322 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Even in writing fiction I expect—since it is the commonest failure—it is hard to make each circumstance flow from its predecessors in a natural fashion, and to do so with the huge history I am sketching is certainly quite beyond my ability.

      GANGNES: This section is part of a major cut to the chapter that occurred when the novel was split into two parts (as discussed above). In the serialized version of the text, the novel's narrator spends much more time reflecting on his own feelings and responses, as well as the storytelling process, than in the volume. Here Wells makes explicitly clear the narrator's unreliability (which is implicit in other parts of the text). Moreover, there is a strange critique of "romanticized" fiction that sets fiction up against this narrator's journalistic account of the invasion (which, of course, is fiction as well). The narrator's appeals to authority here may come off as prematurely defensive and disruptive of the narrative flow. It seems that Wells ultimately decided they would not be a strong start to Book II of the volume. See text comparison page.

    2. Waltham Abbey Powder Mills

      GANGNES: Waltham Abbey is ~15 miles north of the London city center. This is where the Royal Gunpowder Mills are located.Gunpowder production began there in the 1660s, and by the nineteenth century the mill was taking advantage of steam power to supply explosives to the British Navy and Army. The destruction of this site, then, is a huge blow to the British defense against the Martians; in trying to destroy one of the fighting machines, the British destroy a valuable supply of explosives for their military.

      More information:

    3. Blackfriars Bridge. At that the Pool became a scene of mad confusion, fighting and collision, and for some time a multitude of boats and barges jammed in the northern arch of the Tower Bridge

      GANGNES: Blackfriars Bridge and Tower Bridge are two large bridges spanning the Thames from north to south in the eastern part of London. Today, the Millennium Bridge (a pedestrian bridge) and Southwark Bridge lie between them, but Southwark Bridge wasn't opened until 1921, and the Millennium Bridge 2000 (hence the name). These are four of the five Thames bridges overseen today by the London City Corporation. See the City of London site's page on bridges.

    4. no properly organised news distribution

      GANGNES: This is another instance of the unreliability of the press during a time of crisis, especially when the government is in disarray. There is a tension throughout the novel of the citizens' hunger for official news--to the point where they will pay exorbitant prices for a newspaper--and the uselessness of the scraps of information they receive.

    5. New River

      GANGNES: The New River is actually an aqueduct created in the 1600s, hence the fact that is a source of drinking water here. See "The New River" on the History of London website.

    6. The fifth cylinder, the fifth shot from Mars

      GANGNES: See notes below from MCCONNELL and HUGHES AND GEDULD about a possible inconsistency or oversight in the order of the cylinder landings. This makes mapping them even more complicated.

    7. Channel Fleet

      GANGNES: "a fleet of the Royal Navy detailed for service in the English Channel. ... In 1909 the Channel Fleet became the 2nd Division of the Home Fleet." (Oxford English Dictionary).

    8. camera-like generator

      GANGNES: Again we see a comparison of Martian technology (especially the Heat Ray) to cameras and photography.

    9. Pompeii

      From MCCONNELL 236: "the Roman city on the Bay of Naples, completely buried by the eruption of Ms. Vesuvius in 79 A.D."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 216: "The eruption of Mount Vesuvius near Naples on August 24, A.D. 79 buried the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum under thousands of tons of volcanic ash and lava, killing some 20,000 inhabitants."

      From DANAHAY 136: "The Roman city of Pompeii was destroyed by a volcanic eruption in 79 A.D. Archaeologists found citizens of Pompeii who had been overcome by the ash from the eruption preserved where they had fallen."

      More information:

    10. Fifth Cylinder

      GANGNES: MCCONNELL 240 identifies this as a "contradiction. The fourth start had fallen late Sunday night, north of where the narrator and the curate are hiding..., and the narrator only hears of it later, from his brother. So it is impossible for him to know, at the time, that this i the fifth star; he should think it is the fourth." A case could be made, however, that the narrator is writing this in retrospect, and therefore could be imposing his later knowledge of which cylinder it is onto his impressions at the time.

      HUGHES AND GEDULD further complicate the matter by responding to MCCONNELL: "But the first three cylinders fell one after the other late on the nights of Thursday, Friday, and Saturday. Doubtless the narrator simply assumes that the fourth fell 'late Sunday night' and that this one (late Monday night) is the fifth. ... The real trouble is that--far from being unaware of the fourth cylinder--the narrator should be only too well acquainted with it. It fell the previous night, into Bushey Park, which he and the curate have just traversed. But Wells has forgetfully caused the park to contain nothing more remarkable than 'the deer going to and fro under the chestnuts.'"

    11. rained down darkness upon the land

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 216: echoes several biblical passages: 1) Genesis 19:24 ("Then the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven"); 2) Exodus 10:22 ("And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt."); 3) Matthew 27:45 ("Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour.").

    12. thirty-six pounds

      From MCCONNELL 228: at the time, ~$180

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 215: at least 10x the usual amount

    13. Midland Railway Company

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 215: "The Midland Railway Company provided public transportation to such Midlands cities as Nottingham, Leicester, Manchester, and Leeds. Its London terminus was St. Pancras Station."

    14. Committee of Public Supply

      From STOVER 169: "A vigilante group whose name echoes that of the Committee of Public Safety formed under Robespierre during the French Revolution."

    15. something flat and broad and very large

      From DANAHAY 134: "Flight was still a dream when Wells wrote this, and so he is vague about how exactly the Martians' flying machines operate."

    16. coloured supplements

      From MCCONNELL 240: "Popular newspapers frequently issued these supplements, cheap and crude reproductions, 'suitable for framing,' of famous works of art or stirring historical scenes; they decorated the homes of many lower middle class families."

    17. leviathan

      From MCCONNELL 230: "gigantic sea beast of Biblical legend"

    18. the Naze

      From MCCONNELL 227: "a promontory, north of London (in the county of Essex), extending into the North Sea"

    19. used in automatic mines across the Midland counties

      From MCCONNELL 226: "'Automatic mines' are mines set to detonate on contact with any moving object; they are so called to distinguish them from mines exploded by electric current from shore. ... The mines are set to block the expected advance of the Martians into the counties (Leicester, Warwick, Nottinghamshire, etc.) in the middle of England."

    20. Pool of London

      From MCCONNELL 225: "the artificially enlarged shipping area of the Thames"

  2. Mar 2019
    1. cut every telegraph

      which is to say, cut the telegraph wires to make distance communication impossible

    2. crushing the driver against his furnace

      GANGNES: which is to say, cause the engine driver harm or even death by pushing him into the coal furnace that fuels the steam for the engine

    3. smoke out a wasp’s nest

      GANGNES: smoke suffocates wasps; this practice is still done today, often with smoke-like products that can be purchased for this purpose

    4. The Jew

      GANGNES: The anti-Semitism embodied in this figure is clear even when "Jew" is changed to "man" in the 1898 volume and subsequent editions (see the text comparison page). As STOVER (111) observes, the caricature of a greedy "eagle-faced man" would have been recognizable to Victorian readers even with the explicit word "Jew" removed.

    5. Chief Justice

      GANGNES: Note that MCCONNELL disagrees with HUGHES AND GEDULD and STOVER here about the importance of this title.

      From MCCONNELL 220: "In England, the presiding judge of any court with several members."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 215: "The nearest American equivalent [of "Chief Justice" here] (although there are many differences in the two offices) would be the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court."

      From STOVER: "The Lord Chief Justice of England is equivalent to the Chief Justice of the United States."

    6. Vestry

      GANGNES: Note that MCCONNELL, HUGHES AND GEDULD, and STOVER do not completely agree on their explanations of this reference.

      From MCCONNELL 218: In the Church of England, the Vestry is not just the room in a church where vestments are stored; it is also committee of parishioners who arrange local matters like streetcleaning.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 214: "Vestry here is not used in its usual ecclesiastical sense but refers to a committee of citizens 'vested' with the task of arranging for such basic local services as health and food inspection and garbage disposal. St. Pancras (then a London borough) is located northwest of the City of London."

      From STOVER 161: "A public-health committee of that city district responsible for its garbage removal--a task now beyond its capacity as all public services are overwhelmed."

    7. Miss Elphinstone

      From STOVER 158: This heroic character is likely named after Montstuart Elphinstone (died 1859), who explored the dangerous wilds of Afghanistan on behalf of the British Raj. Wells's readers would have been familiar with his feats.

    8. motor cars

      From STOVER 154-5: London's first motor exhibition was in 1895; legislation kept motorcars' speed slower than horses (and horse-drawn carts/carriages) and bicycles. In 1903 the maximum speed for motorcars was raised from two miles per hour to twenty.

    9. galvanised

      From DANAHAY 122: "The Italian scientist Luigi Galvani (1737-98) passed electricity through dead animal tissue to make it move; this kind of involuntary movement became known as galvanism."

    10. hansom cabs

      From MCCONNELL 212: a one-horse, two-wheeled cab for two passengers with the driver seated above and behind the cab

      From DANAHAY 116: "these were frequently for hire on the streets of London like taxis"

    11. the sack of a cycle shop

      From DANAHAY 116: "sack"=looting

      GANGNES: The narrator's brother is one of the first to arrive during the process of looting a bicycle shop, which allows him to steal a bicycle before they are all taken.

    12. Goths and Huns

      From MCCONNELL 224: "The Goths were a Teutonic people who invaded and settled in the Roman Empire between the third and fifth centuries A.D. The Huns, an Asiatic people, invaded and pillaged the Empire during the fifth century A.D."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 215: "The Goths, a Germanic tribe, invaded Rome's Eastern and Western Empires during the third through the fifth century. The Huns, a nomadic Asian people, under their leader Atilla, invaded and ravaged much of Europe during the fifth century."

    13. Lord Garrick

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 215: "Garrick" has not been traced to a real person.

    14. balloon

      From MCCONNELL 223: "[Hot-air] Ballooning began in the late eighteenth century. It was employed for military purposes in the American Civil War, and many prophecies of the late nineteenth century envisaged the wartime use of balloons for both reconnaissance and bombardment."

    15. privet hedge

      From MCCONNELL 220: European evergreen with white flowers

    16. East End factory girls

      From MCCONNELL 216: "The East End of London, until well into the 1930s, was a notorious working-class slum."

    17. five pound note

      From MCCONNELL 215: one pound = five dollars

    18. torpedo boats and destroyers

      From MCCONNELL 210: "The first British destroyer, the Havoc, was commissioned in 1893. The development of steam power in the second half of the century had revolutionized the concept of naval warfare, and put in jeopardy Britain's traditional bulwark of defense, the Royal Navy. In the growing war-fever at the end of the century, much concern was generated around what seemed to be the increased power of European navies, especially the French, and the Naval Defense Act of 1889 laid down rules for the refurbishing of the Navy similar to those which had earlier attempted to reinvigorate the Army."

    19. cumulus cloud

      From MCCONNELL 207: "A tall, dense, puffy cloud. Many readers during the First World War viewed this as a forecast of the use of poison gas."

    1. That was how the Sunday Sun put it, and a clever, and remarkably prompt “hand-book” article in the Referee

      From MCCONNELL 193: "Two evening papers. The Sun was published 1893-1906, the Referee 1877-1928.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 212: "The Sun, London's first popular halfpenny evening newspaper, was established in 1893 by T. P. O'Connor. A former London weekly, the Referee (founded 1877), was popular for its focus on humor, satire, sports, and theater."

      GANGNES: The Referee was a "Sunday sporting newspaper"; the Sun was a Tory newspaper.

      Source:

    2. The majority of people in London do not read Sunday papers.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 212: "In the 1890s, Sunday papers far outsold dailies.... Wells did not foresee the change and unwittingly 'dated' his narrative for future readers" when newspaper reading habits changed.

    3. still wet newspapers

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 213: "This is a slip. Until about 1870, paper was dampened to ensure a good printing impression and was then dried, but by the 1890s dry paper was used.... The anachronism disappears in the Heinemann edition (p. 127), which reads: 'type, so fresh that the paper was still wet.'"

      GANGNES: It is unclear what HUGHES AND GEDULD mean when they write that the "anachronism disappears in the Heinemann edition"; the Heinemann edition also includes this line on page 124.

    4. poisonous vapour

      From DANAHAY 107: "Wells's vision of the use of poison gas, which was used as a weapon for the first time in World War I."

      GANGNES: Some illustrations of The War of the Worlds created during and soon after the First World War distinguish themselves by focusing on the black smoke instead of the heat ray. One such illustration is the book cover for a Danish edition published in 1941. Considered in the light of weapons used during the First and Second World Wars, images such as this one become particularly haunting.

    5. part of Marylebone, and in the Westbourne Park district and St. Pancras, and westward and northward in Kilburn and St. John’s Wood and Hampstead, and eastward in Shoreditch and Highbury and Haggerston and Hoxton, and indeed through all the vastness of London from Ealing to East Ham

      GANGNES: As is evident by this point, the entirety of The War of the Worlds is specifically situated in actual locations in and around London. This rapid-fire naming of specific streets and neighborhoods can be overwhelming to readers who are not familiar with London, but to those who are (as many of Wells's readers would be), they underscore that this crisis is happening in a very real location. It also gives the narrative a breathless sense of momentum while maintaining the specificity of war reporting.

    6. hastily fastening maps of Surrey to the glass

      GANGNES: The shopkeeper is displaying maps of Surrey in his store window because that is the region in which the Martian invasion is taking place (Woking and its surrounding villages are in Surrey). He likely hopes that advertising the map in his window will prompt customers to buy maps of Surrey from him so they can follow the action.

    7. no time to add a word of comment

      GANGNES: The newspaper editors were so eager to get the newspapers printed and sell them that they did not include any journalistic commentary or other textual commentary on the proclamation; they simply reprinted it.

    8. how ruthlessly the other contents of the paper had been hacked and taken out, to give this place

      GANGNES: The other content they would have expected this newspaper to usually contain was left out so that it could accommodate the entire proclamation in large letters.

    9. make a greater Moscow

      GANGNES: MCCONNELL and HUGHES AND GEDULD seem to be at odds here about the historical significance of this reference. STOVER (147) agrees with HUGHES AND GEDULD.

      From MCCONNELL 206: "From September 2 to October 7, 1812, the French Army of Napoleon occupied Moscow, burning and destroying more than three-fourths of the city. They were finally compelled to retreat, however, due to Russian guerrilla resistance and the impossibility of acquiring adequate provisions."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 213: "To frustrate the Martians by destroying their major objective, London, as the Russians did to Napoleon in 1812 by setting fire to Moscow.

    10. scattered yellow gas-lamps

      From MCCONNELL 199: "The first practical electric light had been developed by Thomas Edison in 1879, but the cities of Europe and America were still lit by gas at the time of the story."

    11. underground railway

      From MCCONNELL 194: The first "tube"/underground railway was opened in London in 1890.

    12. earthly artillery

      GANGNES: HUGHES AND GEDULD (213) observe that this is likely a reference to Satan's "infernal artillery" in Milton's Paradise Lost, rather than a "celestial artillery" (STOVER 148 uses this term as well) as an inverse of "earthly artillery." In the context of a Martian invasion, however, "celestial" in opposition to "infernal" becomes complicated; in a narrative like Milton's, it would refer to Heaven, whereas in the context of Wells, it would be "the heavens," i.e., space. The Martians are far from benevolent angels; they are, perhaps, "avenging angels," or akin to infernal beings, despite being from a neighboring planet. In the context of this novel, might we imagine a new kind of artillery: an "alien artillery"?

    13. kopjes

      From STOVER 148: "Small hills of South African locution made familiar to English readers in accounts of the Boer War, from behind which Boer guerrillas sniped on English troops. Although the war did not officially break out until 1899, the landscape of the coming conflict was reported by [Rudyard] Kipling."

    14. They communicated with each other by means of siren-like howls, running up and down the scale from one note to another.

      From STOVER 145: another evocation of the Prussian military model; their communications were superior to those of the French in the Franco-Prussian War.

    15. Albany Street barracks

      From STOVER 141: "Army barracks in central London. In the event, soldiers quartered there are useless in facing unconventional Martian forces."

    16. curious brown scum

      From STOVER 137: residue from the Black Smoke upstream

    17. Sutton High Street on a Derby Day

      GANGNES: The 1898 edition changes "Sutton" to "Epsom."

      From MCCONNELL 198: "The town of Epsom, south of London, is the annual site of the Derby."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 213: "teeming with people"; see Frith's painting "Derby Day" (1856-58)

    18. lemon yellow gloves

      From MCCONNELL 197: these gloves were "highly fashionable, even somewhat dandified," in the late 1890s

    19. He had to give threepence for a copy of that paper.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 213: "Threepence a copy was three to six times the normal price."

      From DANAHAY 102: "Wells is implying that newspapers were exploiting the situation by making their newspapers unusually expensive."

    20. one of those old-fashioned tricycles with a small front wheel

      From MCCONNELL 198: "the 'Coventry' tricycle, two wheels with a much larger supporting wheel to one side, current aroun 1876"

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 213: sometimes nicknamed "Tuppence-farthing bikes" (because of their appearance)

    21. between the South-Eastern and the South-Western stations

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 213: "Adjoining the Waterloo Station terminus of the South-Western Railway was another station belonging to the South-Eastern Railway (a separate company providing service to locations in the direction of Margate, Dover, Folkstone, and Hastings), whose terminus was Charing Cross. Normally there were barriers preventing passengers from moving directly from one railroad to another. These barriers had been lifted because of the emergency situation."

    22. places on the South-Western network

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 212: "The various routes and stations of the (now defunct) South-Western Railway Company. Its terminus is Waterloo Station, London. The network had three main branches: the Northern, serving locations in the direction of Staines and Reading; the Central, serving locations in the direction of Bournemouth and Southampton; and the Southern, serving locations in the direction of Guildford, Epsom, and Leatherhead."

    23. Foundling Hospital

      From MCCONNELL 193: "One of the first hospitals and nurseries for abandoned or illegitimate children, the Foundling Hospital was founded in 1739 in the London district of Bloomsbury."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 212: "The Founding Hospital, in Bloomsbury, London, near the British Museum, was established in 1739 by Thomas Coram. Despite its name, it was not a home for foundlings but a shelter for illegitimate children whose mothers were known."

    24. ten pounds

      From MCCONNELL 202: "equivalent of fifty dollars at the time"

    25. selling his papers for a shilling each

      From MCCONNELL 201: "This was nearly fifty times the normal price of a newspaper."

      From DANAHAY 107: "The price of a newspaper [since earlier in the installment] has now risen from threepence to a shilling, or twelve pence."

    26. Salvation Army

      From MCCONNELL 195: "The Salvation Army was founded in 1878 by the Methodist minister and social worker William Booth, for the purpose of aiding the inhabitants of the terrible slums in the East End of London."

    27. unnaturally early hours

      From MCCONNELL 195: "That is, the authorities are blocking off the area from which the Martian invasion comes."

    28. Sunday League

      From MCCONNELL 192: Sunday Leagues were "religious groups which gathered to protest the opening of pubs on the Sabbath"

      From DANAHAY 99: a Sunday League was a group "opposed to opening the pubs on Sundays [who] organized wholesome alternatives such as excursions"

    29. crammer’s biology class

      From MCCONNELL 191: "an advanced student or younger teacher who, for a fee, tutors other students in preparation for their examinations"

      From DANAHAY 98: a crammer was/is "somebody who helps students 'cram' for their exams. This was usually a graduate student or somebody with an advanced degree; Wells himself worked as a 'crammer' preparing students for science exams."

    1. “It’s bows and arrows against the lightning, anyhow,”

      STOVER: "It is the inequality of combat, magnified, between French and German forces in the Franco-Prussian War."

      GANGNES: In addition to STOVER's note, consider the larger scope of nineteenth-century European imperialism; the 1890s were a time when the British empire was nearing its decline, and The War of the Worlds was one of many well-known novels written at the end of the century that addressed imperialism. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness (serialized in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine in 1899 before being collected) tells of a real-life imperial experience, but Bram Stoker's Dracula, which was, like The War of the Worlds, published in 1897, is a very different kind of novel that nonetheless explores the idea of Britain being invaded by a superior entity in the way the British invaded colonial lands.

      Numerous Wells scholars have written on the "reverse colonization" and "Empire comes home" nature of The War of the Worlds. As Robert Silverberg writes, "[Humans] simply don’t matter at all [to the Martians], any more than the natives of the Congo or Mexico or the Spice Islands mattered to the European invaders who descended upon them to take their lands and their treasures from them during the great age of colonialism.” Likewise, Robert Crossley observes, "The Martians do to England what the Victorians had done to Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific--and Wells intended that his fellow English imperialists taste a dose of their own medicine.”

      Sources:

      More information:

    2. these is vallyble

      GANGNES: A large collection of orchids would, indeed, have been quite valuable. The craze surrounding "orchid hunting"--the search for rare and beautiful orchids to collect (and/or sell to collectors)--was at its height during the late nineteenth century, to the point where the fad had a name: "orchidelirium." Some varieties would fetch extremely high prices, and wealthy Victorians sunk extreme amounts of money into their collections.

      Sources and more information:

    3. hide them from the face of Him that sitteth upon the throne?

      From STOVER 131: reference to Revelation 6:16

      GANGNES: Note that this is the passage DANAHAY cited earlier in the curate's speech.

    4. The smoke of her burning goeth up for ever and ever

      GANGNES: With his mind still on the story of Sodom and Gomorrah, MCCONNELL identifies this quote as referencing Genesis as well. STOVER and DANAHAY both identify the reference as coming from Revelation, but disagree on which passage. An examination of each passage would suggest that Stover is correct, though DANAHAY's passage also describes destruction.

      From MCCONNELL 188: "A slightly inaccurate quotation from Genesis 18:28."

      From STOVER 130: reference to Revelation 19:3: "Hallelujah! The smoke from her goes up for ever and ever." ("her" = the harlot of Babylon, Rome)

      From DANAHAY 96: "Revelations[sic] 6:16-17 describes the end of the world in these terms."

    5. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom

      GANGNES: Reference to Proverbs 9:10: "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom: and the knowledge of the holy is understanding." This line is part of the cuts made to this installment between the serialized version and the volume. See text comparison page.

    6. ’luminium

      short for "aluminium" (British; American aluminum)

      From MCCONNELL 176: "First isolated in 1825, aluminum ... began to be produced in massive quantities only after the discovery, in 1866, of a cheap method of production by electrolysis."

    7. “What are we?”

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 211: possible reference to the Kepler epigraph at the beginning of the novel

    8. the four winds of heaven

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 210: Reference to Daniel 7:2: "and, behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea."

    9. the tower of Shepperton church—it has been replaced by a spire

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 210: This is the Church of St. Nicholas; it is later smashed by the Martians.

    10. Sodom and Gomorrah

      From MCCONNELL 188: "In Genesis 18:20-28, the Lord sends fire from heaven to destroy the sinful people of Sodom and Gomorrah."

    11. as the earthquake that destroyed Lisbon a century ago

      From MCCONNELL 185: "The Lisbon earthquake, on November 1, 1775, produced tremors felt throughout Europe, destroyed almost the entire city, and killed thirty thousand people."

      From DANAHAY 94: "Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, was almost completely destroyed by a devastating earthquake in 1755."

    12. the thing called a siren in our manufacturing towns

      From MCCONNELL 183: "The word [used in this way] was still new at the time, and referred primarily to factory whistles."

    13. camera

      From MCCONNELL 182: "The first portable camera, the Kodak, had been patented by George Eastman in 1888. Wells himself was an ardent amateur photographer."

      From DANAHAY 91: "These were very large, box-like cameras."

    14. crosses in white circles

      From MCCONNELL 178: "The insignia, then as now, of the Red Cross, founded in 1864 as a result of the Geneva Convention on international warfare."

    15. mackerel sky

      From DANAHAY 95: "A mackerel is a seawater fish that has rows of dark markings on its back. The rows of clouds resemble these markings."

    16. The inn was closed, as it was now within the prohibited hours.

      From DANAHAY 89: "Inns and pubs were allowed to sell alcohol only during particular hours specified by law."

    1. This lot’ll cost the insurance people a pretty penny, before everything’s settled.” He laughed with an air of the greatest good humour, as he said this.

      From STOVER 93-4: "The narrator's neighbor in Woking assumes, with a touching faith in bourgeois property values, that 'the insurance people' will settle for damages once the Martians are defeated."

    2. a rapidly fluctuating barometer

      GANGNES: This indicates that the weather is volatile and likely heralds an imminent storm. See Oxford English Dictionary on "barometer": "an instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere, and hence for judging of probable changes in the weather, ascertaining the height of an ascent, etc" and Encyclopaedia Britannica entry.

    3. a driver in the Artillery

      From MCCONNELL170: "That is, he drove the horse-drawn carriage of the heavy field guns."

      GANGNES: As other scholars have pointed out (e.g., HUGHES AND GEDULD 210), the marked difference in the role of the artilleryman in the Pearson's as compared with the novel constitutes a significant change between the two versions. He is the "man" in the new chapter--"The Man on Putney Hill"--added for the volume, and he is a conduit through which the novel explores how humankind might grapple (or fail to grapple) with such a crisis as the Martian invasion.

    4. machine gun

      From MCCONNELL 160: "The period from 1890 to the First World War has been called the 'golden age' of the machine gun, and was an era of intensive development of new weapons of all sorts. ... [B]y 1898 technology had produced an amazingly wide range of designs."

    5. I’m selling my bit of a pig.

      GANGNES: HUGHES AND GEDULD and STOVER both disagree with MCCONNELL about the meaning of this phrase.

      From MCCONNELL 159: "The landlord fears he may be selling (not buying) a 'pig in a poke.'"

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 207: "One nineteenth-century slang meaning of 'pig' was goods or property. Hence the sentence might simply men: 'I'm selling my bit of property.' Another slang meaning of 'pig' was nag, donkey, or moke; while 'bit of' was an adjectival term that could be used variously to express affection for the subject it preceded. ... Another possibility is a real pig, i.e., the landlord is surprised--after asking a pig buyer to pay a pound and drive the pig home himself--to be offered two pounds with a promise moreover to return the pig. According to this, people are simply talking at cross-purposes, and the narrator then explains that he wants a dogcart, not a pig."

      From STOVER 98: "The landlord is puzzled by the narrator's haste to pay two pounds for his 'bit of pig' (=his valuable piece of property) coupled with a strong promise to return it."

    6. As soon as my astonishment would let me

      GANGNES: Cut from the 1898 volume. Another removal of the narrator's emotions. See text comparison page.

    7. They

      GANGNES: In the 1898 edition, this sentence (slightly edited) is preceded by, "It hardly seemed a fair fight to me at the time." In the revised version we are offered this bit of foreshadowing and characterization without a strong emotional component. See text comparison page.

    8. pillars of fire

      GANGNES: MCCONNELL is partially incorrect here; his citation is more thorough in that it addresses both the pillar of fire and pillar of smoke, but the appropriate chapter is Exodus 13, not Exodus 15. The most thorough and correct citation here would be a combination of the two--Exodus 13:21-22--which STOVER cites, though inexplicably as a note at the beginning of Chapter XII rather than at the textual reference.

      From MCCONNELL 173: "In Exodus 15:21-22, God sends a pillar of fire to guide the Israelites through the Sinai Desert by night, and a pillar of cloud to guide them by day."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 209: "See Exodus 13:21: 'And the Lord went before them [to guide the Israelites through the Sinai] ... by night in a pillar of fire."

      From STOVER 114: [quotes Exodus 13:21-22, then:] "As the Lord guided the Israelites through the Sinai desert, so the Martians lead humanity through a wasteland of suffering. Ahead, leaving the old order behind, is the promise of world unity."

    9. fiery chaos

      From STOVER 109: reference to Revelation 20:9: "and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them."

    10. the Orphanage, near the crest of the hill

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 208: some readers have mistaken this for the Orphanage that used to be in Oriental Road

      From STOVER 103: "The orphanage on the crest of Maybury Hill was not built until 1909; in its place at the time there stood St. Peter's Memorial Home for the aged."

    11. sounded more like the working of a gigantic electric machine than the usual detonating reverberations

      From STOVER 102: "an allusion to the Wimshurst electrostatic induction generator invented in 1880 by James Wimshurst"

    12. pinnacle of the mosque

      From STOVER 96-7: "The mosque was built for Muslim students at the Oriental College, a center for distinguished Indian visitors from the British Raj." Unlike in the novel, the mosque still stands today.

    13. that a dispute had arisen at the Horse Guards

      GANGNES: STOVER corrects HUGHES AND GEDULD's annotation, though does not mention them specifically in the note, despite referencing them in other notes.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 206: "Their notion is that there was an operational or tactical dispute--about how to deal with the situation--among the officers of the elite Horse Guards at the Horse Guard barracks (a building in central London opposite Whitehall). The Horse Guards are the cavalry brigade of the English Household troops (the third regiment of Horse Guards is known as the Royal Horse Guards)."

      From STOVER 94: Horse Guards here "is a shorthand reference to the British War Office, located on Horse Guards Parade near Downing Street in London. As Americans refer to the Department of Defense as 'The Pentagon' after its office building, so the British called its War Office 'the Horse Guards.' Not to be confused with the Household Calvary regiment The Royal Horse Guards, even then a tourist attraction when on parade."

    14. the potteries

      From MCCONNELL 168: "A district in central England, also called the 'Five Towns,' famous for its pottery and china factories. The area was a favorite subject of Wells's friend, the novelist Arnold Bennett (1867-1931).

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 208: The "five towns" MCCONNELL refers to are Stoke-on-Trent, Hanley, Burslem, Tunstall, and Longton. In 1888 Wells spent three months in the Potteries region.

      From DANAHAY 80: "an area of central England with a large number of china factories and their furnaces"

    15. College Arms

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 208: a real pub licensed in the 1890s

    16. Spotted Dog

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 207: Wells uses this name in place of the name of a real pub: the Princess of Wales

      From DANAHAY 72: the name of a local pub

    17. Titan

      From MCCONNELL 171: "In Greek myth the Titans were the gigantic and violent pre-Olympian gods whom Zeus vanquished in establishing the rule of reason and order."

    18. gun he drove had been unlimbered

      From MCCONNELL: "To 'unlimber' a gun is to detach it from its limber, a two-wheeled carriage drawn by four to six horses, and prepare it for firing."

    19. A flash, and it came out vividly, heeling over one way with two feet in the air, to vanish and reappear almost instantly as it seemed, with the next flash, a hundred yards nearer.

      From MCCONNELL 164: "This is a remarkable anticipation of the 'strobe effect' of rapid flashes of light, which we have come to associate (through films as much as through real experience of warfare) with modern battle scenes."

    20. tripod

      From MCCONNELL 163: "Any three-legged support, although the most common instance of the 'tripod' for Wells's readers would probably have been the tripod on which older cameras were mounted."

    21. fishers of men

      From MCCONNELL 156: "In Matthew 4:19 Christ tells Peter and Andrew that He will make them 'fishers of men.'"

    22. Horse Guards

      From MCCONNELL156: "The famous 'Blues,' or Royal Horse Guards, consolidated in 1819."

      From DANAHAY 69: the Royal Horse Guards: elite British army cavalry unit

    23. Oriental College

      From DANAHAY 71: the Oriental Institute

    1. photographically distinct

      GANGNES: See earlier note in this installment from STOVER on "much as the parabolic mirror of a lighthouse projects a beam of light." As MCCONNELL (182) notes in Installment 4: "The first portable camera, the Kodak, had been patented by George Eastman in 1888. Wells himself was an ardent amateur photographer."

      Even before the portable camera and the beginnings of amateur photography, the prevalence of photojournalism would have made most readers familiar with, and likely interested in, photography. References to cameras and photography, especially in relation to the heat ray, are prevalent throughout the novel.

      More information:

    2. Times

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 205: Britain's most prestigious daily newspaper, est. 1788. By the time Wells was writing this novel its politics were mostly Liberal Unionist.

      GANGNES: The Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Journalism lists the Times' date of establishment as 1785 rather than 1788; this discrepancy is due to the fact that it was originally titled the Daily Universal Register before its name change in 1788. In its early days it contained parliamentary reports, foreign news, and advertisements, but soon expanded its contents. Under the editorship of Thomas Barnes in the early 1800s it became a "radical force in the context of the liberalizing reforms of the early part of the [nineteenth] century. It continued to exert a radical influence under subsequent editors (including John Thaddeus Delane). The paper included reports from influential foreign correspondents who covered major European conflicts that were of interest to Britain. When Thomas Cherney became its editor in 1878 and was succeeded in 1884, the paper began to become more conservative and pro-Empire. It has changed ownership but is still published today.

      Source:

    3. saw a star fall from Heaven

      GANGNES: A possible reference to, or evocation of, Lucifer as the "Morning Star" falling from Heaven. See Isaiah 14:12 and Luke 10:18. More information at the Wikpedia entry for Lucifer.

    4. Daily Telegraph

      See annotation on Installment 1 regarding the Telegraph.

    5. Perhaps I am a man of exceptional moods. I do not know how far my experience is common. At times I suffer from the strangest sense of utter detachment from myself and the world about me; I seem to watch it all from the outside, from somewhere inconceivably remote, out of time, out of space, out of the stress and tragedy of it all. This feeling was very strong upon me that night. Here was another side to my dream.

      GANGNES: This is one of a handful of sections that was not cut from the 1898 edition where the narrator explicitly evaluates his own mental and emotional state. The rumination here evokes associations with depression and the feelings of isolation it can cause. It is not clear whether Wells is speaking from experience in this instance. From a narrative perspective, asides like this may call the narrator's reliability into question; he cannot function as an objective journalist figure (indeed, no journalist is "objective") if he is emotionally compromised.

    6. receiving no reply—the man was killed—decided not to print a special edition

      GANGNES: Because the newspapers didn't hear from Henderson after he sent a telegram with the news about the capsule's landing, the newspaper decided that it must have been a hoax, so it did not report a story on it. People have been murdered by the Martian heat-ray by this point, and hardly anyone who wasn't at the pit knows about the incident.

    7. ran a little boy

      GANGNES: A macabre parallel to the "little boy" who was crushed in the previous scene.

    8. the peace of the evening

      GANGNES: like the peace that the white flag was supposed to signal

    9. by the light of their destruction

      GANGNES: The narrator is only able to see the people who are burning because the fire burning on their bodies creates light.

    10. a squadron of Hussars, two Maxims, and about four hundred men of the Cardigan regiment

      From MCCONNELL 154: "Hussars are light cavalry. The Maxim is the Maxim-Vickers, the first truly automatic machine gun, manufactured in the 1880s." The Cardigan regiment is from Cardiganshire: a county in West Wales.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 206: "The Maxim gun, patented in 1884 by Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim, was an early form of machine gun. After some modification it was adopted by the British Army in 1889. In the field, Maxims were usually mounted on wheeled carriages. ... The Cardigan regiment was named for Cardiganshire, a western county of Wales located between Fishguard and Aberystwyth."

    11. Inkerman barracks

      From MCCONNELL 154: "The Inkerman Barracks were named for the Battle of Inkerman, where in 1854, English and french troops defeated an attacking Prussian Army. Throughout the late nineteenth century, the armies of Europe were in the process of massive and ominous expansion and reorganization. But the British had a long-standing aversion to the idea of a standing army. Their reorganization, beginning in 1870, emphasized the localization of garrisons and short enlistment terms for civilian volunteers. In 1881 the infantry of the line was remodeled into two-battalion regiments with territorial names."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 206: located ~2.5 miles southwest of the Horsell sand pits; ~2 miles west of Woking Station

    12. A boy from the town, trenching on Smith’s monopoly, was selling papers with the afternoon’s news.

      GANGNES: MCCONNELL is somewhat at odds with HUGHES AND GEDULD and STOVER here; H&G's identification of "Smith" as referring to the newsagent W. H. Smith is important to the print culture of Victorian Britain. I include MCCONNELL to show that critical/annotated editions are not infallible.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 205: "Cutting into or 'poaching on' W. H. Smith's monopoly of selling newspapers inside the station. The chain of W. H. Smith to this day has the exclusive rights to selling newspapers, magazines, and books in m any British railroad stations."

      From MCCONNELL 153: "'Trenching' means encroaching. The newsboy is selling his papers at a station where Mr. Smith has a permanent newsstand."

      From STOVER 91: "Reference to W.H. Smith, whose chain of stationery stores to this day has the exclusive rights to sell newspapers, books, and magazines in British railway stations."

    13. my collar had burst away from its stud

      From MCCONNELL 148: "Collars at the time were detached from the shirt, generally made of celluloid, and fastened around the neck with a stud."

    14. smoke came out of the pit

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD: Likely a reference to Revelation 9:2: "and there arose a smoke out of the pit...."

    15. waving a white flag

      GANGNES: which is to say, signalling peace or surrender

    16. the sensation an ultimatum to Germany would have done

      From DANAHAY 64: "Wells compares the opening of the 'war' with the Martians to the reaction that would have accompanied a declaration of war [by Britain] against another country like Germany."

    17. much as the parabolic mirror of a lighthouse projects a beam of light

      From STOVER 81: "The Heat-Ray is often taken as a prophecy of beam-focused lasers, but this is to miss the photographic metaphor Wells uses: 'the camera that fired the Heat-Ray,' 'the camera-like generator of the Heat-Ray.' The Martians' rayguns are in fact cameras in reverse, emitting light not receiving it, and they are in fact mounted on tripods as were the heavy old cameras of the day. What they see they zap. More, the photo-journalistic realism of the invasion recounted by the narrator recalls that of Roger Fenton, whose coverage of the Crimean War in 1855 is the first instance of a war photographer on the scene of action. His pictures were accompanied by sensational stories done by the famed William Howard Russell of the London Times, the first war correspondent in the modern sense. The narrator's account is modeled after both precedents, visually and journalistically."

      GANGNES: Stover here gestures to (though not by name) MCCONNELL (145), whose note is quoted by HUGHES AND GEDULD in their edition. MCCONNELL'S note reads: "Though the details of the heat-ray are vague, they do anticipate in some remarkable ways the development of the laser beam in the 1950s."

      That said, MCCONNELL and others rightly point to one of the numerous instances in which Wells's descriptions of technologies and events appear prescient. Indeed, many of the Martian technologies seem to anticipate military tech developed for use in the First and Second World Wars. For an analysis of The War of the Worlds and its early illustrations as they relate to early twentieth-century warfare, see Gangnes, "Wars of the Worlds: H.G. Wells’s Ekphrastic Style in Word and Image" in Art and Science in Word and Image: Exploration and Discovery (Brill, 2019), pp. 100-114.

    18. I did not dare to look back

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 203-4: "I did not dare to look back" is another reference to the petrifying gaze of the Gorgon (first referenced in Chapter IV). Gorgons are monsters from Greek myths "whose hair was a tangle of writing snakes." Humans were irresistibly tempted to look at them, but doing so would turn the viewer to stone.

      Note: See Medusa as an example.

    19. dodo in the Mauritius

      From MCCONNELL 125 and 151: The dodo was a large, flightless bird from Mauritius that was hunted into extinction by the seventeenth century. This is the second of two comparisons between the extinction of the dodo and the potential extinction of humans by the Martians; the first is in Chapter I.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 205: "Later, the very idea of such a bird [as the dodo] was ridiculed ... until skeletal remains came to light in 1863 and 1889."

    20. cyclists

      From MCCONNELL 130 and 152: Cycling was extremely popular in the 1890s; the safety bicycle was first patented in 1884, but the patenting of the first pneumatic tire in 1888 made cycling comfortable and affordable. Wells was learning to ride the bicycle around the time that he wrote this novel.

    21. the dove-tailing of the commonplace habits of our social order with the first beginnings of the series of events that was to topple that social order headlong

      From MCCONNELL 151: "This introduces another 'Darwinian' theme of the story: the transformation of an established, normal-seeming social order by extreme stress from the outside."

    1. “Extra-terrestrial”

      GANGNES: This term was relatively new when Wells wrote the novel; it first emerged in the mid-nineteenth century and was generally used in scientific journals.

      Source:

    2. telegraph the news

      GANGNES: The kind of electrical telegraphy with which Wells's readers would have been familiar began development in the early-to-mid nineteenth century and was commonly used by the end of the Victorian period.

      More information:

    3. Henderson, the London journalist

      GANGNES: There are quite a few real "Henderson"s associated with the nineteenth-century press. However, given the role of "Henderson" in this novel, it seems unlikely that the name was meant to refer to any particular journalist.

      Source:

    4. People in these latter times scarcely realise the abundance and enterprise of our nineteenth century papers.

      GANGNES: The narrator's comment here underscores this novel's preoccupation with the Victorian press. The style of the narration evokes something of war journalism from this period, and the unreliability and mercenary practices of newspapers are a theme throughout the novel. Wells is not exaggerating; the Victorian period has been called the "Golden Age" of the British periodical because of the staggering number and quality of newspapers, journals, and magazines published during the time.

      More information:

    5. I remember how jubilant Markham was at securing a new photograph of the planet for the illustrated paper he edited in those days.

      GANGNES: It is not clear whether "Markham" is supposed to refer to a real editor of a specific newspaper. W. O. Markham edited the British Medical Journal, but that publication was not an illustrated paper. It is highly likely that "Markham" is a fictional character who is an acquaintance of the narrator

      Source:

    6. Daily Telegraph

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 200: The Daily Telegraph was established in 1855 and to this day is still one of Britain's foremost national newspapers.

      From MCCONNELL 127: The Daily Telegraph (founded 1855) catered to the middle class; it featured "flamboyant, often sensational journalism."

      GANGNES: Contrary to MCCONNELL, the Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Journalism writes that the Daily Telegraph (1855-present; founded as the Daily Telegraph and Courier) originally catered to a "wealthy, educated readership" rather than the middle class. Though it became associated with Toryism in the twentieth century, its politics in the nineteenth century were first aligned with the Whigs, especially in its liberal attitude toward foreign policy. This changed somewhat in the 1870s when it supported Benjamin Disraeli, and the paper became more Orientalist under the editorship of Edwin Arnold. The Telegraph also promoted the arts.

      Source:

    7. Ogilvy, the well known astronomer

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 200: "Ogilvy is no doubt a fictive name. An astronomer of the same name first observes the approaching cataclysm in Wells's short story 'The Star.'"

    8. spectroscope

      From MCCONNELL 127: "With a spectroscope it is possible to describe the chemical composition of a substance by analyzing the wavelengths of the light generated by combustion of the substance. It was first demonstrated in 1860."

    9. tronomical exchange

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 200: "During the nineteenth century the Royal Astronomical Society (established 1820) acted as an astronomical exchange for observatories within great Britain."

    10. Perrotin, of the Nice Observatory

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 199: Nice Observatory was "France's most important nineteenth-century observatory." It was constructed in 1880 on Mt. Gros, northeast of Nice. It used a 30" refracting telescope.

      From MCCONNELL 126: Henri Joseph Anastase Perrotin (1845-1904) was a French astronomer who worked at the Nice Observatory 1880-1904.

      GANGNES: The 1898 edition adds a reference to Lick Observatory (in California), which the narrator says noticed the light before Perrotin did.

      More information:

    11. Tasmanians

      From MCCONNELL 125: In the eighteenth century England drove native Tasmanians from their land in order to turn Tasmania into a prison colony.

      From STOVER 55-6: "The racially Australoid natives of Tasmania survived until 1876 in a state of upper paleolithic culture. To the island's Dutch and later British "colonists, they were so many subhumans hunted down for dog meat.

      More information:

    12. idea of life upon them as impossible or improbable

      From DANAHAY 41: Reference to a Victorian debate regarding the existence of intelligent life on Mars. See Wells's article "Intelligence on Mars" in the Saturday Review 8 (1 April 4, 1896), p. 345-46.

      More information:

    13. Schiaparelli

      From MCCONNELL 126: Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli (1835-1910) was an Italian astronomer who claimed to have discovered "canals" on Mars. Schiaparelli called them canali ("channels" in Italian) but the (mis)translation of the word in to English caused speculation that the canali might have been made by intelligent life.

      From STOVER 57: Schiaparelli mapped Mars during the opposition of 1877 and provided names for some surface features still used today.

      More information:

    14. vanished bison and the dodo

      From MCCONNELL 125 and 151: The dodo was a large, flightless bird from Mauritius that was hunted into extinction by the seventeenth century. North American bison were also thought to be on the verge of extinction during this time. This is the first of two comparisons between the extinction of the dodo and the potential extinction of humans by the Martians; the second is in Chapter VII.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 205: "Later, the very idea of such a bird [as the dodo] was ridiculed ... until skeletal remains came to light in 1863 and 1889."

      More information:

    15. inferior races

      GANGNES: "Inferior" as it is used here reflects Victorian conceptions of racial hierarchies. There are, of course, many, many scholarly works on this subject, but here are a few good places to start:

    16. struggle for existence

      From MCCONNELL 125: "struggle for existence" was a phrase popularized by Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859).

      More information:

    17. across the gulf of space

      From STOVER 52: Phrase is from Percival Lowell's Mars (1895).

      More information:

    18. a man with a microscope might scrutinise the transient creatures that swarm and multiply in a drop of water

      From DANAHAY 41: Wells was interested in the microscope to the point where he visited a microscope factory for his article "Through a Microscope."

      More information:

    19. The Anatomy of Melancholy

      From STOVER 49: "Johannes Kepler (d. 1630) laid the foundation of modern astronomy with his calculation of planetary motions, as immortalized in Kepler's laws." Epigraph quote is from a letter to Galileo quoted by Robert Burton in The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621). Wells slightly abridged the quote.

      More information:

    20. signalling us

      From STOVER 60: There was a "signalling mania" during this time; Francis Galton (Darwin's cousin) fed the "mania" through his 1896 article "Intelligible Signals Between Neighbouring Stars."

    21. snowcaps

      From DANAHAY p. 42: reference to the theory of "melting icecaps" proposed by Lowell in Mars

    22. beasts that perish

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 197: Reference to Psalm 49: 12 "Nevertheless man being in honour abideth not: he is like the beasts that perish."

    23. public house

      GANGNES: British "pubs"/bars

    24. Waterloo

      GANGNES: The central train station in London at the time.

    25. Few of the common people in England had anything but the vaguest astronomical ideas in those days.

      GANGNES: This statement implies that most English people became far more familiar with astronomy after their country was invaded by aliens from another planet.

    26. Daily News

      GANGNES:

      Daily News here is changed to Daily Chronicle in the 1898 volume and subsequent editions.The discrepancy between Daily News in the serialized version and Daily Chronicle in the volume could be due to an error on Wells's part that was corrected for the 1898 edition.

      The Daily News (1846-1912) was first advertised as a "Morning Newspaper of Liberal Politics and thorough Independence," set up as a rival to the Morning Chronicle. It was edited by Charles Dickens at its launch. The paper "advocated reform in social, political, and economic legislation, fought for a Free Press in supporting the repeal of the Stamp Act, campaigned for impartial dealings with the natives of India and supported Irish Home Rule." It was known for its detailed war reporting, which boosted its circulation.

      The Daily Chronicle was a later name (beginning in 1877) of the Clerkenwell News (1855-1930). The paper was "liberal and radical," with a daily column entitled "The Labour Movement" featured in the 1890s. Interestingly, the paper eventually merged with the Daily News (becoming the News Chronicle), but not until 1930--after even the 1925 edition of The War of the Worlds, let alone the 1898 edition.

      Source:

    27. dull radiation

      GANGNES: the heat radiating from the cylinder (not harmful/nuclear radiation)

    28. just a second or so under twenty-four hours after the first one

      GANGNES: Presumably this timing is necessary because the capsules are all being "aimed" at roughly the same area geographically; the cylinders need a "straight shot" from their giant gun (cannon), and the Earth takes 24 hours to rotate back to roughly the same position in reference to the Sun. It may also take a significant amount of time to reload a new capsule into the gun.

    29. carry warfare sunward

      GANGNES: Which is to say, invade Earth and destroy human beings; Earth is closer to the Sun than Mars is.

    30. Nature

      From MCCONNELL 126: Nature is a scientific journal first edited by Sir Norman Lockyer, who was one of Wells's teachers at the Normal School of Science.

      From STOVER 57: This is a reference to the article "A strange Light on Mars," which was published in Nature in 1894.

      GANGNES: This is one of the many instances where Wells establishes the novel within a framework of real scientific discoveries and historical events. This enhances the realism and journalistic quality of the narrative.

      More information:

    31. three kingdoms

      GANGNES: You will see below that three different annotated editions of the novel give three different definitions of this reference, and they do not agree as to whether it is Wales or Ireland that is meant to be the "third kingdom."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 203: England, Ireland, and Scotland

      From DANAHAY 52: England, Scotland, and Wales

      From STOVER 70: Of Great Britain

    1. M. E. Power, W. J. Matthews, A. J. Stewart, Ecology 66, 1448 (1985)

      This seminal paper on the indirect effects of predation in freshwater rivers demonstrated that the trophic cascades previously seen in marine and terrestrial systems also held true for river ecosystems.

  3. Feb 2019
    1. D. Berman, A. Erdemir, A. V. Sumant, Carbon 59, 167–175 (2013)

      This study reports the tribological properties of graphene lubricated 440C steel. At medium loads and under dry nitrogen environment, graphene is found to maximize its performance as a solid lubricant.

    2. Z. Liu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 205503 (2012)

      This study details the first experimental evidence of reproducible superlubricity at the microscale under ambient conditions. The self retraction of graphite mesas upon shearing is described as a direct evidence of ultra low friction between the incommensurate surfaces. The variation in superlubric conditions with contact area is also described. A similar observation is made in the current study as well.

    3. J. Cumings, A. Zettl, Science 289, 602–604 (2000)

      The authors demonstrate an experimental set up for finding friction between multiwalled nanotube layers using a nanomanipulator and insitu TEM imaging. Ultra low friction is observed between the core and outer nanotube layers in a dry environment, which is similar to the superlubricity conditions in the present study.

    4. Y. Mo, K. T. Turner, I. Szlufarska, Nature 457, 1116–1119 (2009)

      The authors report bridging the gap between macroscale and nanoscale laws of friction. A linear relationship found to exists between friction force and contact area at both regimes. In the present study, authors also observed a similar phenomenon.

    5. A. Z. Szeri, Tribology: Friction, Lubrication, and Wear (Hemisphere, Panama City, Panama, 1980)

      This book provides an overview of theory and practice of tribology.

    6. D. Berman, A. Erdemir, A. V. Sumant, Carbon 54, 454–459 (2013)

      This earlier study by the current authors identifies and reports the potential of graphene layers in reducing friction and wear at the tribological interface of steel in air.

    7. C. Lee et al., Science 328, 76–80 (2010).

      This study compares the nanotribological properties of atomically thin sheets of 2D materials such as graphene, molybdenum disulfide, boron nitride and Niobium diselenide using friction force microscopy. The dependence of friction on the number of atomic sheets and substrate effect are also reported.

    8. A. Erdemir, C. Donnet, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39, R311–R327 (2006).

      This review outlines the synthesis, characterization and applications of DLC films. The mechanism of friction and wear behaviors of DLC films and the conditions to achieve superlubricity are reported.

    9. Y. Guo, W. Guo, C. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 76, 155429 (2007)

      This study investigates theoretically, the dependence of superlubricity on interlayer distance between graphene sheets and atomic defects on graphene for both commensurate and incommensurate configurations.

    10. M. Hirano, K. Shinjo, R. Kaneko, Y. Murata, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1448–1451 (1997).

      This study reports measurements of friction as a function of commensurability of the contacting surfaces using ultra high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy. Authors have used atomically clean surfaces to experimentally check the superlubric conditions. They found a match between experimental results and theoretical predictions.

    1. Artificial intelligence is more than 50 years old, but its current rise has been closely linked to the growth in compute power provided by computer chips and other hardware.
    2. The first portion of the paper is devoted to lessons LeCun took away from Bell Labs, including his observation that the AI researchers’ and computer scientists’ imaginations tend to be tied to hardware and software tools.
    3. Python is currently the most popular language used by developers working on machine learning projects, according to GitHub’s recent Octoverse report
    1. Punch

      GANGNES: Punch (1841-2002) was a weekly satirical magazine that was first marketed toward the Victorian middle class. It included text, cartoons and illustrations, and other visual features. It was characterized by a "whimsical mode of comedy that focused on the trials and aspirations of the still emergent middle classes."

      Source:

      More information:

    2. I could not avert my face from these things

      A reference to the irresistible quality of Gorgons; see note on "Gorgon" above.

    3. Gorgon circlet of tentacles

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 203: "Gorgon" is an allusion to monsters from Greek myths "whose hair was a tangle of writing snakes." Humans were irresistibly tempted to look at them, but doing so would turn the viewer to stone.

      Note: See Medusa as an example.

    4. Lord Hilton, the lord of Horsell Manor

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 203: "No Horsell Manor or Lord Hilton has been traced"; "the local lord was Lord Onslow of Clandon."

      From STOVER 71: The name may have been changed for political reasons.

    5. Stent, the Astronomer Royal

      From STOVER 27: "The Astronomer Royal was director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, but 'Stent' is not recorded as one of them." "Stent" may have been used for political reasons.

    6. Astronomical Exchange

      From MCCONNELL 135: A fictional society; the International Astronomical Union was founded in 1919.

    7. Denning

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 202: "William Frederick Denning (1848-1931) was the chief authority on cometary systems and meteorites."

    8. learning to ride the bicycle

      From MCCONNELL 130: Wells was also learning to ride a bicycle during this time.

    9. clockwork of the telescope

      From MCCONNELL 127: "The clockwork would keep the telescope rotating in synchronization with the movement of its celestial object."

    10. Lavelle of Java

      From MCCONNELL 127: Lavelle of Java is a fictional character whose name Wells derived from "M. Javelle," an associate of Perrotin's who observed a "strange light" on Mars in 1894. The evocation of Java also bears associations to the 1883 eruption of Mt. Krakatoa, which killed 50,000 people in Java.

    11. opposition of 1894

      From MCCONNELL 126: "opposition" means that Mars is at the opposite side of the Earth from the Sun; the nearest Mars gets to Earth. The opposition of 1877 was when Schiaparelli discovered the Mars canali and an American discovered Mars's moons. The opposition of 1894 allowed for further examinations of Mars.

    12. oceans

      From MCCONNELL 124: The idea that there were, or might have been, oceans on Mars was due to limited telescopic technology during this time.

    13. nebular hypothesis

      From MCCONNELL 124: the "nebular hypothesis" is Pierre Laplace's (1749-1827) theory that "the solar system originated as a single, densely compacted 'cloud' or 'nebula' of matter."

      More information:

  4. Dec 2018
    1. Sinclair, Stefan et al. "“Information Visualization For Humanities Scholars”". Literary Studies In The Digital Age, 2013, https://dlsanthology.mla.hcommons.org/information-visualization-for-humanities-scholars/.

    2. Mott, Rick. “Ceremony Earth: Digitizing Silko’s Novel for Students of the Twenty-First Century.” Studies in American Indian Literatures, vol. 23, no. 2, Jan. 2011, pp. 25–47. EBSCOhost, login.ezproxy.oswego.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ937275&site=eds-live.

    1. The major requirements of a reference electrode are that it be easy to prepare and maintain, and that its potential be stable.

      There are many factors that affect the stability of the RE, such as temperature, impurities.

  5. gutenberg.net.au gutenberg.net.au
    1. coast of Sussex
    2. jointure

      An estate settled on a wife for the period during which she survives her husband, in lien of a dower.

      https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/jointure

    3. dowager

      A widow with a title or property derived from her late husband.

      https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/dowager

    4. coruscations

      Flashes or sparkles.

    5. irregularities

      This presumably is in reference to Robert Burns's well known love affairs. See section "The Life of a Lover and Writer": https://www.biography.com/people/robert-burns-9232194

    6. 'Oh! Woman

      These lines are from Sir Walter Scott's "Marmion."

      "O woman! In our hours of ease Uncertain, coy, and hard to please, And variable as the shade By the light, quivering aspen made; When pain and anguish wring the brow, A ministering angel thou!"

      This is not the greatest description of women, and Austen seems pointed in how she uses Scott's work.

      The full poem: https://archive.org/stream/marmion05077gut/marmn10a.txt

    7. either

      This may imply that despite having other published work at the time, "Lady of the Lake" and "Marmion," quoted below, were the most popular/wide read.

      Lady of the Lake: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/3011/3011-h/3011-h.htm

      Marmion: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/4010/4010-h/4010-h.htm

    8. pales

      Pales are the stakes of a fence that represent a property boundary.

      https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pale

    9. Scott's beautiful lines

      Austen is referring to the Romanticism poetry of Sir Walter Scott, a popular poet and novelist at the time.

      Biography of Scott for context: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sir-Walter-Scott-1st-Baronet See particularly his "literary gifts," interest in German Romanticism, and ambiguity of his feelings towards Scotland.

    10. inevitable expense

      It is unusual that these young girls were able to spend beyond their means, because at that time women's finances were always controlled by men.

    11. two hack chaises.

      The Parkers were hoping for a much larger group in order to bolster Sanditon's economy. The fact that they arrive in a hack chaise is also a sign that they aren't as wealthy as the Parker's had hoped. A carriage is the superior method of transportation. Mrs. Bennet comments in Pride and Prejudice that Mr. Darcy refused to talk to Mrs. Long at the ball because she arrived in a hack chaise.

      Jane Austen's Vehicular Means of Motion, Exchange and Transmission:

      https://www.erudit.org/en/journals/lumen/2004-v23-lumen0265/1012194ar.pdf