876 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2019
    1. The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (1, p. 45)

      Please notice how the author defines key terms using the pre-existing literature. It is hard to come up with a precise definition (in and of itself a separate research, by the way), and, thus, we tend to borrow definitions from the literature.

      Precise definitions = Precise research = Better grades

      Thus, be sure to define key terms in your literature review section.

      Please share a definition of key terms from your research and literature sources. Something like this works, 'Baek (2018) defines xxx as ....

  2. Sep 2019
    1. The following video provides a general overview of the Fair Work Commission’s anti-bullying jurisdiction including key definitions, how the Commission may deal with an application and what an order to stop bullying is.
    1. It is not rational, because theirhijacked experiences are irrational. They are irrational because they areepistemically sensitive to their psychological precursors, in the same waythat conclusions of inference epistemically depend on inferential inputs

      "Epistemically sensitive" meaning that it depends on the inferential inputs which lead them to that conclusion (or to that experience).

    2. My label for this property is“epistemic charge.”

      "Epistemic charge" = the epistemic status that perceptual experiences can have

    3. a belief isill-founded if it is formed or maintained irrationally, well-founded if itis formed and maintained rationally.3These notions are also gradable.One belief can be more ill-founded (or well-founded) than another.

      The gradability of ill-/well-founded here is interesting. The less rational the path to the belief, the more ill-founded it is.

    4. Perceptual experiences that arose from this kind of reasoning wouldbe rational, in a broader sense that encompasses both good and badoutcomes: they are evaluable as rationally better or worse.

      "Rational" just means "rationally (epistemically) appraisable," as in, it can be shown to be better or worse in terms of rationality. So it can be "rational" even if it is evaluated as being rationally worse.

    5. They all assume that thephenomena they govern are epistemically appraisable. They are normsthat purport to describe how a specific aspect of a properly rationalsubject’s mental life would be. The kind of rationality thatfigures inthe Rationality of Perception hypothesis is located at this high level ofabstraction.

      Rationality is tied to a phenomena's epistemic appraisability. The Rationality of Perception holds that perceptual experiences themselves are epistemically appraisable.

      But what does it mean to be epistemically appraisable? Does it just mean that it is concerned with what is rational/what rationality looks like? Is that not circular?

    6. relative tocertain types of norms—norms of rationality

      "Rational" here is inherently normative.

    7. But if Jill’s fear makes her perceptual experience congruent with thefear, then the situation is epistemically more complicated. When we lookmore closely at hijacked perception that reaches all the way to a visualexperience, wefind a distinctive philosophical problem. I’m going to callthis problemthe problem of hijacked experience

      More specific: the move to ONLY when the hijacked perception is at the level of perceptual experience, not perceptual judgment. This is more interesting ethically and epistemically.

    8. When perceptual judgments or perceptual experiences arise fromprocesses that give prior outlooks too much weight and fail to giveproper weight to perceptual inputs (if there are any such inputs), wecan say that the outlookhijacksthe perceptual state

      This definition of hijacking a perceptual state (giving too much weight to "prior outlooks" and not enough to perceptual inputs when creating perceptual judgments or perceptual experiences) sidesteps the initial distinction between what exactly gets hijacked--the judgments or the experiences themselves. It is indiscriminate between the two possibilities.

    9. The distinction between perceptual experience and judgment gives usat least two broad kinds of potential effects on perception

      If the mental states affect perceptual judgment, then the perceiver observes the world as it is but jumps to a particular conclusion that's in line with their mental states. If the mental states affect the perceptual experience, then they do not observe the states as they actually are but see the world itself in a way that aligns with their mental states and make the subsequent (reasonable) judgments about these incorrect perceptions.

      The former seems to be the fault of the lacking reasoning faculties of the perceiver, while the latter is almost beyond their control, in that it's a defect of human cognition that is unavoidable and insidious.

    10. irrational perception. Influences on perception could come from beliefs,hypotheses, knowledge, desires, traits, and moods.1They could alsocome from evaluative states that psychologists call“attitudes.”

      Irrational perception seems to be a psychological phenomenon of misinterpretation on the part of the person doing the perceiving. Most of these causes seem to be related to or are themselves mental states, except for perhaps knowledge. What is it about these states that "get in the way" of an objective perception of the world?



    1. Argumentation is a verbal and social activity of reason aimed at increasing (ordecreasing) the acceptability of a controversial standpoint for the listener or reader
    2. If a speaker presents an argument to an audience, in which he asserts and defendsthe conclusion by appeal to the premises, I call this activity argumentation.
  3. Aug 2019
    1. Plant Tissues

      There are 2 major tissues found in plants: 1) meristematic tissues and 2) permanent tissues. Meristematic tissue is the location of a plant where cells are actively dividing and growing while Permanent tissue is the location of a plant where the cells are no longer dividing. Meristematic tissue contains 3 regions of plant growth: 1) apical meristems-plant extension- 2) lateral meristems-plant thickness- and 3) intercalary meristems-plant length.

    2. Plant Organ Systems

      The plant organ system is composed of 2 categories: 1) • Shoot organ system (non-reproductive and reproductive part of the plant) - used to obtain light for photosynthesis above ground 2)• Root organ system- used to obtain nutrients (water and minerals) underground

    1. vascular plants

      Plants that contain seeds are divided into 2 categories: 1) gymnosperms and 2) angiosperms -Gymnosperm: seeds are not protected -Angiosperm: seeds are protected

    2. leaflets

      A leaflet is a component of a compound leaf resembling an individual leaf. Each of the leaflets and the central midrib pictured actually comprise one leaf of the locust tree.

    1. hegemonic


      1. The predominance of one state or social group over others.
      2. Predominance; preponderance; leadership; specifically, headship or control exercised by one state over another or others, as through confederation or conquest: originally applied to such a relation often existing among the states of ancient Greece.
      3. Leadership; preponderant influence or authority; -- usually applied to the relation of a government or state to its neighbors or confederates.
    2. organicist i

      Organicism is the philosophical perspective which views the universe and its parts as organic wholes and - either by analogy or literally - as living organisms. It can be synonymous with holism

    3. Cartesian paradigm

      The 'Cartesian Paradigm' is where both body and mind are perceived as distinct and separate and not part of a unified whole . The name Cartesian is derived from the French philosopher Rene Descartes .

    1. ‘manosphere’ is a group of loosely incorporated websites andsocial media communities where men’s perspectives, needs, gripes,frustrations and desires are explicitly explored.

      entry definition for manosphere

  4. Jul 2019
    1. It was George Steiner, the literary critic, who once suggested an intellectual was “quite simply, a human being who has a pencil in his or her hand when reading a book.”
    1. The phrase “white privilege” was popularized in 1988 by Peggy McIntosh, a Wellesley College professor who wanted to define “invisible systems conferring dominance on my group.”
    1. Personalized learning argues that the entrepreneurial nature of the knowledge economy and the gaping need, diversity, and unmanageable size of a typical public-school classroom are ill-served by the usual arrangement of a teacher lecturing at a blackboard.
    1. Path FormationPaved paths are not always the most desirable routes going from point A to point B. This may lead pedestrians to take short-cuts. Initially pedestrians walk over green grass. Subsequent people tend to use the stamped grass path instead of the pristine grass, and after many pedestrians an unpaved path is formed without any top-down design.
  5. Jun 2019
    1. We therefore endorse the established principle that students and the state should share the cost of tertiary education. We support the income-contingent repayment approach as a means of delivering this fairly, with those benefitting the most making the greatest contribution.

      Student Contribution System = new name for students and the state sharing the cost of tertiary education, with an income-contingent repayment approach (those benefitting the most making the greatest contribution...[what does this mean?])

  6. May 2019
    1. pacifist

      One who believes war and violence are unjustifiable

    2. onerous

      (of a task or responsibility) involving a great deal of effort, trouble, or difficulty; in Law: involving heavy obligations

    3. skittish

      Frivolous, unpredictable

    4. drudgery

      Hard or menial work

    5. lacunae

      An unfilled space or gap

    6. cartels

      An association of manufacturers or suppliers with the purpose of maintaining prices at a high level and restricting competition.

    1. so ist es ein sicheres Kennzeichen, daß man entweder noch gar keinen gültigen Beweis habe, oder es auch mehrere und verschiedne Pflichten sind, die man für Eine gehalten hat.

      Auch hier kommt mir Kants Argumentation unschlüssig vor. Es ist ein einfaches, ein Beispiel zu konstruieren, in dem es zwei gute und gültige Gründe für EINE Verpflichtung gibt.

    2. daß nämlich ein irrendes Gewissen ein Unding sei. Denn in dem objektiven Urteile, ob etwas Pflicht sei oder nicht, kann man wohl bisweilen irren; aber im subjektiven, ob ich es mit meiner praktischen (hier richtenden) Vernunft zum Behuf jenes Urteils verglichen habe, kann ich nicht irren, weil ich alsdann praktisch gar nicht geurteilt haben würde;

      Irgendwie störe ich mich daran. Mir fällt zwar kein konkretes, dies wiederlegendes Beispiel ein, aber das mag ja einer anderen vielleicht anders gehen. Zumindest nehme ich aber schon an, dass sich eine Gewissensverirrung passieren kann, und bin unschlüssig beziehunsgweese unverständig, was Kants Begründung gegen diese angeht. Vielleicht verstehe ich aber auch seinen Begriff vollkommen falsch.

    1. drawing-room

      "A room to withdraw to, a private chamber attached to a more public room (see withdrawing-room n.); now, a room reserved for the reception of company, and to which the ladies withdraw from the dining-room after dinner" (OED).

    2. thither

      "Also, 'hither,' to go to and fro; to move about in various directions" (OED).

    1. Jämställdhet innebär att kvinnor och män har samma makt att forma samhället och sina egna liv.

      Vad är jämställdhet?

    1. putrescent

      From MCCONNELL 286: "growing rotten or decayed"

      From DANAHAY 179: rotting

    2. temerity

      From DANAHAY 180: recklessness

    3. redoubt

      From MCCONNELL 288: fortification

      From DANAHAY 181: "a fort put up before a battle to protect troops and artillery"

    4. putrefactive

      From MCCONNELL 288: "causing decay or rottenness"

    5. tintinnabulations

      GANGNES: "a ringing of a bell or bells, bell-ringing; the sound or music so produced" (Oxford English Dictionary)

    6. eked

      GANGNES: "to supplement, supply the deficiencies of anything" (Oxford English Dictionary)

    7. kindly insipidity

      GANGNES: In this case insipidity would be defined as "want of taste or judgement; weakness, folly" (Oxford English Dictionary). The narrator is not altogether pleased with the French operator's comments; France cheers on England's "triumph" over the Martians, after having offered no aid during the crisis. Essentially, his "tousand congratulation' are in poor taste considering the circumstances.

    8. special constable

      GANGNES: "Special constables" in the Victorian period were private citizens who were appointed or volunteered to help the official police keep the peace in times of crisis. The "white badge" (below) likely refers to the white armbands issued to special constables in the nineteenth century. "Staff" may indicate their truncheons, or the narrator was given another kind of wooden weapon.

      More information:

    9. hussars

      From DANAHAY 187: "light cavalry, named after the fifteenth-century Hungarian units on which they were modeled"

    10. a score or so of miles

      GANGNES: A "score" is 20 miles, so roughly 20-40 miles.

    11. in conjunction

      From MCCONNELL 298: "At conjunction, the Earth and Mars are on opposite sides of the Sun."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 225: "Mars and Earth are in (superior) conjunction, and farthest from each other, when they are lined up with the sun between them; they are in opposition, and closest to each other, when they are lined up with Earth between Mars and the sun."

      From DANAHAY 189: "It is far away from earth, but will be 'in opposition' again."

    12. commonweal

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "common well-being; esp. the general good, public welfare, prosperity of the community."

    13. sidereal

      From DANAHAY 190: "having to do with the stars"

    14. gibber

      From DANAHAY 191: "to speak rapidly, inarticulately, and often foolishly"

    1. tympanic surface

      From MCCONNELL 244: "Like the tympanum, the vibrating membrane of the middle ear."

      From DANAHAY 143: "A tympan is a drum, so the Martian skin here is like a drum."

    2. pipette

      From DANAHAY 144: "a small glass tube used by chemists to move liquid from one area to another"

    3. vivisects

      GANGNES: Vivisection is "the action of cutting or dissecting some part of a living organism; spec. the action or practice of performing dissection, or other painful experiment, upon living animals as a method of physiological or pathological study" (Oxford English Dictionary).

      Since Wells cut this section from the volume, no explicit reference to vivisection remains in a collected edition of the novel. However, the practice is central to Wells's 1896 novel The Island of Doctor Moreau.

      More information:

    4. silicious

      From MCCONNELL 245: "growing in silica-rich soil, crystalline"

      From DANAHAY 145: "crystalline, made of silica or sand"

    5. wonderful

      GANGNES: In this case, strange and unbelievable (not inherently a good thing).

    6. sex

      GANGNES: In this case, the word refers to an organism's sex based on chromosomes (which most Victorians would conflate with gender). The "budding off" makes it clear that Martians do not have sexual intercourse, so any differences in chromosomes (if any) are inconsequential. The Martians have achieved a kind of asexual utopia, where their energies and emotions are not "wasted" on finding a mate. Human beings with our base instincts and inefficient digestive systems don't stand a chance against advanced beings who quickly process sustenance, never sleep, and don't have to bother with courtship and breeding.

    7. budded off just as young lily bulbs

      From DANAHAY 145: "the bulbs of a lily that reproduce by budding off from each other through the process of fission, a form of asexual reproduction"

    8. fresh water polyp

      From MCCONNELL 246: "a sedentary marine animal with a fixed base like a plant, and sensitive tendrils (palp) around its mouth with which it snares its prey"

      From DANAHAY 145: "a sedentary type of animal form characterized by a more or less fixed base, columnar body, and free end with mouth and tentacles"

    9. Tunicates

      From MCCONNELL 246: "marine animals with saclike bodies and two protruding openings for the ingestion and expulsion of water (their means of locomotion)"

      From STOVER 190: "The Tunicates ... are Sea Squirts, belonging to the Urchordata, a subphylum of chordata or 'vertebrated animals [to which they are] first cousins.'"

      From DANAHAY 146: "a subspecies of sea animals that have saclike bodies and minimal digestive systems"

    10. carmine

      From DANAHAY 147: bright red

    11. sticks

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 219: "'Sticks' was a common abbreviation for 'shooting-sticks'; pistols."

    12. copper

      From MCCONNELL 258: "a very large kettle, usually made of iron; a common feature of kitchens at the turn of the century"

      From DANAHAY 155: a large kettle

    13. stun

      GANGNES: In this case, a tool or object the narrator can use to knock the curate unconscious or make him quiet some other way.

    14. butt

      GANGNES: the end of the handle of the meat cleaver

    15. split ring

      From MCCONNELL 259: "a large key-ring, for keeping all the keys of a household"

    16. worried

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary: "to pull or tear at (an object)."

    17. catch

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "a device for fastening or checking the motion of something, esp. a latch or other mechanism for fastening a door, window, etc."

    18. ruddy

      GANGNES: red or red-brown

    19. insecurity

      GANGNES: In this case, vulnerability or lack of safety.

    20. gladiolus

      GANGNES: Gladiolus are flowering plants, not vegetables. The flowers and greens are edible to humans, but eating the bulbs is not advised.

      More information:

    21. fecundity

      From DANAHAY 161: fertility

    22. slake

      From DANAHAY 161: "quench, to drink until no longer thirsty"

    23. magnum

      GANGNES: "a bottle for wine, spirits, etc., twice the standard size and now usually containing 1½ litres (formerly two quarts); the quantity of liquor held by such a bottle" (Oxford English Dictionary)

    1. lightermen

      From MCCONNELL 225: "crewmembers of a lighter, or unpowered barge used to unload cargo ships in harbor"

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 215: "sailors on or owners of lighters or barges (boats used in the 'lightening,' or unloading, of large ships)"

    2. fishing-smacks

      From MCCONNELL 232: smacks are "single-masted, light sailing vessels used as tenders for warships"

    3. colliers

      From MCCONNELL 227: "ships carrying coal"

    4. ram

      From MCCONNELL 228: "a warship with a heavy iron beak or prow for penetrating the hull of an enemy"

    5. Thames estuary

      From MCCONNELL 228: the point at which the river meets the sea's tide

    6. bulwarks

      From MCCONNELL 229: "walls above the main deck to protect the passengers from wind and driving rain"

    7. douche

      From MCCONNELL 230: a spray of water

    8. larboard

      From MCCONNELL 231: port/left

    9. matchwood

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "very small pieces or splinters of wood."

    10. semi-detached villa

      From MCCONNELL 238: "a still-common English term for a suburban dwelling house

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 216: "a fashionable name for a kind of small suburban house--in this case a two-family structure--popularly considered to be a 'better class' of dwelling"

      GANGNES: Americans might call this kind of house a high-end "duplex," in that the structure itself is the size of a large house, but there are two "homes" within it, separated by a long dividing wall. Many semi-detached houses have two floors.

    11. Mortlake

      GANGNES: area of London on the south bank of the Thames, east of Twickenham, north of Richmond, and south of Chiswick; essentially the same area as Sheen

    12. concussion

      GANGNES: explosion

    13. insensible

      GANGNES: unconscious

    14. aperture

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "An opening, an open space between portions of solid matter; a gap, cleft, chasm, or hole."

    15. coloured supplements

      From MCCONNELL 240: "Popular newspapers frequently issued these supplements, cheap and crude reproductions, 'suitable for framing,' of famous works of art or stirring historical scenes; they decorated the homes of many lower middle class families."

    16. scullery

      From MCCONNELL 241: "room in which food is cleaned or cut before being taken to the kitchen for cooking; hence the most malodorous and usually the dirtiest room of the house"

    1. cumulus cloud

      From MCCONNELL 207: "A tall, dense, puffy cloud. Many readers during the First World War viewed this as a forecast of the use of poison gas."

    2. carbonic acid gas

      From MCCONNELL 207: carbon dioxide

      From STOVER 149: carbon dioxide is heavier than air; it is emitted from erupting volcanoes into the low-lying areas around them

    3. outhouses

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, the door to "subsidiary building in the grounds of or adjoining a house, as a barn, shed, etc."

    4. fitful cannonade

      From DANAHAY 113: a heavy artillery fire

    5. quick-firers

      From DANAHAY 114: rapid-fire artillery (like minute-guns)

    6. the sack of a cycle shop

      From DANAHAY 116: "sack"=looting

      GANGNES: The narrator's brother is one of the first to arrive during the process of looting a bicycle shop, which allows him to steal a bicycle before they are all taken.

    7. fugitives

      GANGNES: in this case, someone who is fleeing from danger; see Oxford English Dictionary

    8. hansom cabs

      From MCCONNELL 212: a one-horse, two-wheeled cab for two passengers with the driver seated above and behind the cab

      From DANAHAY 116: "these were frequently for hire on the streets of London like taxis"

  7. Apr 2019
    1. pony chaise

      DANAHAY 117: small carriage light enough for one pony to pull

    2. pugilistic

      From DANAHAY 117: related to boxing

    3. insensible

      From DANAHAY 118: unconscious

    4. five pound note

      From MCCONNELL 215: one pound = five dollars

    5. gride

      From DANAHAY 120: a grating/grinding sound

    6. lowering

      GANGNES: according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "to frown, scowl; to look angry or sullen"

    7. horses’ bits

      From DANAHAY 122: a bit is a piece of metal that fits in a horse's mouth and forms part of the reins

    8. brewer’s dray

      From DANAHAY 122: large cart breweries used to deliver beer

    9. privet hedge

      From MCCONNELL 220: European evergreen with white flowers

    10. disgorged

      From DANAHAY 124: spilled out

    11. sovereigns

      From MCCONNELL 220: gold coins worth two pounds, eighteen shillings (each)

      From DANAHAY 124: gold coins worth two pounds each ("the man has a lot of heavy money in his bag")

      GANGNES: Note that MCCONNELL's and DANAHAY's respective accounts of a sovereign's worth are not the same as one another or as HUGHES AND GEDULD's (and STOVER's) below.

    12. gold

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD: "refers to sovereigns: gold coins worth one English pound each."

      GANGNES: Note that HUGHES AND GEDULD's account of a sovereign's worth is not the same as MCCONNELL's or DANAHAY's above. STOVER (157) agrees with HUGHES AND GEDULD.

    13. ramifications

      From MCCONNELL 224: extensions

      From DANAHAY 127: new branches of "black smoke"

    14. gout

      From DANAHAY 127: blob

    15. powder

      GANGNES: gunpowder for cannons and other artillery

    1. music-hall

      From DANAHAY 99: "a vaudeville type of entertainment in a theater comprised of singing, comedy and dancing"

    2. Sunday League

      From MCCONNELL 192: Sunday Leagues were "religious groups which gathered to protest the opening of pubs on the Sabbath"

      From DANAHAY 99: a Sunday League was a group "opposed to opening the pubs on Sundays [who] organized wholesome alternatives such as excursions"

    3. Flying Hussars

      From MCCONNELL 193: "light cavalry specializing in swift attack"

    4. menagerie

      From DANAHAY 100: "a collection of wild or foreign animals kept for exhibition"

    5. traps

      From DANAHAY 101: small carriages with two wheels

    6. evensong

      From DANAHAY 102: evening prayer

    7. lasses

      From DANAHAY 102: young women

    8. reservist

      From MCCONNELL 195: "The reorganization of the British Army included an emphasis upon the reserve forces; but there was considerable doubt throughout the years before World War I whether a 'reserve' soldier would really be able to function in a battlefield situation."

      From DANAHAY 102: "somebody in the army reserve force"

    9. roughs

      From DANAHAY 102: working-class young men

    10. field guns

      From MCCONNELL 196: "heavy cannon mounted on carriages"

    11. wire guns

      From MCCONNELL 196: "Field pieces with finely-wound wire, coiled under tension, inside their barrels. An early form of rifling (introduced in 1855), the wire coil made it possible to construct a much thinner and lighter barrel than previously, and also increased greatly the effective range of the projectile. Wire guns were used extensively during the period, and in the First World War."

      From DANAHAY 103: "artillery with wire wound in the barrels that increased their power and range"

    12. hawkers

      From DANAHAY 104: "people who sold in the streets by shouting out the name of their product"

    13. one of those old-fashioned tricycles with a small front wheel

      From MCCONNELL 198: "the 'Coventry' tricycle, two wheels with a much larger supporting wheel to one side, current around 1876"

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 213: sometimes nicknamed "Tuppence-farthing bikes" (because of their appearance)

    14. promenaders

      From DANAHAY 105: "people dressed in their best clothes out for a stroll"

    15. walking out

      From MCCONNELL 199: courting

    16. small hours

      GANGNES: early hours after midnight ("wee hours")

    17. tocsin

      From DANAHAY 106: alarm bell or warning

    18. stupid

      GANGNES: In this case, not unintelligent, but rather, unaware or unknowing.

    19. parapets

      GANGNES: In this instance, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "a low wall or barrier, often ornamental, placed at the edge of a platform, balcony, roof, etc. ... to prevent people from falling"

    20. en masse

      From MCCONNELL 202: "in a body, in a crowd"

      From DANAHAY 107: "in one huge mass"

    21. mettle

      GANGNES: In this instance, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "a person's spirit; courage, strength of character; vigour, spiritedness, vivacity"

    22. laid their guns

      From MCCONNELL 203: "prepared to fire"

    23. ululation

      From MCCONNELL 203: "crying or moaning"

      From DANAHAY 109: "a high-pitched cry that goes up and down the scale"

    24. heavy minute guns

      From MCCONNELL 206: "guns designed to fire at intervals of one minute"

    25. kopjes

      From STOVER 148: "Small hills of South African locution made familiar to English readers in accounts of the Boer War, from behind which Boer guerrillas sniped on English troops. Although the war did not officially break out until 1899, the landscape of the coming conflict was reported by [Rudyard] Kipling."

    1. battery

      From MCCONNELL 173: "four to eight guns in the Horse Artillery of the time"

    2. theodolite

      From MCCONNELL 175: "a surveying instrument with a telescopic sight, for establishing horizontal and vertical angles"

      From DANAHAY 85: "A mirror mounted on a pole, used in this situation to communicate the whereabouts of the Martians and warn the artillery of their approach."

    3. heliograph

      From MCCONNELL 175: "a moveable mirror, usually mounted on a tripod, used to transmit signals by sun flashes"

      From DANAHAY 85: "An apparatus for telegraphing by means of the sun's rays flashed from a mirror."

      Note: There is a photograph of heliograph operators in DANAHAY Appendix I.

    4. assiduously

      From DANAHAY 86: busily

    5. twelve-pounders

      From MCCONNELL 177: "Guns capable of firing a twelve-pound ball. Heavy artillery, like every other aspect of warfare, underwent a gigantic growth in the late nineteenth century--especially after the German munitions maker, Alfred Krupp, developed the first all-steel gun in 1851."

      From DANAHAY 86: "artillery, heavier than field guns described previously"

    6. rampart

      From DANAHAY 87: "a broad embankment raised as a fortification"

    7. omnibus

      From DANAHAY 87: a horse-drawn bus

    8. Sabbatical

      From DANAHAY 87: "literally means day of worship; people are dressed as if for going to church on Sunday"

    9. vicar

      From MCCONNELL 178: "the priest of a parish"

    10. grenadiers

      From MCCONNELL 178: "Originally, grenadiers were especially tall soldiers in a regiment employed to throw grenades. This practice was discontinued by the end of the eighteenth century, though the tallest and finest soldiers of their regiments continued to be called 'grenadiers.' After 1858, the only regiment officially referred to by the name was the Grenadier Guards, the First Regiment of the Household Cavalry."

      From DANAHAY 88: "originally 'grenade throwers,' but by this time an elite army regiment"

    11. outhouse

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, the door to "subsidiary building in the grounds of or adjoining a house, as a barn, shed, etc."

    12. pollard willows

      From MCCONNELL 180: "willows cut back to the trunk, so as to produce dense masses of branches"

    13. portmanteau

      From DANAHAY 90: a large travelling bag or suitcase

    14. camera

      From MCCONNELL 182: "The first portable camera, the Kodak, had been patented by George Eastman in 1888. Wells himself was an ardent amateur photographer."

      From DANAHAY 91: "These were very large, box-like cameras."

    15. tidal bore

      From MCCONNELL 182: "an abrupt rise of tidal water flowing inland from the mouth of an estuary"

    16. the thing called a siren in our manufacturing towns

      From MCCONNELL 183: "The word [used in this way] was still new at the time, and referred primarily to factory whistles."

    17. towing path

      From MCCONNELL 183: "a path along the bank of a river for the horses or men who tow boats on the river"

    18. clangorous

      From DANAHAY 92: a loud, metallic ringing sound

    19. wheal

      From MCCONNELL 184: "welt or ridge"

    20. CURATE

      From DANAHAY 93: "a member of the clergy who is either in charge of a parish or who is serving as an assistant in a parish."

    21. spinneys

      From DANAHAY 94: "small clumps of trees, not large enough to be a wood"

    22. parboiled

      GANGNES: according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "partially cooked by boiling"

    23. mackerel sky

      From DANAHAY 95: "A mackerel is a seawater fish that has rows of dark markings on its back. The rows of clouds resemble these markings."

    24. cockchafer

      From MCCONNELL 190: European scarab beetle

      From DANAHAY 97: large European flying beetle

    1. lassitude

      From DANAHAY 68: weariness, lack of energy

    2. a rapidly fluctuating barometer

      GANGNES: This indicates that the weather is volatile and likely heralds an imminent storm. See Oxford English Dictionary on "barometer": "an instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere, and hence for judging of probable changes in the weather, ascertaining the height of an ascent, etc" and Encyclopaedia Britannica entry.

    3. chariot

      From DANAHAY 68: a word for cart

    4. close

      GANGNES: In this usage, according to the Oxford English Dictionary: "of the atmosphere or weather: Like that of a closed up room; confined, stifling, without free circulation"

    5. sappers

      From MCCONNELL156: "military engineers, builders of trenches, fortifications, etc."

      From DANAHAY 69: "engineers who built bridges, forts and other structures the army might need"

    6. Horse Guards

      From MCCONNELL156: "The famous 'Blues,' or Royal Horse Guards, consolidated in 1819."

      From DANAHAY 69: the Royal Horse Guards: elite British army cavalry unit

    7. stereotyped formula

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "something continued or constantly repeated without change; a stereotyped phrase, formula, etc.; stereotyped diction or usage."

    8. belligerent

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary: "waging or carrying on regular recognized war; actually engaged in hostilities," which is to say, the narrator is imagining, and is excited about, an epic war between the British and the Martians.

    9. field gun

      From DANAHAY 71: "a piece of mobile artillery, usually pulled by horses"

    10. tea

      GANGNES: In this case, the equivalent of dinner or an evening meal (hence it being "six in the evening"). See Oxford English Dictionary: "locally in the U.K. (esp. northern) ... a cooked evening meal"

    11. bevy

      From DANAHAY 71: large group

    12. horse and dog-cart

      From MCCONNELL 159: "a light, two-wheeled vehicle with two seats, back to back: horse-drawn"

    13. palings

      From MCCONNELL 159: fence pickets

    14. dish cover

      From DANAHAY 72: a large metal cover used to keep food hot

    15. spanking

      From DANAHAY 73: speeding

    16. dog roses

      From MCCONNELL 161: "European variety of rose, with very pale red flowers"

    17. fusillade

      From DANAHAY 74: "a round of coordinated fire by a body of soldiers"

    18. good hap

      From DANAHAY 74: good luck