all of its contextual uniqueness.

      DOI: When compared to Maintanence learning, this is taking the mundane everyday tasks of a job, and going into unexplored territory to find solution and new ways to complete the job at hand.

    2. maintenance learning, refers to becoming familiar with extant knowledge, practices, and tools, such that designers can engage in the same work, in approximately the same manner, as others in the field—for example, using a software program in originally-intended ways for fairly well-understood applications relevant to design.

      DOI: This explains everyday knowledge needed to maintain and complete the same job everyday.

    1. Fluent or prolific thinking refers to the thinkers’ ability to generate a multitude of ideas and concepts.

      DOI: Fluent - this refers to a thinkers ability to generate a mulittude of ideas and concepts.

      I feel like I am a fluent thinker, I finally found a word to describe what I have felt all my life. I can generate so many solutions to problems yet many may be far-fetched or unreasonable, but in my mind it is a solution.

      This is great for brainstorming I have realized over my life.

    1. engages the learners and goes beyond their expectations.

      DOI: Creative Instruction - Engages learners and goes above thier expectations.

      Another interesting take on creative instruction. I like that they define it as going "beyond [learner] expectations".

    2. instruction that keeps learners motivated while still meeting the objectives of the instruction.

      DOI: Creative instruction - Motivating instruction that stays on task.

      Great definition that hints at what creative intruction looks like.

    3. quaIity movement we have learned that quality is determined not by the attributes of the product but by the satisfaction of the customer. “What the customer wants, the customer gets” is the motto of the quality movement.
    4. instructional analysis process, i.e., the process used to analyze the instructional goal in order to identify the subordinate skills that must be included in the instruction.
    5. Formative evaluation

      Formative evaluation is so important to include, and not just as a means to assess the designer's level of creativity or how the learner perceived the content. It can also be used to evaluate the learner's progress and degree of comprehension of the material.

      Furthermore cyclical revisions improve the content for the next cohort of learners, and there's a constant feedback loop that can improver the overall learning experience. It's important not to neglect or overlook the impact that formative evaluations can have.

      When I was in school, I often felt like formative evaluation was not a key priority. The summative evaluations had the most emphasis and consequently received the most attention because they impacted final course grades.

    6. Keller’s (1987) ARCS Model as a means of systematically addressing the motivation of learners.

      I wonder if the ARCS Model reflects Robert M. Gagne's events of instruction? I think I recall 1) "gaining the attention of the learner" as a shared component among the two types of models.

    7. instructional strategy

      Instructional Strategy

      • What is the mode of instruction?
      • How is content organized and presented to the learner?

      I also think it's important that the instructional strategy complements the instructional content and the goals/objectives that you want the learner to achieve.

      For example, for acquiring skill-based knowledge, it's helpful to integrate practice sessions where you can actually apply your newly learned skills. Whereas if the goal is to deliver content to a large population, a lecture-style might serve the purpose better.

      So, I think that it's important to ensure that the instructional strategy is tailored to the content as well as to the learner to ensure a successful outcome and a positive learning experience for the individual.

    8. learner analysis

      Learner Analysis is consistently a key priority when delivering instruction. Knowing who your learners are means knowing the whole student and leveraging their natural abilities to connect with the content.

    1. Un digisexuel est une personne qui considère les technologies immersives comme les robots sexuels et la pornographie en réalité virtuelle comme partie intégrante de son expérience sexuelle et qui ne sent pas le besoin d’intimité physique avec un partenaire humain.

      définition + idée d'exclusivité de l'objet du désir : l'unicité et la déviance de l'objet sexuel pose la question d'un possible cas de perversion

    1. UNS 1 / catégorie 1 : il assure au moins 90 % de filtration de particules de 3 microns. Contrairement à un masque chirurgical, celui-ci a comme avantage d’être lavable et réutilisable. Suivant un avis du Haut conseil de santé publique publié le 20 janvier 2021, un décret du 27 janvier 2021 recommande de ne commercialiser que des masques « grand public » relevant de cette catégorie, en les affichant comme tels, sous réserve qu’ils aient été testés au préalable.
    1. charismatic megafauna

      "a term used to refer to the plant and animal species that have a large appeal, perhaps due to an attractive appearance, to a global audience ... generally associated with environmental activism and conservation messages" - WorldAtlas.com

    1. Popup - You don't need to deal with these messages right away, yet at some point you will need to take action since these won't go away until explicitly say say you don't want them around anymore.
    2. Popover/Tooltip/Hovercard - These are passive approaches to showing more information. These are used to add simple instructions or explanations or foreshadow what will happen if you click a link.
    1. A pop-up is a modal view that can either take form as a pop-up menu or a pop-up dialog. To my understanding, when we use the word “pop-up”, what we want to express is the pop-up motion effect on the call-out of the UI treatment.
    2. A popover is a transient view that shows on a content screen when a user clicks on a control button or within a defined area.
  3. Jan 2021
    1. Validity is a unitary concept. It is the degree to which all the accumulated evidence supports the intended interpretation of test scores for the proposed use. Like the 1999 Standards, this edition refers to types of validity evidence, rather than distinct types of validity. To empha-size this distinction, the treatment that follows does not follow historical nomenclature (i.e., the use of the terms content validity or predictive validity). (
    2. “a test is valid for anything with which it correlates” (p. 429). The idea here was that, if there were a “gold standard” of the con-struct (often, an earlier test), and if scores on the test correlated with that gold standard, the test could be inferred to be a measure of the construct. Note that this is a variety of the “if it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it must be a duck” argument.

      influenced by positivism

    3. Validity refers to the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores for proposed uses of tests”
    4. A construct is a theoretical entity hypothesized to account for particular behaviors or characteristics of people. Examples of constructs abound in the social sciences and include creativity, intelligence, various abilities and attitudes, personality characteris-tics, and value systems.
    1. a slogan is "a catchphrase or small group of words that are combined in a special way to identify a product or company,"
    1. And since auto is entirely based on content, we can say it is “indefinitely” sized, its dimensions flex. If we were to put an explicit width on the column, like 50% or 400px, then we would say it is “definitely” sized.
    1. success

      Success is defined differently by everyone and is relative to the individual.

      I will define success as the satisfaction that comes with improvement

    1. A tooltip is an element containing simple text content describing a particular element. It's hidden until the user desires more information from the element, e.g. before deciding to click a button.
    2. A popover is an interactive HTML tooltip. It can be a dropdown, menu, or any other kind of box that pops out from the normal flow of the document. This type of element contains non-vital functionality and can be hidden behind a click or hover to conserve space.
    3. Both are elements positioned near a "reference" element, and are hidden until they are triggered. They help conserve space by hiding secondary information or functionality behind a hover or click. They are positioned outside the normal flow of the document so when they are triggered, they are overlaid on top of the existing UI without disrupting the flow of content.
    1. Black and white thinking is the tendency to think in extremes: I am a brilliant success, or I am an utter failure. My boyfriend is an angel, or He’s the devil incarnate. This thought pattern, which the American Psychological Association also calls dichotomous or polarized thinking, is considered a cognitive distortion because it keeps us from seeing the world as it often is: complex, nuanced, and full of all the shades in between. An all-or-nothing mindset doesn’t allow us to find the middle ground.
    1. Sometimes called all-or-nothing, or black and white thinking, this distortion occurs when people habitually think in extremes
    1. A display manager is the component of your Operating system responsible for launching your display server and the login session. This is the reason it is sometimes called the login manager. The layout of the screen that you see while entering your username and password(the greeter), your login session and user authorization are some of the tasks that the display manager performs.
  4. Dec 2020
    1. What is a data-originated component? It’s a kind of component that is primarily designed and built for either: displaying, entering, or customizing a given data content itself, rather than focusing on the form it takes. For example Drawer is a non data-originated component, although it may include some. Whereas Table, or Form, or even Feed are good examples of data-originated components.
  5. developer.mozilla.org developer.mozilla.org
    1. In a browser, the chrome is any visible aspect of a browser aside from the webpages themselves (e.g., toolbars, menu bar, tabs). This is not to be confused with the Google Chrome browser.
  6. link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu
    1. the elaboration principle is that people learn better when they outline, summarize, or otherwise elaborate on the presented material
    2. The questioning principle is that people learn better when they must ask and answer deep questions during learning
    3. The guided discovery principle is that people learn better when they are allowed to solve problems while receiving appropriate guidance
    4. The worked-example principle is that people learn better when they are shown a step-by-step example of how to solve a problem, with commentary
    5. The self-explanation principle is that people learn better when they are prompted to explain lesson elements during learning
    6. The testing principle is that people learn better when they take a practice test on the material have studied
    7. The anchoring principle is that people learn better when material is presented in the context of a familiar situation,
    8. The concretizing principle is that people learn better when unfamiliar material is presented in a way that relates it with the learner’s familiar knowledge, such as using concrete examples and analogies.
  7. Nov 2020
  8. link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu link-springer-com.wv-o-ursus-proxy02.ursus.maine.edu
    1. The science of learning is the scientific study of how people learn, that is, how the learner’s experience causes a change in the learner’s knowledge (Mayer, 2008, 2011)
    2. people can learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone—a finding that has been called the multimedia principle
    3. Multimedia instruction is instruction that includes words (e.g., printed or spoken text) and pictures (i.e., static graphics such as illustrations, diagrams, charts, maps, and photos, or dynamic graphics such as animation and video).
    1. Houdini is a set of low-level APIs that exposes parts of the CSS engine, giving developers the power to extend CSS by hooking into the styling and layout process of a browser’s rendering engine.  Houdini is a group of APIs that give developers direct access to the CSS Object Model (CSSOM), enabling developers to write code the browser can parse as CSS, thereby creating new CSS features without waiting for them to be implemented natively in browsers.
    1. resource allocation theory, which states that performance on tasks is dependent on the attentional resources available, the degree of self‐regulation during task engagement, and task complexity (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989),

      Resource allocation theory:

      Performance is dependent on the attentional resources available, the degree of self-regulation during task engagement, and task complexity.

    1. “to learn” is an active verb naming a dynamic process through which humans continuously adapt, through conscious and unconscious physiological and cognitive responses, to the unique circumstances and experiences they encounter.



    1. A feedback loop in learning is a cause-effect sequence where data (often in the form of an ‘event’) is responded to based on recognition of an outcome and that data is used to inform future decisions in similar or analogous situations.
  9. Oct 2020
    1. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a set of processes, policies and technology for associating cryptographic keys with the entity to whom those keys were issued. It is a well-known authentication and encryption method used in internet banking and e-commerce to confirm the identity of trading partners as well as validate information being shared. PKI is made of several elements which are:
    1. It is only soft-deprecated, which means that your code will not break at the moment and no deprecation warning will be displayed, but this constant will be removed in the future.
    1. Distance learning has been defined as “planned learning that normally occurs in a different place from teaching and as a result requires special tech-niques of course design, special instructional techniques, special methods of communication by electronic and other technology, as well as special organi-zational and administrative arrangements” (Moore and Kearsley, 1996, p. 2).
    2. Embodied cognition is the idea that cognition is shaped by every aspect of an organism’s experience, including the bodily system and ways the body interacts with its environment (see Yannier et al., 2016).
    3. An affordance has been defined as a feature or property of an object that makes possible a particular way of relating to the object for the person who
    4. Researchers in the field use the term affordances to refer to oppor-tunities that a technology makes possible related to learning and instruction (Collins et al., 2000)
    5. Self-determination theory posits that behavior is strongly influenced by three universal, innate, psychological needs—autonomy (the urge to control one’s own life), competence (the urge to experience mastery), and psycho-logical relatedness (the urge to interact with, be connected to, and care for others).
    6. Self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977), which is incorporated into several models of motivation and learning, posits that the perceptions learners have about their competency or capabilities are critical to accomplishing a task or attaining other goals (Bandura, 1977).
    7. motivational systems perspective, viewing motivation as a set of psychological mechanisms and processes, such as those related to setting goals, engagement in learning, and use of self-regulatory strategies
    8. mindset: the set of assump-tions, values, and beliefs about oneself and the world that influence how one perceives, interprets, and acts upon one’s environment (Dweck, 1999).
    9. Motivation is a condition that activates and sustains behavior toward a goal
    10. Self-explanationis a strategy in which learners produce explanations of material or of their thought processes while they are reading, answering ques-tions, or solving problems.
    11. Elaborative interrogation is a strategy in which learners are asked, or are prompted to ask themselves, questions that invite deep reasoning, such as why, how, what-if, and what-if not (as opposed to shallow questions such as who, what, when, and where) (Gholson et al., 2009).
    12. “intrinsic” executive control, or a person’s ability to direct herself, change course when needed, and strategize in the absence of explicit rules to follow
    13. Self-regulation refers to learning that is focused by means of metacog-nition, strategic action, and motivation to learn.
    14. refers to cognitive and neural pro-cessing that involves the overall regulation of thinking and behavior and the higher-order processes that enable people to plan, sequence, initiate, and sustain their behavior toward some goal, incorporating feedback and making adjustments
    15. Metacognition is the ability to monitor and regulate one’s own cognitive processes and to consciously regulate behavior, including affective behavior



    1. If your React component’s render function is “pure” (in other words, it renders the same result given the same props and state)
    1. Also known as an intercepting proxy, inline proxy, or forced proxy, a transparent proxy intercepts normal application layer communication without requiring any special client configuration. Clients need not be aware of the existence of the proxy.
    1. Warnings, in this example, are defined as: suggestions to the user, like validation errors, but that do not prevent submission.
    1. The intuition behind POJOs is that a POJO is an object that only contains data, as opposed to methods or internal state. Most JavaScript codebases consider objects created using curly braces {} to be POJOs. However, more strict codebases sometimes create POJOs by calling Object.create(null) to avoid inheriting from the built-in Object class.
    1. virtual-dom is a collection of modules designed to provide a declarative way of representing the DOM for your app. So instead of updating the DOM when your application state changes, you simply create a virtual tree or VTree, which looks like the DOM state that you want. virtual-dom will then figure out how to make the DOM look like this efficiently without recreating all of the DOM nodes.
    1. Events refers both to a design pattern used for the asynchronous handling of various incidents which occur in the lifetime of a web page and to the naming, characterization, and use of a large number of incidents of different types.
    1. Bill Clinton being our fi rst “Black” president

      Why was Bill Clinton considered our first "Black" president?

      According to this article from NBC News Toni Morrison, an acclaimed novelist, coined the phrase that Clinton was our first "Black" president because, "Clinton displays almost every trope of blackness: single-parent household, born poor, working-class, saxophone-playing, McDonald’s-and-junk-food-loving boy from Arkansas." This was controversial. In 2008 Morrison added that "I was deploring the way in which President Clinton was being treated, vis-à-vis the sex scandal that was surrounding him. I said he was being treated like a black on the street, already guilty, already a perp. I have no idea what his real instincts are, in terms of race." In 2008, Morrison endorsed Presidential candidate Barack Obama. According to the article, Morrison explained that her endorsement was based on Obama's traits, and not based on his racial identity saying "I would not support you if that was all you had to offer or because it might make me proud." In the article it adds the specifics and details.

      Click here for link to NBC News article

    2. poignant
    3. caustic

      Context clues weren't helping so I goggled what the word "caustic" means and it means being sarcastic but in a bitter and mean way. Caustic can also mean having the capability to burn through something chemically. But I think the former is more of the meaning used in the sentence because the context of the sentence has to do with a speaking style.


    4. In fact, one could say that “the Black preacher style” was seen as Barack’s communicative M.O.

      It is interesting how Obama used religious side to reach out to more black Americans, andhttps://www.nbcchicago.com/news/local/how-obama-learned-his-pulpit-style/1940950/ as the article says, he was Able to connect more by delivering "sermons" and not speeches.

    5. Signifyin

      Signifyin is used many times in the text but is never outright defined. From what I've found online, signifyin seems to be an African-American form of communicating something "indirectly" which is able to be done through various techniques of expression, such as insulting, comedy, or music/"rapping". I had a hard time understanding exactly what this meant- even with examples-, but I guess that makes sense given that the context "is accessible only to those who share the cultural values of a given speech community".



    6. nuanced

      The definition I found on the word "nuanced" means subtle distinction. This term is being used as a way to display how Obama's black supporters saw his speeches as how a Black Preacher would do it. Yet, it was only distinctively and only so noticeable but still visual in a subtle way.

    7. same literal meaning but diff er in socialmeaning

      I always found it curious that "social meaning" is a new term we have (at least to me) Phrases like "Nah, we straight" are not quite metaphors, but can (and should) only be used in specific social situations. Otherwise, you sound like a fool. Literally.

    1. It was George Steiner, the literary critic, who once suggested an intellectual was “quite simply, a human being who has a pencil in his or her hand when reading a book.”
    1. The phrase “white privilege” was popularized in 1988 by Peggy McIntosh, a Wellesley College professor who wanted to define “invisible systems conferring dominance on my group.”
    1. The parameterization is said to be identifiable if distinct parameter valuesgive rise to distinct distributions; that is,Pθ=Pθ′impliesθ=θ′.

      Definition of identifiable parameterization

    1. Personalized learning argues that the entrepreneurial nature of the knowledge economy and the gaping need, diversity, and unmanageable size of a typical public-school classroom are ill-served by the usual arrangement of a teacher lecturing at a blackboard.
    1. Mount: A cooking technique where small pieces of butter are quickly incorporated in a hot, but not boiling, sauce to give bulk and a glossy appearance.

      A definition I don't recall having ever seen before.

    1. Social action, like all action, may be oriented in four ways

      4 orientations of social action.

      1) conditions of the environment (mean to an end)

      2) action motivated by conscious belief in the value of the action

      3) affectual -based on someone's feelings (emotions)

      4) traditional, ie. habitual actions.

    2. Not every type of contact of human beings has a social character

      here social action considers events of chance, such as collision of two cyclists.

      Natural events.

    3. Social action

      defined as action and passive inaction. (colt be motivated by past present or future). .

    4. Action
      • in terms of being able to cognitively understand something
    5. Processes and uniformities

      Referring to the subjective undestanability of phenomena .

      • a class apart in terms of method for their understanding...<br> example must be conditions, stimuli (circumstances that allow for or constrain action)
    6. A motive

      Subjective grounds for conduct. may involve a complexity, such as a sequence of events. An interpretation of causality.

    7. judged in terms of its results


    8. Understanding

      Direction oberservation (direct rational understanding of ideas) ex 2x2 = 4 or an emotional outbreak that we can see in facial expressions of body language.

      Or explanatory understanding - (ex understanding the context of why someone is noting that 2x2= 4, as in the case of someone working on a ledger).

      Or being able to understand the motivations behind something.

    9. treat all irrational, effectually determined elements of behavior as factors of deviation from a conceptually pure type of rational action

      Meaning is not defined here as emotional meaning or "irrational concepts"

    10. Meaning
      1. actual existing meaning in the given concrete case of a particular actor, or to the average or approximate meaning attributable to a given plurality of actors;

      2 theoretically conceived pure type* of subjective meaning attributed to the hypothetical actor or actors in a given type of action.

      *In no case does it refer to an objectively "correct" meaning or one which is "true"

    11. Sociology

      interpretive understanding of social action and thereby with a causal explanation of its course and consequences

    1. paradigmatic
    2. corporate

      Corporation is a big group of people or in this case a company. Corporate relates back to a corporation. A corporation is made up of a group people who are allowed to act like a single entity. The word coporate is in regards to everyone in the corporation.


    3. dissonance

      According to dicitionary.com, even though this is a term used by musicans, whenever it is used outside of that context, it means "disagreement or incongruity." Which to me, means " two things that dont work together


    4. imbricated

      It means to overlap. In this case I think it just means the common point between consumption, possession and knowledge How these factors into goods, and how they act as representation of a part of cultural and the social. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/imbricate

    5. haute cuisine

      The term "haute cuisine" is a French term which translates literally to "high cooking." It is a term used to define food that is artfully plated, uses high quality ingredients, is served in luxury, gourmet restaurants and has a exceedingly high price point. The term itself was coined in 17th century France and was used as a class distinction; only the rich upperclass and gentry would eat haute cuisine as it was time consuming to cook, required great culinary skill and used many ingredients that were imported, hard to obtain in French regions or out of season. Haute cuisine has been ushered into modernity by several highly skilled French chefs who proliferated the movement all over Europe, the Americas and beyond. Haute cuisine itself is still a part of global stratification, being that it is inaccessible to those who cannot afford its inflated price.


    6. authenticity

      Authenticity means something that exists, so if something is authentic, it is real and genuine. Therefore, the authenticity of something is to say it's real, genuine, truthful, and not false or fake.


    7. profligate

      The term, profligate, was difficult to understand in the passage because of how the author used it. The word profligate usually describes a person who is wildly and impulsively reckless with money and anything of value. In this case, the author makes the subject of this sentence "food" and describes it as being something that plays a prominent role in energy expenditure. When putting the sentence into perspective, the parallels between the word profligate and food is that the distribution of food is a system that relies heavily on a wasteful process and results in using energy excessively and, seemingly, in vain.


    8. romantic

      The author uses this term, romantic, several times, but doesn't specify what he means by it, although this section implies a little about what he seems to mean. Based on Wikipedia's entry on Romanticism, it refers to an intellectual and artistic movement starting in the late 1700s in Europe that emphasized "emotion and individualism" and glorified nature and the past. What's probably most relevant about this movement is that it originated during, and in response to, the industrial revolution.

      There's a clear link between this definition and what Pratt is talking about in terms of glorifying (or even fetishizing?) certain places and practices as more directly related to traditional agricultural practices and placing higher value on food commodities that can be directly linked to the specific places or people that produced them.

      Interestingly, authenticity seems to have been a feature of the Romantic movement as well. The Wikipedia article says that adherents of Romanticism "emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience" (no citation is given for this assertion, however).

    1. the function you pass to the find method is called a predicate. The predicate here defines a boolean outcome based on conditions defined in the function itself, so that the find method can determine which value to find.
    1. marking.

      "Whenever a person delineates a cultural boundary around a particular cultural space in human time"

  10. Sep 2020
    1. cognitive dissonance

      google definition also says, the state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change.