973 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. May 2020
    1. the capacity, condition, or state of acting or of exerting power
    2. a person or thing through which power is exerted or an end is achieved : instrumentality

      Would this be proxy agency? Or is it different?

      On the one hand, I think it's different. instrumentality seems to have a subtly different meaning from proxy agency.

      But looking at their example sentence,

      communicated through the agency of the ambassador , it is striking how similar these ideas/words/meanings are: the ambassador acted on behalf of his country (proxy agency: acted => agency; "on behalf of" => proxy); the communication occurred through his actions (= he was the means, he was instrumental in causing that communication to take place)


      proxy agency is when an individual acts on behalf of someone else

    1. of, relating to, or being a grammatical case or form expressing means or agency

      I really need an example of this!

      It seems unusual that they specifically mention "a grammatical case or form". I've never seen a definition before that is anything like this one.

      How is this different from definition 1?

    2. serving as a crucial means, agent, or tool
    1. the conception of agency as the capacity of human beings to shape the circumstances in which they live
    2. One's agency is one's independent capability or ability to act on one's will

      key word: ability to act on

    3. capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices
    1. Knowledge work can be differentiated from other forms of work by its emphasis on "non-routine" problem solving that requires a combination of convergent and divergent thinking.[2] But despite the amount of research and literature on knowledge work, there is no succinct definition of the term.
    2. workers, whose line of work requires one to "think for a living"
    1. A "tag" is a snippet of code that allows digital marketing teams to collect data, set cookies or integrate third-party content like social media widgets into a site.

      This is a bad re-purposing of the word "tag", which already has specific meanings in computing.

      Why do we need a new word for this? Why not just call it a "script" or "code snippet"?

    1. Definition: Unit that can be assigned to a group of living beings according to certain criteria. Most of the time, this expresses itself through a separate name for this group.
    1. When is your site not built with the Jamstack? Any project that relies on a tight coupling between client and server is not built with the Jamstack.
    1. This topic is not a support question

      This is hard to answer because I don't know what they classify as a "support question". For example, are bugs classified as a support question? So if it's a bug, should I check this or no?

      What is the purpose of this checkbox? If you could describe that, it would make it much easier to answer the question.

    1. generic-sounding term may be interpreted as something more specific than intended: I want to be able to use "data interchange" in the most general sense. But if people interpret it to mean this specific standard/protocol/whatever, I may be misunderstood.

      The definition given here

      is the concept of businesses electronically communicating information that was traditionally communicated on paper, such as purchase orders and invoices.

      limits it to things that were previously communicated on paper. But what about things for which paper was never used, like the interchange of consent and consent receipts for GDPR/privacy law compliance, etc.?

      The term should be allowed to be used just as well for newer technologies/processes that had no previous roots in paper technologies.

    1. “A processor is responsible for processing personal data on behalf of a controller.”
    2. “A controller determines the purposes and means of processing personal data.” This is you.
    1. Under the scope of the CCPA, “personal information” is defined as “information that identifies, relates to, describes, is capable of being associated with, or could reasonably be linked, directly or indirectly, with a particular consumer or household.”
    1. whose personal data you collect and process as “controller” (that is the word that GDPR uses for whoever determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data).
    1. commonweal

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "common well-being; esp. the general good, public welfare, prosperity of the community."

    2. kindly insipidity

      GANGNES: In this case insipidity would be defined as "want of taste or judgement; weakness, folly" (Oxford English Dictionary). The narrator is not altogether pleased with the French operator's comments; France cheers England's "triumph" over the Martians, after having offered no aid during the crisis. Essentially, his "tousand congratulation" are in poor taste considering the circumstances.

    3. eked

      GANGNES: "to supplement, supply the deficiencies of anything" (Oxford English Dictionary)

    4. tintinnabulations

      GANGNES: "a ringing of a bell or bells, bell-ringing; the sound or music so produced" (Oxford English Dictionary)

    1. magnum

      GANGNES: "a bottle for wine, spirits, etc., twice the standard size and now usually containing 1½ litres (formerly two quarts); the quantity of liquor held by such a bottle" (Oxford English Dictionary)

    2. catch

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "a device for fastening or checking the motion of something, esp. a latch or other mechanism for fastening a door, window, etc."

    3. worried

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary: "to pull or tear at (an object)."

    4. sex

      GANGNES: In this case, the word refers to an organism's sex based on chromosomes (which most Victorians would conflate with gender). The "budding off" makes it clear that Martians do not have sexual intercourse, so any differences in chromosomes (if any) are inconsequential. The Martians have achieved a kind of asexual utopia, where their energies and emotions are not "wasted" on finding a mate. Human beings, with our base impulses and inefficient digestive systems, don't stand a chance against advanced beings who quickly process sustenance, never sleep, and don't have to bother with courtship and breeding.

    5. vivisects

      GANGNES: Vivisection is "the action of cutting or dissecting some part of a living organism; spec. the action or practice of performing dissection, or other painful experiment, upon living animals as a method of physiological or pathological study" (Oxford English Dictionary).

      Since Wells cut this section from the volume, no explicit reference to vivisection remains in a collected edition of the novel. However, the practice is central to Wells's 1896 novel The Island of Doctor Moreau.

      More information:

    1. aperture

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "An opening, an open space between portions of solid matter; a gap, cleft, chasm, or hole."

    2. semi-detached villa

      From MCCONNELL 238: "a still-common English term for a suburban dwelling house"

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 216: "a fashionable name for a kind of small suburban house--in this case a two-family structure--popularly considered to be a 'better class' of dwelling"

      GANGNES: Americans might call this kind of house a high-end "duplex," in that the structure itself is the size of a large house, but there are two "homes" within it, separated by a long dividing wall. Many semi-detached houses have two floors.

    3. matchwood

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "very small pieces or splinters of wood."

    1. lowering

      GANGNES: according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "to frown, scowl; to look angry or sullen"

    2. fugitives

      GANGNES: in this case, someone who is fleeing from danger; see Oxford English Dictionary

    3. outhouses

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, the door to "subsidiary building in the grounds of or adjoining a house, as a barn, shed, etc."

    1. mettle

      GANGNES: In this instance, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "a person's spirit; courage, strength of character; vigour, spiritedness, vivacity"

    2. parapets

      GANGNES: In this instance, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "a low wall or barrier, often ornamental, placed at the edge of a platform, balcony, roof, etc. ... to prevent people from falling"

    1. torpor

      GANGNES: according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "absence or suspension of motive power, activity, or feeling"

    2. heard midnight pealing out

      From DANAHAY 75: church bells ringing

      GANGNES: Which is to say, the church bells rang in such a way that indicated the time was midnight.

    3. tea

      GANGNES: In this case, the equivalent of dinner or an evening meal (hence it being "six in the evening"). See Oxford English Dictionary: "locally in the U.K. (esp. northern) ... a cooked evening meal"

    4. belligerent

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary: "waging or carrying on regular recognized war; actually engaged in hostilities," which is to say, the narrator is imagining, and is excited about, an epic war between the British and the Martians.

    5. stereotyped formula

      GANGNES: In this case, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "something continued or constantly repeated without change; a stereotyped phrase, formula, etc.; stereotyped diction or usage."

    6. a rapidly fluctuating barometer

      GANGNES: This indicates that the weather is volatile and likely heralds an imminent storm. See Oxford English Dictionary on "barometer": "an instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere, and hence for judging of probable changes in the weather, ascertaining the height of an ascent, etc" and Encyclopædia Britannica entry.

    7. close

      GANGNES: In this usage, according to the Oxford English Dictionary: "of the atmosphere or weather: Like that of a closed up room; confined, stifling, without free circulation."

  3. Apr 2020
    1. In a priority queue, an element with high priority is served before an element with low priority.
    1. A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server
    1. "a and b are equivalent up to X" means that a and b are equivalent, if criterion X, such as rotation or permutation, is ignored
    1. In math, idempotence describes only unary functions that you can call on their own output. Math-idempotence is, “If you take the absolute value of a number, and then you take the absolute value of that, the result doesn’t change on the second (or subsequent) operations.” Math.abs is math-idempotent. Math-idempotence only applies to functions of one parameter where the parameter type and return type are the same. Not so useful in programming.
    2. Programming-idempotence is about side effects. It’s about stuff that happens to the outside world when you call a function. Idempotence says “If you’ve called me once, it doesn’t matter whether you called me again.”
    1. A "breach" is an incident where data is inadvertently exposed in a vulnerable system, usually due to insufficient access controls or security weaknesses in the software.
    1. Beyond proper collection, annotation, and archival, data stewardship includes the notion of ‘long-term care’ of valuable digital assets, with the goal that they should be discovered and re-used for downstream investigations, either alone, or in combination with newly generated data.

      Definition of stewardship.

  4. Mar 2020
    1. Qu’appelle-ton la «continuité pédagogique»?La continuité pédagogique est destinée à s’assurer que les élèves poursuivent des activités scolaires leur permettant de progresser dans leurs apprentissages, de maintenir les acquis déjà développés depuis le début de l’année (consolidation, enrichissements, exercices...) et d’acquérir des compétences nouvelles lorsque les modalités d’apprentissage à distance le permettent. Les activités proposées s’inscrivent naturellement dans le prolongement de ce qui s’est fait en classe auparavant et/ou dans une préparation possible de ce qui sera fait dès le retour dans l’établissement.
    1. The phrase is often used at the beginning of meetings, conferences, etc to indicate that the speaker is going to tell those present about the fire exits, where the toilets, first-aid box etc are and any other administrative issues that have nothing to do with the actual content of the meeting. etc
    1. Le flaming est une pratique qui consiste à envoyer, au sein d’un forum de discussion ou de la zone de commentaires d’un blog ou d’un site, une série de messages insultants, voire haineux, dans le seul but de provoquer un conflit ouvert.

      Le flaming nous est défini de manière générale et le paragraphe qui suit lui sera consacré.

    1. what Manner these Creatures were address'd

      When analyzing this passage from Fantomina, the word "Creatures" stood out to me. Eliza Haywood is describing the woman in the pit and substituting creature as a word to describe her and others like her. In the Oxford English Dictionary, creature is defined as, "A living or animate being; an animal, often as distinct from a person". The use of creature seems to be insinuating that the woman in the pit is considered to be an animal in comparison to the protagonist and other high class individuals. This negative usage of describing this woman is most likely due to the views that Eliza Haywood and other people in the 18th century had against her occupation. Since she was doing something that most people at the time saw as improper and scandalous, they perceive her as animal-like when it comes to behavior.

      "creature, n." OED Online, Oxford University Press, December 2019, www.oed.com/view/Entry/44082 . Accessed 12 February 2020.

    2. LOVE in a Maze

      While most of us refer to this novel by Fantomina, Eliza Haywood provided a secondary title. The word maze in the secondary title seems to be referring to the trickery and disguises that the protagonist of Fantomina uses to fool and deceive Beauplaisir into showing her affection. On the other hand, the first thing that comes to mind when I think of a maze is the puzzle of lines, not trickery and deceit. However, the definition of a maze in the Oxford English Dictionary yields the following definition, "A state of bewilderment; a feeling of amazement or perplexity; (in plural) confused or puzzled thoughts", or "A delusive fancy; a trick or deception. Obsolete". These two definition of the word, especially the second definition, give insight into what Eliza Haywood truly meant when assigning Fantomina with the title "LOVE in a Maze".

      "maze, n.1." OED Online, Oxford University Press, December 2019, www.oed.com/view/Entry/115347 . Accessed 12 February 2020.

    1. Tags in the digital marketing and analytics context are similar to, but distinct from, the standard HTML tags that developers will use to code web pages. The analytics version of the word "tag" is derived from the fact that the tags provided by vendors are often encapsulated by HTML <script> or <img> tags. When we speak of tags in an HTML context, we refer to tags such as <body>, <p>, <li>, <blockquote>, and so on. When we refer to tags used in the analytics and marketing industry, we refer to code that an organization provides to install the desired product or functionality on your website or mobile app.
  5. Feb 2020

      syn·chro·nous /ˈsiNGkrənəs/ Learn to pronounce adjective 1.existing or occurring at the same time.


      a·syn·chro·nous /āˈsiNGkrənəs/ Learn to pronounce adjective 1.(of two or more objects or events) not existing or happening at the same time. 2.COMPUTING•TELECOMMUNICATIONS of or requiring a form of computer control timing protocol in which a specific operation begins upon receipt of an indication (signal) that the preceding operation has been completed.

      In telecommunications, asynchronous communication is transmission of data, generally without the use of an external clock signal, where data can be transmitted intermittently rather than in a steady stream. Any timing required to recover data from the communication symbols is encoded within the symbols.


    1. Code inside default is called "VU code", and is run over and over for as long as the test is running. Code outside of it is called "init code", and is run only once per VU.
    1. social dilemma A situation in which actions, taken independently by individuals in pursuit of their own private objectives, may result in an outcome that is inferior to some other feasible outcome that could have occurred if people had acted together, rather than as individuals.
    1. Performance Benchmarking What it is: Testing a system under certain reproducible conditions Why do it: To establish a baseline which can be tested against regularly to ensure a system’s performance remains constant, or validate improvements as a result of change Answers the question: “How is my app performing, and how does that compare with the past?”
    1. Obliging

      The Oxford English Dictionary defines obliging as "to bind (a person) by oath, promise, contract, etc.; to put under an obligation, to engage, commit. Frequently with to or infinitive. Obsolete."

      "oblige, v." OED Online, Oxford University Press, December 2019, www.oed.com/view/Entry/129696. Accessed 7 February 2020.

  6. Jan 2020
    1. Arel is a SQL AST (Abstract Syntax Tree-like) manager for Ruby. It allows us to write complex SQL queries in a semantic, reusable fashion. Arel is "framework framework"; it's designed to optimize object and collection modeling over database compatibility. For example, Active Record is built on top of Arel.
    1. A skunkworks project is a project developed by a relatively small and loosely structured group of people who research and develop a project primarily for the sake of radical innovation.
    1. That makes digital writing a potentially powerful lever for social good, allowing students to "actively participate in civic society and contribute to a vibrant, informed, and engaged community," as the ALA notes. It also makes digital writing a potentially dangerous tool—decisions about when and what to share online can have repercussions for a student's safety, privacy, and reputation.

      I love how digital literacy allows so many to have access to so much and to communicate easily with others. But there is a definite dark side to sharing in any digital format and many don't think about that.

  7. Dec 2019




    1. An authentication factor is a piece of information used to verify that you’re allowed to do something, like a keycard used to unlock a hotel door.
    1. A package is a self-contained and reusable piece of software that includes code and metadata, such as current version number, name, and the package's dependencies, that a developer bundles together in a common place for others to use. Packages simplify using and distributing solutions to common problems such as needing a common framework for developing a project, testing runners and linters to improve code quality, or introducing industry-standard machine learning tools to power your application.
    1. It has been jokingly suggested several times during the course of this study that what we are seeking is an "intelligence amplifier." (The term is attributed originally to W. Ross Ashby[2,3]. At first this term was rejected on the grounds that in our view one's only hope was to make a better match between existing human intelligence and the problems to be tackled, rather than in making man more intelligent. But deriving the concepts brought out in the preceding section has shown us that indeed this term does seem applicable to our objective. 2c2a Accepting the term "intelligence amplification" does not imply any attempt to increase native human intelligence. The term "intelligence amplification" seems applicable to our goal of augmenting the human intellect in that the entity to be produced will exhibit more of what can be called intelligence than an unaided human could; we will have amplified the intelligence of the human by organizing his intellectual capabilities into higher levels of synergistic structuring. What possesses the amplified intelligence is the resulting H-LAM/T system, in which the LAM/T augmentation means represent the amplifier of the human's intelligence.2c2b In amplifying our intelligence, we are applying the principle of synergistic structuring that was followed by natural evolution in developing the basic human capabilities. What we have done in the development of our augmentation means is to construct a superstructure that is a synthetic extension of the natural structure upon which it is built. In a very real sense, as represented by the steady evolution of our augmentation means, the development of "artificial intelligence" has been going on for centuries.
    1. This is a browser execution environment. It may provide additional built in objects exposed in the global namespace. It is a specialized execution environment which provides builtin capabilities beyond the base javascript language spec.
    2. This is a non-dom based javascript execution environment. It usually only contains the base javascript language spec libraries and objects along with modules to communicate with OS features (available through commonjs require).
    3. A tool which takes a plain javascript package and creates client usable files. It may include, but is not limited to: replacing modules or files with client versions (since the client may already provide the functionality), merging all the dependencies into a single file, etc.
    4. The use of a bundler to create a file(s) suitable for running on a client.
    1. I cut out all forms of communication with my Muslim friends and I showed an enormous amount of resentment to my Muslim neighbors and co workers

      At the heart of the process of radicalization leading to violence is a dynamic that involves individuals severing ties with those in their immediate environment (family, friends, colleagues, etc.),

    1. I cut out all forms of communication with my Muslim friends and I showed an enormous amount of resentment to my Muslim neighbors and co workers

      At the heart of the process of radicalization leading to violence is a dynamic that involves individuals severing ties with those in their immediate environment (family, friends, colleagues, etc.),


  • Nov 2019
    1. An injector component takes props, optionally computes new ones, then injects them into its child via React.cloneElement(). Crucially, it also does not add any new components to the DOM.
    1. Un objectif d’apprentissage décrit ce qu’un apprenant est capable de «faire» à un moment donné de son parcours d’études

      Objectif est une performance mesurable

  • Oct 2019
    1. The phrase “white privilege” was popularized in 1988 by Peggy McIntosh, a Wellesley College professor who wanted to define “invisible systems conferring dominance on my group.”
    1. boycott

      withdrawing from relations as protests

    2. grape strike

      labor strike against grape growers

    3. destitute

      lacking something needed

    4. indigent

      suffering from extreme poverty

    5. preamble

      introductory statement

    6. reconvened

      to come together again

    7. “emplotted”

      assembly of a series of historical events into a narrative w a plot

    8. constructs agency

      constructs an organisation like unification? call to action?

    9. inherent

      essential character

    10. Passover

      emancipation of the israelites from egypt by moses

    11. SNCC

      student nonviolent coordinating committee

    12. Crispin Crispian
      • oct 25
      • saint, legendary roman christian martyr with his brother crispian
    1. "Digital literacy is the ability to use information and communication technologies to find, evaluate, create, and communicate information, requiring both cognitive and technical skills."

      Definition of digital literacy.

    1. The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (1, p. 45)

      Please notice how the author defines key terms using the pre-existing literature. It is hard to come up with a precise definition (in and of itself a separate research, by the way), and, thus, we tend to borrow definitions from the literature.

      Precise definitions = Precise research = Better grades

      Thus, be sure to define key terms in your literature review section.

      Please share a definition of key terms from your research and literature sources. Something like this works, 'Baek (2018) defines xxx as ....

  • Sep 2019
    1. The following video provides a general overview of the Fair Work Commission’s anti-bullying jurisdiction including key definitions, how the Commission may deal with an application and what an order to stop bullying is.
    1. It is not rational, because theirhijacked experiences are irrational. They are irrational because they areepistemically sensitive to their psychological precursors, in the same waythat conclusions of inference epistemically depend on inferential inputs

      "Epistemically sensitive" meaning that it depends on the inferential inputs which lead them to that conclusion (or to that experience).

    2. My label for this property is“epistemic charge.”

      "Epistemic charge" = the epistemic status that perceptual experiences can have

    3. a belief isill-founded if it is formed or maintained irrationally, well-founded if itis formed and maintained rationally.3These notions are also gradable.One belief can be more ill-founded (or well-founded) than another.

      The gradability of ill-/well-founded here is interesting. The less rational the path to the belief, the more ill-founded it is.

    4. Perceptual experiences that arose from this kind of reasoning wouldbe rational, in a broader sense that encompasses both good and badoutcomes: they are evaluable as rationally better or worse.

      "Rational" just means "rationally (epistemically) appraisable," as in, it can be shown to be better or worse in terms of rationality. So it can be "rational" even if it is evaluated as being rationally worse.

    5. They all assume that thephenomena they govern are epistemically appraisable. They are normsthat purport to describe how a specific aspect of a properly rationalsubject’s mental life would be. The kind of rationality thatfigures inthe Rationality of Perception hypothesis is located at this high level ofabstraction.

      Rationality is tied to a phenomena's epistemic appraisability. The Rationality of Perception holds that perceptual experiences themselves are epistemically appraisable.

      But what does it mean to be epistemically appraisable? Does it just mean that it is concerned with what is rational/what rationality looks like? Is that not circular?

    6. relative tocertain types of norms—norms of rationality

      "Rational" here is inherently normative.

    7. But if Jill’s fear makes her perceptual experience congruent with thefear, then the situation is epistemically more complicated. When we lookmore closely at hijacked perception that reaches all the way to a visualexperience, wefind a distinctive philosophical problem. I’m going to callthis problemthe problem of hijacked experience

      More specific: the move to ONLY when the hijacked perception is at the level of perceptual experience, not perceptual judgment. This is more interesting ethically and epistemically.

    8. When perceptual judgments or perceptual experiences arise fromprocesses that give prior outlooks too much weight and fail to giveproper weight to perceptual inputs (if there are any such inputs), wecan say that the outlookhijacksthe perceptual state

      This definition of hijacking a perceptual state (giving too much weight to "prior outlooks" and not enough to perceptual inputs when creating perceptual judgments or perceptual experiences) sidesteps the initial distinction between what exactly gets hijacked--the judgments or the experiences themselves. It is indiscriminate between the two possibilities.

    9. The distinction between perceptual experience and judgment gives usat least two broad kinds of potential effects on perception

      If the mental states affect perceptual judgment, then the perceiver observes the world as it is but jumps to a particular conclusion that's in line with their mental states. If the mental states affect the perceptual experience, then they do not observe the states as they actually are but see the world itself in a way that aligns with their mental states and make the subsequent (reasonable) judgments about these incorrect perceptions.

      The former seems to be the fault of the lacking reasoning faculties of the perceiver, while the latter is almost beyond their control, in that it's a defect of human cognition that is unavoidable and insidious.

    10. irrational perception. Influences on perception could come from beliefs,hypotheses, knowledge, desires, traits, and moods.1They could alsocome from evaluative states that psychologists call“attitudes.”

      Irrational perception seems to be a psychological phenomenon of misinterpretation on the part of the person doing the perceiving. Most of these causes seem to be related to or are themselves mental states, except for perhaps knowledge. What is it about these states that "get in the way" of an objective perception of the world?



    1. Argumentation is a verbal and social activity of reason aimed at increasing (ordecreasing) the acceptability of a controversial standpoint for the listener or reader
    2. If a speaker presents an argument to an audience, in which he asserts and defendsthe conclusion by appeal to the premises, I call this activity argumentation.
  • Aug 2019
    1. Plant Tissues

      There are 2 major tissues found in plants: 1) meristematic tissues and 2) permanent tissues. Meristematic tissue is the location of a plant where cells are actively dividing and growing while Permanent tissue is the location of a plant where the cells are no longer dividing. Meristematic tissue contains 3 regions of plant growth: 1) apical meristems-plant extension- 2) lateral meristems-plant thickness- and 3) intercalary meristems-plant length.

    2. Plant Organ Systems

      The plant organ system is composed of 2 categories: 1) • Shoot organ system (non-reproductive and reproductive part of the plant) - used to obtain light for photosynthesis above ground 2)• Root organ system- used to obtain nutrients (water and minerals) underground

    1. vascular plants

      Plants that contain seeds are divided into 2 categories: 1) gymnosperms and 2) angiosperms -Gymnosperm: seeds are not protected -Angiosperm: seeds are protected

    2. leaflets

      A leaflet is a component of a compound leaf resembling an individual leaf. Each of the leaflets and the central midrib pictured actually comprise one leaf of the locust tree.

    1. hegemonic


      1. The predominance of one state or social group over others.
      2. Predominance; preponderance; leadership; specifically, headship or control exercised by one state over another or others, as through confederation or conquest: originally applied to such a relation often existing among the states of ancient Greece.
      3. Leadership; preponderant influence or authority; -- usually applied to the relation of a government or state to its neighbors or confederates.
    2. organicist i

      Organicism is the philosophical perspective which views the universe and its parts as organic wholes and - either by analogy or literally - as living organisms. It can be synonymous with holism

    3. Cartesian paradigm

      The 'Cartesian Paradigm' is where both body and mind are perceived as distinct and separate and not part of a unified whole . The name Cartesian is derived from the French philosopher Rene Descartes .