274 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. would fight no more for ever

      GANGNES: Note here that HUGHES AND GEDULD disagree with MCCONNELL's identification of the reference.

      From MCCONNELL 289-90: "A last, and very curious, invocation of the sub-theme of colonial warfare and exploitation. In 1877 Chief Joseph of the Nez Percé Indians had surrendered to the United States Army in a noble and widely-reported speech: 'I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed. . . . Hear me, my chiefs, I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more for ever.' Wells, by associating the tragic dignity of Chief Joseph's language with the now-defeated Martian invader, achieves a striking reversal of emotion. For we now understand that it is the Martians, pathetically overspecialized prisoners of their own technology, who are the truly pitiable, foredoomed losers of this war of the worlds, of ecologies, of relationships to Nature."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 224: MCCONNELL's comment is "farfetched. ... [T]he Nez Perce in Wells's day were unsung, and he would not deal in such an obscure allusion."

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    2. London veiled in her robes of smoke

      GANGNES: The "robes of smoke" here refers to the "London fog" (also known as "pea soup fog," "black fog," and "killer fog"). This greasy, yellowish fog that hung around London in the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries was a byproduct of coal burning. It caused respiratory problems and other illnesses for London residents, especially factory workers. Here, then, Wells offers a vision of a London whose pollution has, perhaps paradoxically, been temporarily swept away by the Martians' own Black Smoke, which has brought London's industry to a standstill.

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    3. Samson

      From MCCONNELL 286: "The incredibly strong, unruly hero of Jewish folklore whose exploits are celebrated in Judges 13:1-16:31. Taken prisoner by the Philistines, he destroyed himself and them by pulling down the walls of their palace."

    4. destruction of Sennacherib

      From MCCONNELL 289: "'The Destruction of Sennacherib' is the title of one of the most famous poems of Lord Byron (1788-1824). In II Kings: 19 it is related how the Assyrian King Sennacherib brought a great army to war against the Israelites; but, thanks to the prayers of the Israelites, the Lord killed Sennacherib's whole army in a single night. The legend has an obvious relevance to the sudden, total, and unhoped-for obliteration of the Martian invaders."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 224: "In a single night, in answer to the prayers of the Israelites, God destroyed the Assyrian army led by King Sennacherib (II Kings 19:35-37). This is the subject of Byron's celebrated poem 'the Destruction of Sennacherib'."

      From DANAHAY 182: "reference to II Kings: 19 in which an entire army is wiped out by God in one night"

    5. special constable

      GANGNES: "Special constables" in the Victorian period were private citizens who were appointed or volunteered to help the official police keep the peace in times of crisis. The "white badge" (below) likely refers to the white armbands issued to special constables in the nineteenth century. "Staff" may indicate their truncheons, or the narrator was given another kind of wooden weapon.

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    6. Carver

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 225: This name has not been traced to any "real" person.

    7. “Germs.”

      GANGNES: The Germ Theory of Disease ("Germ Theory")--the understanding that diseases are caused by microorganisms (bacteria and viruses)--only came into British public consciousness toward the end of the nineteenth century. Prior to the rise of Germ Theory, "Miasma Theory" dominated scientific conceptions of the nature of disease. Gaining a better understanding of how diseases were caused and spread led to reforms in public health and sanitation.

      More information:

    8. possible that it combines with argon

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 225: "This contradicts the earlier statement that the Black Smoke contained 'an unknown element giving a group of four lines in the blue spectrum'. ... Actually, argon, as an inert gas, cannot combine with another element to form a compound."

      GANGNES: The "blue spectrum" line is not in the serial. See Installment 6 note. HUGHES AND GEDULD (225) speculate that this kind of "carelessness in this final chapter probably reflects Wells's changing intentions regarding its publication." These "changing intentions" had much to do with Heinemann's insistence on the book being longer (HUGHES AND GEDULD 5-6).

    9. Lessing

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 225: This name has not been traced to any "real" person.

    10. Knowledge

      GANGNES: Knowledge: An Illustrated Magazine of Science, Plainly Worded -- Exactly Described (1881-1918) was founded as a weekly periodical with three-column pages by astronomer Richard Anthony Proctor in an effort to make scientific research more accessible. Advertisements allowed Knowledge to undercut the sales of Nature (see next note and Installment 1). It became a monthly periodical in 1885 and, under the editorship of Arthur Cowper, began to introduce reproductions of astronomical photographs, which allowed for the popular distribution of pictures of the stars. This structure of Knowledge at the time when Wells was writing The War of the Worlds is consistent with the idea that the journal might have published photographs of Mars and Venus.

      Source:

    11. corresponding column of Nature

      GANGNES: This is a reference to the real article in Nature that was mentioned in Installment 1 ("A Strange Light on Mars").

    12. the mockery of life in a galvanised body

      GANGNES: Possibly a reference to Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein; Or, the Modern Prometheus (1818), or at least to the theories about using electricity to reanimate dead flesh that inspired her story. See Sharon Ruston, "The Science of Life and Death in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein" on the British Library's website.

    1. The greater part of the structure is the brain, sending enormous nerves to the eyes, ear and tentacles.

      From DANAHAY 144: "The Martians are all brain, in keeping with Wells's theory that the bodies of 'advanced' creatures would atrophy through disuse."

    2. vivisects

      GANGNES: Vivisection is "the action of cutting or dissecting some part of a living organism; spec. the action or practice of performing dissection, or other painful experiment, upon living animals as a method of physiological or pathological study" (Oxford English Dictionary).

      Since Wells cut this section from the volume, no explicit reference to vivisection remains in a collected edition of the novel. However, the practice is central to Wells's 1896 novel The Island of Doctor Moreau.

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    3. tear out the hair of the living women they captured, in order to deck themselves with the spoils; nor did they, in my judgment, carry the sporting instinct quite so far as men

      GANGNES: These are references to how human beings treat "lower animals"; for example, hunting them for fun, skinning them or cutting their horns for clothing and jewelry, and so forth. The comparison would be especially appropriate during a time when "big game"/trophy/sport hunting in colonial locales (especially Africa) was popular among British men. A particularly tragic example is the ivory trade, which forms the backdrop of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness (1899).

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    4. birds used in pigeon shooting, theirs was indisputably a fortunate one. And the aimless collecting spirit which encourages the systematic impalement of insects by children

      GANGNES: Live pigeon shooting was at peak popularity in late-1800s Britain. It involved rounding up live pigeons and releasing them in such a way that participants could shoot them with rifles mid-flight. Clay pigeon shooting was introduced in 1880 as a more controlled, convenient, and humane sport.

      The "systematic impalement of insects" refers to butterfly collecting and other sorts of insect collecting--a fad that was extremely popular during the Victorian period (it features in George Eliot's novel Middlemarch (1871-2)). Insects were displayed to their best advantage by driving a pin through their bodies to stick them into display boxes.

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    5. the case with the ants

      GANGNES: Ants do sleep, though not in the same way humans or many other animals do.

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    6. the case.

      GANGNES: The 1898 version of the novel adds two paragraphs here about the thoughts of "a certain speculative writer of quasi-scientific repute" on Martian technology and anatomy. This is commonly thought to be a cheeky reference to Wells himself. See text comparison page.

    7. Lilienthal soaring machines

      From MCCONNELL 249: "Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896), German engineer, was the chief developer of glider flight."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 219: "German engineer Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896) was one of the pioneers of man-bearing gliders."

      From DANAHAY 148: "gliders invented by Otto Lilienthal (1849-1896), a German engineer"

    8. sticks

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 219: "'Sticks' was a common abbreviation for 'shooting-sticks'; pistols."

    9. evolution

      GANGNES: In this case, not just the "natural" process that we commonly associate with Charles Darwin's capital-E Evolution, but rather, a biological evolution progressing alongside technological innovation. Martians' technologies are far more evolved than humans', but their tools and technologies are as well.

    10. The brotherhood of man! To make the best of every child that comes into the world! . . How we have wasted our brothers! . . . . . Oppressors of the poor and needy. . . .  The Wine Press of God!

      From MCCONNELL 257: "A jumble of Biblical allusions, probably the most important of which is to Isaiah 63:3, an image of apocalypse or the vengeance of God."

      From DANAHAY 155 (re just "The Wine Press of God"): See Isaiah 63:3.

    11. I have been still too long

      From STOVER 209: "A dim echo of Isaiah 42:14, 'I have been still, and refrained myself.' The rest of the curate's rantings descend into more biblical-sounding rhetoric. He is now so self-indulgent in his righteousness that he loses control of scripture, once the very basis of his sense of failing. It is a nice comment on the weakness of theological doctrine to cope with truly catastrophic, even apocalyptic events like the Lisbon earthquake."

    12. Woe unto this unfaithful city. Woe, woe! Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabitants of the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet

      From MCCONNELL 258: "another jumble of Biblical allusions, mainly to the Book of Amos in the Old Testament and to Revelation in the New."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 219: "Most of the passage is merely biblical-sounding rhetoric. 'I have been still too long' apparently echoes [Isaiah] 42:14: 'I have been still, and refrained myself.'"

    13. Briareus

      From MCCONNELL 259: "in Greek myth, a pre-Olympian giant with fifty heads and a hundred hands."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 220: "In Greek mythology Briareus was a giant with fifty heads and a hundred hands."

      From STOVER 210: "Briareus, in Greek mythology, is a giant with fifty heads and a hundred hands. The Martians' robotic Handling Machines are the multiplex hands of their guiding heads--one giant in their common purpose."

      From DANAHAY 156: "in mythology, a monster with a hundred hands"

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    1. Waltham Abbey Powder Mills

      GANGNES: Waltham Abbey is ~15 miles north of the London city center. This is where the Royal Gunpowder Mills are located. Gunpowder production began there in the 1660s, and by the nineteenth century the mill was taking advantage of steam power to supply explosives to the British Navy and Army. The destruction of this site, then, is a huge blow to the British defense against the Martians; in trying to destroy one of the fighting machines, the British destroy a valuable supply of explosives for their military.

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    2. Blackfriars Bridge. At that the Pool became a scene of mad confusion, fighting and collision, and for some time a multitude of boats and barges jammed in the northern arch of the Tower Bridge

      GANGNES: Blackfriars Bridge and Tower Bridge are two large bridges spanning the Thames from north to south in the eastern part of London. Today, the Millennium Bridge (a pedestrian bridge) and Southwark Bridge lie between them, but Southwark Bridge wasn't opened until 1921, and the Millennium Bridge 2000 (hence the name). These are four of the five Thames bridges overseen today by the London City Corporation. See the City of London site's page on bridges.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 227: Blackfriars Bridge is "a bridge in central London between Waterloo Bridge and Southwark Bridge. It spans the Thames from Queen Victoria Street (on the north)to Southwark Street (on the south).

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 234: Tower Bridge is "London's most famous bridge. It opens periodically to admit the passage of shipping. It spans the Thames between the Tower of London (on the north) and the district of Bermondsey (on the south)."

    3. used in automatic mines across the Midland counties

      From MCCONNELL 226: "'Automatic mines' are mines set to detonate on contact with any moving object; they are so called to distinguish them from mines exploded by electric current from shore. ... The mines are set to block the expected advance of the Martians into the counties (Leicester, Warwick, Nottinghamshire, etc.) in the middle of England."

    4. Midland Railway Company

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 215: "The Midland Railway Company provided public transportation to such Midlands cities as Nottingham, Leicester, Manchester, and Leeds. Its London terminus was St. Pancras Station."

    5. Committee of Public Supply

      From STOVER 169: "A vigilante group whose name echoes that of the Committee of Public Safety formed under Robespierre during the French Revolution."

    6. Channel Fleet

      GANGNES: "a fleet of the Royal Navy detailed for service in the English Channel. ... In 1909 the Channel Fleet became the 2nd Division of the Home Fleet." (Oxford English Dictionary).

    7. leviathan

      From MCCONNELL 230: "gigantic sea beast of Biblical legend"

      GANGNES: See various Biblical references and Wikipedia article on the Leviathan.

    8. rained down darkness upon the land

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 216: echoes several biblical passages: 1) Genesis 19:24 ("Then the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven"); 2) Exodus 10:22 ("And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt."); 3) Matthew 27:45 ("Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour.").

    9. Pompeii

      From MCCONNELL 236: "the Roman city on the Bay of Naples, completely buried by the eruption of Ms. Vesuvius in 79 A.D."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 216: "The eruption of Mount Vesuvius near Naples on August 24, A.D. 79 buried the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum under thousands of tons of volcanic ash and lava, killing some 20,000 inhabitants."

      From DANAHAY 136: "The Roman city of Pompeii was destroyed by a volcanic eruption in 79 A.D. Archaeologists found citizens of Pompeii who had been overcome by the ash from the eruption preserved where they had fallen."

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    10. coloured supplements

      From MCCONNELL 240: "Popular newspapers frequently issued these supplements, cheap and crude reproductions, 'suitable for framing,' of famous works of art or stirring historical scenes; they decorated the homes of many lower middle class families."

    1. torpedo boats and destroyers

      From MCCONNELL 210: "The first British destroyer, the Havoc, was commissioned in 1893. The development of steam power in the second half of the century had revolutionized the concept of naval warfare, and put in jeopardy Britain's traditional bulwark of defense, the Royal Navy. In the growing war-fever at the end of the century, much concern was generated around what seemed to be the increased power of European navies, especially the French, and the Naval Defense Act of 1889 laid down rules for the refurbishing of the Navy similar to those which had earlier attempted to reinvigorate the Army."

  2. Apr 2019
    1. Miss Elphinstone

      From STOVER 158: This heroic character is likely named after Montstuart Elphinstone (died 1859), who explored the dangerous wilds of Afghanistan on behalf of the British Raj. Wells's readers would have been familiar with his feats.

    2. East End factory girls

      From MCCONNELL 216: "The East End of London, until well into the 1930s, was a notorious working-class slum."

    3. Vestry

      GANGNES: Note that MCCONNELL, HUGHES AND GEDULD, and STOVER do not completely agree on their explanations of this reference.

      From MCCONNELL 218: In the Church of England, the Vestry is not just the room in a church where vestments are stored; it is also committee of parishioners who arrange local matters like streetcleaning.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 214: "Vestry here is not used in its usual ecclesiastical sense but refers to a committee of citizens 'vested' with the task of arranging for such basic local services as health and food inspection and garbage disposal. St. Pancras (then a London borough) is located northwest of the City of London."

      From STOVER 161: "A public-health committee of that city district responsible for its garbage removal--a task now beyond its capacity as all public services are overwhelmed."

    4. galvanised

      From DANAHAY 122: "The Italian scientist Luigi Galvani (1737-98) passed electricity through dead animal tissue to make it move; this kind of involuntary movement became known as galvanism."

    5. Lord Garrick

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 215: "Garrick" has not been traced to a real person.

    6. Chief Justice

      GANGNES: Note that MCCONNELL disagrees with HUGHES AND GEDULD and STOVER here about the importance of this title.

      From MCCONNELL 220: "In England, the presiding judge of any court with several members."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 215: "The nearest American equivalent [of "Chief Justice" here] (although there are many differences in the two offices) would be the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court."

      From STOVER: "The Lord Chief Justice of England is equivalent to the Chief Justice of the United States."

    7. The Jew

      GANGNES: The Antisemitism embodied in this figure is clear even when "Jew" is changed to "man" in the 1898 volume and subsequent editions (see the text comparison page). As STOVER (111) observes, the caricature of a greedy "eagle-faced man" would have been recognizable to Victorian readers even with the explicit word "Jew" removed.

    8. Goths and Huns

      From MCCONNELL 224: "The Goths were a Teutonic people who invaded and settled in the Roman Empire between the third and fifth centuries A.D. The Huns, an Asiatic people, invaded and pillaged the Empire during the fifth century A.D."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 215: "The Goths, a Germanic tribe, invaded Rome's Eastern and Western Empires during the third through the fifth century. The Huns, a nomadic Asian people, under their leader Atilla, invaded and ravaged much of Europe during the fifth century."

    1. St. James’ Gazette

      From MCCONNELL: evening paper published 1880-1905

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 212: "Established in 1880, St. James's Gazette was a pro-Tory paper with features that also appealed to readers with intellectual literary interests.

      GANGNES: St. James's Gazette (Pearson's mistakenly leaves off the second "S") was a conservative daily broadsheet. It included social, political, and literary commentary, news, marriage announcements, stock market prices, and advertisements.

      Source:

    2. Sunday League

      From MCCONNELL 192: Sunday Leagues were "religious groups which gathered to protest the opening of pubs on the Sabbath"

      From DANAHAY 99: a Sunday League was a group "opposed to opening the pubs on Sundays [who] organized wholesome alternatives such as excursions"

    3. The majority of people in London do not read Sunday papers.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 212: "In the 1890s, Sunday papers far outsold dailies.... Wells did not foresee the change and unwittingly 'dated' his narrative for future readers" when newspaper reading habits changed.

    4. That was how the Sunday Sun put it, and a clever, and remarkably prompt “hand-book” article in the Referee

      From MCCONNELL 193: "Two evening papers. The Sun was published 1893-1906, the Referee 1877-1928.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 212: "The Sun, London's first popular halfpenny evening newspaper, was established in 1893 by T. P. O'Connor. A former London weekly, the Referee (founded 1877), was popular for its focus on humor, satire, sports, and theater."

      GANGNES: The Referee was a "Sunday sporting newspaper"; the Sun was a Tory newspaper.

      Source:

    5. Foundling Hospital

      From MCCONNELL 193: "One of the first hospitals and nurseries for abandoned or illegitimate children, the Foundling Hospital was founded in 1739 in the London district of Bloomsbury."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 212: "The Founding Hospital, in Bloomsbury, London, near the British Museum, was established in 1739 by Thomas Coram. Despite its name, it was not a home for foundlings but a shelter for illegitimate children whose mothers were known."

    6. places on the South-Western network

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 212: "The various routes and stations of the (now defunct) South-Western Railway Company. Its terminus is Waterloo Station, London. The network had three main branches: the Northern, serving locations in the direction of Staines and Reading; the Central, serving locations in the direction of Bournemouth and Southampton; and the Southern, serving locations in the direction of Guildford, Epsom, and Leatherhead."

    7. lungs

      From DANAHAY 101: "green spaces supposed to act like 'lungs' providing clean air for the rest of London"

    8. Albany Street barracks

      From STOVER 141: "Army barracks in central London. In the event, soldiers quartered there are useless in facing unconventional Martian forces."

    9. They communicated with each other by means of siren-like howls, running up and down the scale from one note to another.

      From STOVER 145: Another evocation of the Prussian military model; their communications were superior to those of the French in the Franco-Prussian War.

    10. make a greater Moscow

      GANGNES: MCCONNELL and HUGHES AND GEDULD seem to be at odds here about the historical significance of this reference. STOVER (147) agrees with HUGHES AND GEDULD.

      From MCCONNELL 206: "From September 2 to October 7, 1812, the French Army of Napoleon occupied Moscow, burning and destroying more than three-fourths of the city. They were finally compelled to retreat, however, due to Russian guerrilla resistance and the impossibility of acquiring adequate provisions."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 213: "To frustrate the Martians by destroying their major objective, London, as the Russians did to Napoleon in 1812 by setting fire to Moscow."

    11. kopjes

      From STOVER 148: "Small hills of South African locution made familiar to English readers in accounts of the Boer War, from behind which Boer guerrillas sniped on English troops. Although the war did not officially break out until 1899, the landscape of the coming conflict was reported by [Rudyard] Kipling."

    12. earthly artillery

      GANGNES: HUGHES AND GEDULD (213) observe that this is likely a reference to Satan's "infernal artillery" in Milton's Paradise Lost, rather than a "celestial artillery" (STOVER 148 uses this term as well) as an inverse of "earthly artillery." In the context of a Martian invasion, however, "celestial" in opposition to "infernal" becomes complicated; in a narrative like Milton's, it would refer to Heaven, whereas in the context of Wells, it would be "the heavens," i.e., space. The Martians are far from benevolent angels; they are, perhaps, "avenging angels," or akin to infernal beings, despite being from a neighboring planet. In the context of this novel, might we imagine a new kind of artillery: an "alien artillery"?

    13. crammer’s biology class

      From MCCONNELL 191: "an advanced student or younger teacher who, for a fee, tutors other students in preparation for their examinations"

      From DANAHAY 98: a crammer was/is "somebody who helps students 'cram' for their exams. This was usually a graduate student or somebody with an advanced degree; Wells himself worked as a 'crammer' preparing students for science exams."

    1. “It’s bows and arrows against the lightning, anyhow,”

      STOVER: "It is the inequality of combat, magnified, between French and German forces in the Franco-Prussian War."

      GANGNES: In addition to STOVER's note, consider the larger scope of nineteenth-century European imperialism; the 1890s were a time when the British empire was nearing its decline, and The War of the Worlds was one of many well-known novels written at the end of the century that addressed imperialism. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness (serialized in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine in 1899 before being collected) tells of a real-life imperial experience, but Bram Stoker's Dracula, which was, like The War of the Worlds, published in 1897, is a very different kind of novel that nonetheless explores the idea of Britain being invaded by a superior entity in the way the British invaded colonial lands.

      Numerous Wells scholars have written on the "reverse colonization" and "Empire comes home" nature of The War of the Worlds. As Robert Silverberg writes, "[Humans] simply don’t matter at all [to the Martians], any more than the natives of the Congo or Mexico or the Spice Islands mattered to the European invaders who descended upon them to take their lands and their treasures from them during the great age of colonialism.” Likewise, Robert Crossley observes, "The Martians do to England what the Victorians had done to Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific--and Wells intended that his fellow English imperialists taste a dose of their own medicine.”

      Sources:

      More information:

    2. crosses in white circles

      From MCCONNELL 178: "The insignia, then as now, of the Red Cross, founded in 1864 as a result of the Geneva Convention on international warfare."

    3. these is vallyble

      GANGNES: A large collection of orchids would, indeed, have been quite valuable. The craze surrounding "orchid hunting"--the search for rare and beautiful orchids to collect (and/or sell to collectors)--was at its height during the late nineteenth century, to the point where the fad had a name: "orchidelirium." Some varieties would fetch extremely high prices, and wealthy Victorians sunk extreme amounts of money into their collections.

      Sources and more information:

    4. grenadiers

      From MCCONNELL 178: "Originally, grenadiers were especially tall soldiers in a regiment employed to throw grenades. This practice was discontinued by the end of the eighteenth century, though the tallest and finest soldiers of their regiments continued to be called 'grenadiers.' After 1858, the only regiment officially referred to by the name was the Grenadier Guards, the First Regiment of the Household Cavalry."

      From DANAHAY 88: "originally 'grenade throwers,' but by this time an elite army regiment"

    5. the tower of Shepperton church—it has been replaced by a spire

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 210: This is the Church of St. Nicholas; it is later smashed by the Martians.

    6. pollard willows

      From MCCONNELL 180: "willows cut back to the trunk, so as to produce dense masses of branches"

    7. camera

      From MCCONNELL 182: "The first portable camera, the Kodak, had been patented by George Eastman in 1888. Wells himself was an ardent amateur photographer."

      From DANAHAY 91: "These were very large, box-like cameras."

    8. the four winds of heaven

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 210: Reference to Daniel 7:2: "and, behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea."

    9. as the earthquake that destroyed Lisbon a century ago

      From MCCONNELL 185: "The Lisbon earthquake, on November 1, 1775, produced tremors felt throughout Europe, destroyed almost the entire city, and killed thirty thousand people."

      From DANAHAY 94: "Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, was almost completely destroyed by a devastating earthquake in 1755."

    10. mackerel sky

      From DANAHAY 95: "A mackerel is a seawater fish that has rows of dark markings on its back. The rows of clouds resemble these markings."

    11. Sodom and Gomorrah

      From MCCONNELL 188: "In Genesis 18:20-28, the Lord sends fire from heaven to destroy the sinful people of Sodom and Gomorrah."

    12. “What are we?”

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 211: possible reference to the Kepler epigraph at the beginning of the novel

    13. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom

      GANGNES: Reference to Proverbs 9:10: "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom: and the knowledge of the holy is understanding." This line is part of the cuts made to this installment between the serialized version and the volume. See text comparison page.

    14. hide them from the face of Him that sitteth upon the throne?

      From STOVER 131: reference to Revelation 6:16

      GANGNES: Note that this is the passage DANAHAY cited earlier in the curate's speech.

    1. a rapidly fluctuating barometer

      GANGNES: This indicates that the weather is volatile and likely heralds an imminent storm. See Oxford English Dictionary on "barometer": "an instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere, and hence for judging of probable changes in the weather, ascertaining the height of an ascent, etc" and Encyclopaedia Britannica entry.

    2. This lot’ll cost the insurance people a pretty penny, before everything’s settled.” He laughed with an air of the greatest good humour, as he said this.

      From STOVER 93-4: "The narrator's neighbor in Woking assumes, with a touching faith in bourgeois property values, that 'the insurance people' will settle for damages once the Martians are defeated."

    3. Horse Guards

      From MCCONNELL156: "The famous 'Blues,' or Royal Horse Guards, consolidated in 1819."

      From DANAHAY 69: the Royal Horse Guards: elite British army cavalry unit

    4. that a dispute had arisen at the Horse Guards

      GANGNES: STOVER corrects HUGHES AND GEDULD's annotation, though does not mention them specifically in the note, despite referencing them in other notes.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 206: "Their notion is that there was an operational or tactical dispute--about how to deal with the situation--among the officers of the elite Horse Guards at the Horse Guard barracks (a building in central London opposite Whitehall). The Horse Guards are the cavalry brigade of the English Household troops (the third regiment of Horse Guards is known as the Royal Horse Guards)."

      From STOVER 94: Horse Guards here "is a shorthand reference to the British War Office, located on Horse Guards Parade near Downing Street in London. As Americans refer to the Department of Defense as 'The Pentagon' after its office building, so the British called its War Office 'the Horse Guards.' Not to be confused with the Household Calvary regiment The Royal Horse Guards, even then a tourist attraction when on parade."

    5. fishers of men

      From MCCONNELL 156: "In Matthew 4:19 Christ tells Peter and Andrew that He will make them 'fishers of men.'"

    6. Oriental College

      From DANAHAY 71: the Oriental Institute

    7. pinnacle of the mosque

      From STOVER 96-7: "The mosque was built for Muslim students at the Oriental College, a center for distinguished Indian visitors from the British Raj." Unlike in the novel, the mosque still stands today.

    8. Spotted Dog

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 207: Wells uses this name in place of the name of a real pub: the Princess of Wales.

      From DANAHAY 72: the name of a local pub

    9. machine gun

      From MCCONNELL 160: "The period from 1890 to the First World War has been called the 'golden age' of the machine gun, and was an era of intensive development of new weapons of all sorts. ... [B]y 1898 technology had produced an amazingly wide range of designs."

    10. sounded more like the working of a gigantic electric machine than the usual detonating reverberations

      From STOVER 102: "an allusion to the Wimshurst electrostatic induction generator invented in 1880 by James Wimshurst"

    11. the Orphanage, near the crest of the hill

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 208: some readers have mistaken this for the Orphanage that used to be in Oriental Road

      From STOVER 103: "The orphanage on the crest of Maybury Hill was not built until 1909; in its place at the time there stood St. Peter's Memorial Home for the aged."

    12. So

      GANGNES: The 1898 volume inserts "And in an instant it was gone." and a paragraph break before this sentence. See text comparison page.

    13. College Arms

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 208: a real pub licensed in the 1890s

    14. the potteries

      From MCCONNELL 168: "A district in central England, also called the 'Five Towns,' famous for its pottery and china factories. The area was a favorite subject of Wells's friend, the novelist Arnold Bennett (1867-1931).

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 208: The "five towns" MCCONNELL refers to are Stoke-on-Trent, Hanley, Burslem, Tunstall, and Longton. In 1888 Wells spent three months in the Potteries region.

      From DANAHAY 80: "an area of central England with a large number of china factories and their furnaces"

    15. fiery chaos

      From STOVER 109: reference to Revelation 20:9: "and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them."

    16. Titan

      From MCCONNELL 171: "In Greek myth the Titans were the gigantic and violent pre-Olympian gods whom Zeus vanquished in establishing the rule of reason and order."

    17. pillars of fire

      GANGNES: MCCONNELL is partially incorrect here; his citation is more thorough in that it addresses both the pillar of fire and pillar of smoke, but the appropriate chapter is Exodus 13, not Exodus 15. The most thorough and correct citation here would be a combination of the two--Exodus 13:21-22--which STOVER cites, though inexplicably as a note at the beginning of Chapter XII rather than at the textual reference.

      From MCCONNELL 173: "In Exodus 15:21-22, God sends a pillar of fire to guide the Israelites through the Sinai Desert by night, and a pillar of cloud to guide them by day."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 209: "See Exodus 13:21: 'And the Lord went before them [to guide the Israelites through the Sinai] ... by night in a pillar of fire."

      From STOVER 114: [quotes Exodus 13:21-22, then:] "As the Lord guided the Israelites through the Sinai desert, so the Martians lead humanity through a wasteland of suffering. Ahead, leaving the old order behind, is the promise of world unity."

    1. saw a star fall from Heaven

      GANGNES: A possible reference to, or evocation of, Lucifer as the "Morning Star" falling from Heaven. See Isaiah 14:12 and Luke 10:18. More information at the Wikipedia entry for Lucifer.

    2. Inkerman barracks

      From MCCONNELL 154: "The Inkerman Barracks were named for the Battle of Inkerman, where in 1854, English and French troops defeated an attacking Prussian Army. Throughout the late nineteenth century, the armies of Europe were in the process of massive and ominous expansion and reorganization. But the British had a long-standing aversion to the idea of a standing army. Their reorganization, beginning in 1870, emphasized the localization of garrisons and short enlistment terms for civilian volunteers. In 1881 the infantry of the line was remodeled into two-battalion regiments with territorial names."

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 206: located ~2.5 miles southwest of the Horsell sand pits; ~2 miles west of Woking Station

    3. smoke came out of the pit

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD: Likely a reference to Revelation 9:2: "and there arose a smoke out of the pit...."

    4. I did not dare to look back

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 203-4: "I did not dare to look back" is another reference to the petrifying gaze of the Gorgon (first referenced in Chapter IV). Gorgons are monsters from Greek myths "whose hair was a tangle of writing snakes." Humans were irresistibly tempted to look at them, but doing so would turn the viewer to stone.

      Note: See Medusa as an example.

    5. much as the parabolic mirror of a lighthouse projects a beam of light

      From STOVER 81: "The Heat-Ray is often taken as a prophecy of beam-focused lasers, but this is to miss the photographic metaphor Wells uses: 'the camera that fired the Heat-Ray,' 'the camera-like generator of the Heat-Ray.' The Martians' rayguns are in fact cameras in reverse, emitting light not receiving it, and they are in fact mounted on tripods as were the heavy old cameras of the day. What they see they zap. More, the photo-journalistic realism of the invasion recounted by the narrator recalls that of Roger Fenton, whose coverage of the Crimean War in 1855 is the first instance of a war photographer on the scene of action. His pictures were accompanied by sensational stories done by the famed William Howard Russell of the London Times, the first war correspondent in the modern sense. The narrator's account is modeled after both precedents, visually and journalistically."

      GANGNES: Stover here gestures to (though not by name) MCCONNELL (145), whose note is quoted by HUGHES AND GEDULD in their edition. MCCONNELL'S note reads: "Though the details of the heat-ray are vague, they do anticipate in some remarkable ways the development of the laser beam in the 1950s."

      That said, MCCONNELL and others rightly point to one of the numerous instances in which Wells's descriptions of technologies and events appear prescient. Indeed, many of the Martian technologies seem to anticipate military tech developed for use in the First and Second World Wars. For an analysis of The War of the Worlds and its early illustrations as they relate to early twentieth-century warfare, see Gangnes, "Wars of the Worlds: H.G. Wells’s Ekphrastic Style in Word and Image" in Art and Science in Word and Image: Exploration and Discovery (Brill, 2019), pp. 100-114.

    6. Times

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 205: Britain's most prestigious daily newspaper, est. 1788. By the time Wells was writing this novel its politics were mostly Liberal Unionist.

      GANGNES: The Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Journalism lists the Times' date of establishment as 1785 rather than 1788; this discrepancy is due to the fact that it was originally titled the Daily Universal Register before its name change in 1788. In its early days it contained parliamentary reports, foreign news, and advertisements, but soon expanded its contents. Under the editorship of Thomas Barnes in the early 1800s it became a "radical force in the context of the liberalizing reforms of the early part of the [nineteenth] century. It continued to exert a radical influence under subsequent editors (including John Thaddeus Delane). The paper included reports from influential foreign correspondents who covered major European conflicts that were of interest to Britain. When Thomas Cherney became its editor in 1878 and was succeeded in 1884, the paper began to become more conservative and pro-Empire. It has changed ownership but is still published today.

      Source:

    7. Daily Telegraph

      GANGNES: See annotation on Installment 1 regarding the Telegraph.

    8. argon

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 205: "a chemically inactive, odorless, colorless, gaseous element, no. 18 on the Periodic Table of the Elements. It had just been discovered and was in the news. Wells had written it up in 'The Newly Discovered Element' and 'The Protean Gas,' Saturday Review 79 (February 9 and May 4, 1895): 183-184, 576-577."

      GANGNES: The above articles from the Saturday Review are available in scanned facsimile here ("The Newly Discovered Element") and here ("The Protean Gas").

    9. photographically distinct

      GANGNES: See earlier note in this installment from STOVER on "much as the parabolic mirror of a lighthouse projects a beam of light." As MCCONNELL (182) notes in Installment 4: "The first portable camera, the Kodak, had been patented by George Eastman in 1888. Wells himself was an ardent amateur photographer."

      Even before the portable camera and the beginnings of amateur photography, the prevalence of photojournalism would have made most readers familiar with, and likely interested in, photography. References to cameras and photography, especially in relation to the heat ray, are prevalent throughout the novel.

      More information:

    10. dodo in the Mauritius

      From MCCONNELL 125 and 151: The dodo was a large, flightless bird from Mauritius that was hunted into extinction by the seventeenth century. This is the second of two comparisons between the extinction of the dodo and the potential extinction of humans by the Martians; the first is in Chapter I.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 205: "Later, the very idea of such a bird [as the dodo] was ridiculed ... until skeletal remains came to light in 1863 and 1889."

    11. the sensation an ultimatum to Germany would have done

      From DANAHAY 64: "Wells compares the opening of the 'war' with the Martians to the reaction that would have accompanied a declaration of war [by Britain] against another country like Germany."

    12. A boy from the town, trenching on Smith’s monopoly, was selling papers with the afternoon’s news.

      GANGNES: MCCONNELL is somewhat at odds with HUGHES AND GEDULD and STOVER here; H&G's identification of "Smith" as referring to the newsagent W. H. Smith is important to the print culture of Victorian Britain. I include MCCONNELL to show that critical/annotated editions are not infallible.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 205: "Cutting into or 'poaching on' W. H. Smith's monopoly of selling newspapers inside the station. The chain of W. H. Smith to this day has the exclusive rights to selling newspapers, magazines, and books in m any British railroad stations."

      From MCCONNELL 153: "'Trenching' means encroaching. The newsboy is selling his papers at a station where Mr. Smith has a permanent newsstand."

      From STOVER 91: "Reference to W.H. Smith, whose chain of stationery stores to this day has the exclusive rights to sell newspapers, books, and magazines in British railway stations."

    13. a squadron of Hussars, two Maxims, and about four hundred men of the Cardigan regiment

      From MCCONNELL 154: "Hussars are light cavalry. The Maxim is the Maxim-Vickers, the first truly automatic machine gun, manufactured in the 1880s." The Cardigan regiment is from Cardiganshire: a county in West Wales.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 206: "The Maxim gun, patented in 1884 by Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim, was an early form of machine gun. After some modification it was adopted by the British Army in 1889. In the field, Maxims were usually mounted on wheeled carriages. ... The Cardigan regiment was named for Cardiganshire, a western county of Wales located between Fishguard and Aberystwyth."

    1. Punch

      GANGNES: Punch (1841-2002) was a weekly satirical magazine that was first marketed toward the Victorian middle class. It included text, cartoons and illustrations, and other visual features. It was characterized by a "whimsical mode of comedy that focused on the trials and aspirations of the still emergent middle classes."

      Source:

      More information:

    2. The Anatomy of Melancholy

      From STOVER 49: "Johannes Kepler (d. 1630) laid the foundation of modern astronomy with his calculation of planetary motions, as immortalized in Kepler's laws." Epigraph quote is from a letter to Galileo quoted by Robert Burton in The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621). Wells slightly abridged the quote.

      More information:

    3. Daily News

      GANGNES: Daily News here is changed to Daily Chronicle in the 1898 volume and subsequent editions. The discrepancy between Daily News in the serialized version and Daily Chronicle in the volume could be due to an error on Wells's part that was corrected for the 1898 edition.

      The Daily News (1846-1912) was first advertised as a "Morning Newspaper of Liberal Politics and thorough Independence," set up as a rival to the Morning Chronicle. It was edited by Charles Dickens at its launch. The paper "advocated reform in social, political, and economic legislation, fought for a Free Press in supporting the repeal of the Stamp Act, campaigned for impartial dealings with the natives of India and supported Irish Home Rule." It was known for its detailed war reporting, which boosted its circulation.

      The Daily Chronicle was a later name (beginning in 1877) of the Clerkenwell News (1855-1930). The paper was "liberal and radical," with a daily column entitled "The Labour Movement" featured in the 1890s. Interestingly, the paper eventually merged with the Daily News (becoming the News Chronicle), but not until 1930--after even the 1925 edition of The War of the Worlds, let alone the 1898 edition.

      Source:

    4. idea of life upon them as impossible or improbable

      From DANAHAY 41: Reference to a Victorian debate regarding the existence of intelligent life on Mars. See Wells's article "Intelligence on Mars" in the Saturday Review 8 (1 April 4, 1896), p. 345-46.

      More information:

    5. across the gulf of space

      From STOVER 52: Phrase is from Percival Lowell's Mars (1895).

      More information:

    6. beasts that perish

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 197: Reference to Psalm 49: 12 "Nevertheless man being in honour abideth not: he is like the beasts that perish."

    7. nebular hypothesis

      From MCCONNELL 124: the "nebular hypothesis" is Pierre Laplace's (1749-1827) theory that "the solar system originated as a single, densely compacted 'cloud' or 'nebula' of matter."

      More information:

    8. oceans

      From MCCONNELL 124: The idea that there were, or might have been, oceans on Mars was due to limited telescopic technology during this time.

    9. snowcaps

      From DANAHAY p. 42: reference to the theory of "melting icecaps" proposed by Lowell in Mars

    10. struggle for existence

      From MCCONNELL 125: "struggle for existence" was a phrase popularized by Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859).

      More information:

    11. inferior races

      GANGNES: "Inferior" as it is used here reflects Victorian conceptions of racial hierarchies. There are, of course, many, many scholarly works on this subject, but here are a few good places to start:

    12. vanished bison and the dodo

      From MCCONNELL 125 and 151: The dodo was a large, flightless bird from Mauritius that was hunted into extinction by the seventeenth century. North American bison were also thought to be on the verge of extinction during this time. This is the first of two comparisons between the extinction of the dodo and the potential extinction of humans by the Martians; the second is in Chapter VII.

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 205: "Later, the very idea of such a bird [as the dodo] was ridiculed ... until skeletal remains came to light in 1863 and 1889."

      More information:

    13. Tasmanians

      From MCCONNELL 125: In the eighteenth century England drove native Tasmanians from their land in order to turn Tasmania into a prison colony.

      From STOVER 55-6: "The racially Australoid natives of Tasmania survived until 1876 in a state of upper paleolithic culture. To the island's Dutch and later British "colonists, they were so many subhumans hunted down for dog meat.

      More information:

    14. Schiaparelli

      From MCCONNELL 126: Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli (1835-1910) was an Italian astronomer who claimed to have discovered "canals" on Mars. Schiaparelli called them canali ("channels" in Italian) but the (mis)translation of the word in to English caused speculation that the canali might have been made by intelligent life.

      From STOVER 57: Schiaparelli mapped Mars during the opposition of 1877 and provided names for some surface features still used today.

      More information:

    15. opposition of 1894

      From MCCONNELL 126: "opposition" means that Mars is at the opposite side of the Earth from the Sun; the nearest Mars gets to Earth. The opposition of 1877 was when Schiaparelli discovered the Mars canali and an American discovered Mars's moons. The opposition of 1894 allowed for further examinations of Mars.

    16. Perrotin, of the Nice Observatory

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 199: Nice Observatory was "France's most important nineteenth-century observatory." It was constructed in 1880 on Mt. Gros, northeast of Nice. It used a 30" refracting telescope.

      From MCCONNELL 126: Henri Joseph Anastase Perrotin (1845-1904) was a French astronomer who worked at the Nice Observatory 1880-1904.

      GANGNES: The 1898 edition adds a reference to Lick Observatory (in California), which the narrator says noticed the light before Perrotin did.

      More information:

    17. Nature

      From MCCONNELL 126: Nature is a scientific journal first edited by Sir Norman Lockyer, who was one of Wells's teachers at the Normal School of Science.

      From STOVER 57: This is a reference to the article "A strange Light on Mars," which was published in Nature in 1894.

      GANGNES: This is one of the many instances where Wells establishes the novel within a framework of real scientific discoveries and historical events. This enhances the realism and journalistic quality of the narrative.

      More information:

    18. Lavelle of Java

      From MCCONNELL 127: Lavelle of Java is a fictional character whose name Wells derived from "M. Javelle," an associate of Perrotin's who observed a "strange light" on Mars in 1894. The evocation of Java also bears associations to the 1883 eruption of Mt. Krakatoa, which killed 50,000 people in Java.

    19. tronomical exchange

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 200: "During the nineteenth century the Royal Astronomical Society (established 1820) acted as an astronomical exchange for observatories within great Britain."

    20. spectroscope

      From MCCONNELL 127: "With a spectroscope it is possible to describe the chemical composition of a substance by analyzing the wavelengths of the light generated by combustion of the substance. It was first demonstrated in 1860."

    21. Daily Telegraph

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 200: The Daily Telegraph was established in 1855 and to this day is still one of Britain's foremost national newspapers.

      From MCCONNELL 127: The Daily Telegraph (founded 1855) catered to the middle class; it featured "flamboyant, often sensational journalism."

      GANGNES: Contrary to MCCONNELL, the Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Journalism writes that the Daily Telegraph (1855-present; founded as the Daily Telegraph and Courier) originally catered to a "wealthy, educated readership" rather than the middle class. Though it became associated with Toryism in the twentieth century, its politics in the nineteenth century were first aligned with the Whigs, especially in its liberal attitude toward foreign policy. This changed somewhat in the 1870s when it supported Benjamin Disraeli, and the paper became more Orientalist under the editorship of Edwin Arnold. The Telegraph also promoted the arts.

      Source:

    22. signalling us

      From STOVER 60: There was a "signalling mania" during this time; Francis Galton (Darwin's cousin) fed the "mania" through his 1896 article "Intelligible Signals Between Neighbouring Stars."

    23. I remember how jubilant Markham was at securing a new photograph of the planet for the illustrated paper he edited in those days.

      GANGNES: It is not clear whether "Markham" is supposed to refer to a real editor of a specific newspaper. W. O. Markham edited the British Medical Journal, but that publication was not an illustrated paper. It is highly likely that "Markham" is a fictional character who is an acquaintance of the narrator

      Source:

    24. Denning

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 202: "William Frederick Denning (1848-1931) was the chief authority on cometary systems and meteorites."

    25. Henderson, the London journalist

      GANGNES: There are quite a few real "Henderson"s associated with the nineteenth-century press. However, given the role of "Henderson" in this novel, it seems unlikely that the name was meant to refer to any particular journalist.

      Source:

    26. telegraph the news

      GANGNES: The kind of electrical telegraphy with which Wells's readers would have been familiar began development in the early-to-mid nineteenth century and was commonly used by the end of the Victorian period.

      More information:

    27. “Extra-terrestrial”

      GANGNES: This term was relatively new when Wells wrote the novel; it first emerged in the mid-nineteenth century and was generally used in scientific journals.

      Source:

    28. Astronomical Exchange

      From MCCONNELL 135: A fictional society; the International Astronomical Union was founded in 1919.

    29. Stent, the Astronomer Royal

      From STOVER 27: "The Astronomer Royal was director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, but 'Stent' is not recorded as one of them." "Stent" may have been used for political reasons.

    30. Lord Hilton, the lord of Horsell Manor

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 203: "No Horsell Manor or Lord Hilton has been traced"; "the local lord was Lord Onslow of Clandon."

      From STOVER 71: The name may have been changed for political reasons.

    31. Gorgon circlet of tentacles

      From HUGHES AND GEDULD 203: "Gorgon" is an allusion to monsters from Greek myths "whose hair was a tangle of writing snakes." Humans were irresistibly tempted to look at them, but doing so would turn the viewer to stone.

      Note: See Medusa as an example.

    32. I could not avert my face from these things

      GANGNES: A reference to the irresistible quality of Gorgons; see note on "Gorgon" above.

    1. penser en termes d’« écotones », « une région d’interface entre deux écosystèmes différents »4 (Hegde, 2012) – c'est-à-dire de régions dynamiques où le mélange des populations en marge de deux communautés différentes produit des pressions inhabituelles et stimule le changement.

      intéressant, en lien avec la créolisation ou la notion de lisière (voir l'article en édition de Romain Lalande, Les récits des Communs se nourrissent d'ailleurs. De l'importance de cultiver nos lisières.)

  3. Mar 2019
    1. M. E. Power, W. J. Matthews, A. J. Stewart, Ecology 66, 1448 (1985)

      This seminal paper on the indirect effects of predation in freshwater rivers demonstrated that the trophic cascades previously seen in marine and terrestrial systems also held true for river ecosystems.

  4. Feb 2019
    1. Artificial intelligence is more than 50 years old, but its current rise has been closely linked to the growth in compute power provided by computer chips and other hardware.
    2. The first portion of the paper is devoted to lessons LeCun took away from Bell Labs, including his observation that the AI researchers’ and computer scientists’ imaginations tend to be tied to hardware and software tools.
    3. Python is currently the most popular language used by developers working on machine learning projects, according to GitHub’s recent Octoverse report
  5. Dec 2018
    1. Sinclair, Stefan et al. "“Information Visualization For Humanities Scholars”". Literary Studies In The Digital Age, 2013, https://dlsanthology.mla.hcommons.org/information-visualization-for-humanities-scholars/.

    2. Mott, Rick. “Ceremony Earth: Digitizing Silko’s Novel for Students of the Twenty-First Century.” Studies in American Indian Literatures, vol. 23, no. 2, Jan. 2011, pp. 25–47. EBSCOhost, login.ezproxy.oswego.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ937275&site=eds-live.

    1. The major requirements of a reference electrode are that it be easy to prepare and maintain, and that its potential be stable.

      There are many factors that affect the stability of the RE, such as temperature, impurities.

  6. gutenberg.net.au gutenberg.net.au
    1. coast of Sussex
    2. jointure

      An estate settled on a wife for the period during which she survives her husband, in lien of a dower.

      https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/jointure

    3. dowager

      A widow with a title or property derived from her late husband.

      https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/dowager

    4. coruscations

      Flashes or sparkles.

    5. irregularities

      This presumably is in reference to Robert Burns's well known love affairs. See section "The Life of a Lover and Writer": https://www.biography.com/people/robert-burns-9232194

    6. 'Oh! Woman

      These lines are from Sir Walter Scott's "Marmion."

      "O woman! In our hours of ease Uncertain, coy, and hard to please, And variable as the shade By the light, quivering aspen made; When pain and anguish wring the brow, A ministering angel thou!"

      This is not the greatest description of women, and Austen seems pointed in how she uses Scott's work.

      The full poem: https://archive.org/stream/marmion05077gut/marmn10a.txt

    7. either

      This may imply that despite having other published work at the time, "Lady of the Lake" and "Marmion," quoted below, were the most popular/wide read.

      Lady of the Lake: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/3011/3011-h/3011-h.htm

      Marmion: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/4010/4010-h/4010-h.htm

    8. pales

      Pales are the stakes of a fence that represent a property boundary.

      https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pale

    9. Scott's beautiful lines

      Austen is referring to the Romanticism poetry of Sir Walter Scott, a popular poet and novelist at the time.

      Biography of Scott for context: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sir-Walter-Scott-1st-Baronet See particularly his "literary gifts," interest in German Romanticism, and ambiguity of his feelings towards Scotland.

    10. inevitable expense

      It is unusual that these young girls were able to spend beyond their means, because at that time women's finances were always controlled by men.

    11. two hack chaises.

      The Parkers were hoping for a much larger group in order to bolster Sanditon's economy. The fact that they arrive in a hack chaise is also a sign that they aren't as wealthy as the Parker's had hoped. A carriage is the superior method of transportation. Mrs. Bennet comments in Pride and Prejudice that Mr. Darcy refused to talk to Mrs. Long at the ball because she arrived in a hack chaise.

      Jane Austen's Vehicular Means of Motion, Exchange and Transmission:

      https://www.erudit.org/en/journals/lumen/2004-v23-lumen0265/1012194ar.pdf

    12. description of the religious cottager

      Austen's reference is to a section of William Cowper's lengthy poem "Truth," with which many of her readers would likely have been familiar. Cowper's dig at Voltaire, who commented that "if God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him," has often been misconstrued as evidence of Voltaire's atheism. In fact, he was a deist. See https://graceonlinelibrary.org/church-history/sermons-tracts/truth-by-william-cowper/

    13. insalubrious

      Insalubrious: not conducive to health. Note that what is good is characterized as healthy and what is bad is characterized as unhealthy, which is especially significant given that Austen wrote Sanditon while suffering from poor health herself.

      https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/insalubrious

    14. having her distress

      Camilla (1796) by Frances Burney, a popular romanticist novel. In Camilla, the titular character has many misadventures concerning love and relationships. This reference could either be a funny nod or light foreshadowing. Source).

    15. Lovelaces

      Possible reference to Richard Lovelace (1617 - 1657), a cavalier poet. He was born into a family of soldiers and politicians and was described as “much admired and adored by the female sex.” He also wrote heavily on relationships, love, and the military. Source.

    16. Richardson's

      Specifically Samuel Richardson, the author of epistolary novels Pamela and Clarissa. Pamela was the really weird novel in which landowner Mr. B makes several unwanted advances towards 15-year-old Pamela, who marries him at the end. This is an unfortunate influence. Source.

    17. Montgomery

      James Montogomery, Scottish-born poet and jounalist.

      https://www.britannica.com/biography/James-Montgomery

    18. already

      I personally find it odd that the gentleman (who notably has not yet been named) has no reaction to his sprained ankle and is able to speak so eloquently through the pain.

      An article about Regency treatment for fractured bones:

      https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/2010/10/08/setting-a-broken-bone-19th-century-medical-treatment-was-not-for-sissies/

    19. cottage ornèe

      Cottage ornée or decorated cottage, dates back to a movement of "rustic" stylised cottages of the late 18th and early 19th century during the Romantic movement, when some sought to discover a more "natural" way of living as opposed to the formality of the preceding baroque and neo-classical architectural styles. via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cottage_orn%C3%A9

      For more on the origins of the cottage ornée (in the Regency era in particular): https://regencyredingote.wordpress.com/2012/03/16/cottage-orn-style/

    20. coadjutor

      (noun): a bishop appointed to assist a diocesan bishop, and often also designated as his successor.

      A diocesan bishop, within various religious denominations, is a bishop (or archbishop) in pastoral charge of a(n arch)diocese, as opposed to a titular bishop or archbishop, whose see is only nominal, not pastoral. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diocesan_bishop

    21. Michaelmas

      Michaelmas is a Christian festival taking place on September 29 which honors the archangel Michael for defeating Satan in the war in Heaven. This article contains specific British traditions and emblems from Michaelmas festivities:

      https://www.historic-uk.com/CultureUK/Michaelmas/

    22. Links to common words/themes throughout the annotations

    23. Sanditon

      This is the first reference to the title of the novel in "Sanditon". Note that Sanditon is an entirely fictional town created by Austen, which I find impressive given that she has only previously dabbled in creating villages. Sanditon is notably described as a bathing-place, and thus she might draw some inspiration from the time she spent in Bath.

      Source: http://janeausten.wikia.com/wiki/Sanditon_(town)

    24. leeches

      "Bloodletting procedures, including leeching, became the most common medical procedure throughout the early modern period. By the early 19th century, many patients regularly submitted to various bloodletting practices as a means of preventing or treating infection and disease"

      https://www.britannica.com/science/leeching

      Leeching more specifically in Jane Austen's world: "One can imagine that during her final illness, Jane Austen was no stranger to leeches."

      https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/tag/leeches/

    25. machine

      "Wagons, called Bathing Machines, were invented especially for the purpose, and would be drawn out into the water by sturdy women, who might then assist you down into the water where you could paddle about or swim in relative privacy, shielded from view of the shore."

      https://www.janeausten.co.uk/tag/bathing-machines/

    26. first dip

      Dipping in the sea was said to have healing properties.

      "Jane Austen’s Sanditon, Doctors, and the Rise of Seabathing" http://jasna.org/publications/persuasions-online/volume-38-no-2/darcy/

  7. Oct 2018
    1. Elliot FA. Neurology of aggression and episodic dyscontrol.Semin Neurol1990;10:303–12
    2. Kandel E. Biology, violence and antisocial personality.JForensic Sci1992;37:912–18.
    3. Raine A, Meloy JR, Bihrle S,et al. Reduced prefrontal andincreased subcortical brain functioning assessed usingpositron emission tomography in predatory and aVectivemurderers.Behav Sci Law1998;16:319–32.
    4. Krakowski M, Czobor P, Carpenter MD,et al. Communityviolence and inpatient assaults: neurobiological deficits.JNeuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci1997;9:549–55.
    5. Blake PY, Pincus JH, Buckner C. Neurologic abnormalitiesin murderers.Neurology1995;45:1641–7
    6. Foster HG, Hillbrand M, Silverstein M. Neuropsychologi-cal deficit and aggressive behavior: a prospective study.ProgNeuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry1993;17:939–46.
    7. Pennington BF, OzonoVS. Executive functions anddevelopmental psychopathology.J Child Psychol Psychiatry1996;37:51–87.
    8. Hare RD, McPherson LM. Violent and aggressive behaviorby criminal psychopaths. Special issue: empirical ap-proaches to law and psychiatry.Int J Law Psychiatry1984;7:35–50
    9. Hare RD, Harpur TJ, Hakstian AR,et al. The revisedpsychopathy checklist: reliability and factor structure.Psy-chol Assess1990;2:338–41
    10. Pincus JH. Aggression, criminality, and the frontal lobes. In:Miller BL, Cummings JL, eds,The human frontal lobes:func-tions and disorders. New York: The Guildford Press, 1999
  8. Sep 2018
  9. Jun 2018
    1. Adapter [adp] Use for a person who 1) reworks a musical composition, usually for a different medium, or 2) rewrites novels or stories for motion pictures or other audiovisual medium. Annotator [ann] Use for a person who writes manuscript annotations on a printed item. Arranger [arr] Use for a person who transcribes a musical composition, usually for a different medium from that of the original; in an arrangement the musical substance remains essentially unchanged. Artist [art] Use for a person (e.g., a painter) who conceives, and perhaps also implements, an original graphic design or work of art, if specific codes (e.g., [egr], [etr]) are not desired. For book illustrators, prefer Illustrator [ill]. Associated name [asn] Use as a general relator for a name associated with or found in an item or collection, or which cannot be determined to be that of a Former owner [fmo] or other designated relator indicative of provenance. Author [aut] Use for a person or corporate body chiefly responsible for the intellectual or artistic content of a work. This term may also be used when more than one person or body bears such responsibility. Author in quotations or text extracts [aqt] Use for a person whose work is largely quoted or extracted in a works to which he or she did not contribute directly. Such quotations are found particularly in exhibition catalogs, collections of photographs, etc. Author of afterword, colophon, etc. [aft] Use for a person or corporate body responsible for an afterword, postface, colophon, etc. but who is not the chief author of a work. Author of introduction, etc. [aui] Use for a person or corporate body responsible for an introduction, preface, foreword, or other critical matter, but who is not the chief author. Bibliographic antecedent [ant] Use for the author responsible for a work upon which the work represented by the catalog record is based. This can be appropriate for adaptations, sequels, continuations, indexes, etc. Book producer [bkp] Use for the person or firm responsible for the production of books and other print media, if specific codes (e.g., [bkd], [egr], [tyd], [prt]) are not desired. Collaborator [clb] Use for a person or corporate body that takes a limited part in the elaboration of a work of another author or that brings complements (e.g., appendices, notes) to the work of another author. Commentator [cmm] Use for a person who provides interpretation, analysis, or a discussion of the subject matter on a recording, motion picture, or other audiovisual medium. Compiler [com] Use for a person who produces a work or publication by selecting and putting together material from the works of various persons or bodies. Designer [dsr] Use for a person or organization responsible for design if specific codes (e.g., [bkd], [tyd]) are not desired. Editor [edt] Use for a person who prepares for publication a work not primarily his/her own, such as by elucidating text, adding introductory or other critical matter, or technically directing an editorial staff. Illustrator [ill] Use for the person who conceives, and perhaps also implements, a design or illustration, usually to accompany a written text. Lyricist [lyr] Use for the writer of the text of a song. Metadata contact [mdc] Use for the person or organization primarily responsible for compiling and maintaining the original description of a metadata set (e.g., geospatial metadata set). Musician [mus] Use for the person who performs music or contributes to the musical content of a work when it is not possible or desirable to identify the function more precisely. Narrator [nrt] Use for the speaker who relates the particulars of an act, occurrence, or course of events. Other [oth] Use for relator codes from other lists which have no equivalent in the MARC list or for terms which have not been assigned a code. Photographer [pht] Use for the person or organization responsible for taking photographs, whether they are used in their original form or as reproductions. Printer [prt] Use for the person or organization who prints texts, whether from type or plates. Redactor [red] Use for a person who writes or develops the framework for an item without being intellectually responsible for its content. Reviewer [rev] Use for a person or corporate body responsible for the review of book, motion picture, performance, etc. Sponsor [spn] Use for the person or agency that issued a contract, or under whose auspices a work has been written, printed, published, etc. Thesis advisor [ths] Use for the person under whose supervision a degree candidate develops and presents a thesis, memoir, or text of a dissertation. Transcriber [trc] Use for a person who prepares a handwritten or typewritten copy from original material, including from dictated or orally recorded material. Translator [trl] Use for a person who renders a text from one language into another, or from an older form of a language into the modern form.
    1. N. G. Hairston, F. E. Smith, L. B. Slobodkin, Am. Nat. 94, 421 (1960)

      The authors highlight lines of reasoning to underscore the importance of predators as top-down controls: 1) the rate of planetary fossil fuel accumulation over time has not been minuscule as compared to the rate of photosynthesis in the same systems; 2) given this, decomposers must be food-limited otherwise fossil fuels would build up at higher rates; 3) in terrestrial systems, plants are typically not herbivore-controlled nor are they regularly destroyed by weather but are controlled by bottom-up factors such as light, water, and nutrients; 4) terrestrial herbivores are therefore typically not limited by their food supply, even in areas where the primary consumers are overabundant; 5) herbivore populations are therefore controlled by predators.

    2. J. Terborgh et al., Science 294, 1923 (2001)

      In this natural experiment, a result of a hydroelectric dam flooding a rainforest in Venezuela, researchers were able to measure the results of predator removal in isolated communities. Top-down regulation of these communities were discovered with drastic trophic cascades observed.

    3. R. T. Paine, J. Anim. Ecol. 49, 667 (1980)

      A discussion of food webs, trophic relationships, species connectedness, and whether community structure and stability could be modeled based on these ideas.

    4. J. A. Estes, D. O. Duggins, Ecol. Monogr. 65, 75 (1995).

      In this observational study of 153 sites, over the course of 3-15 years, the importance of sea otters to the community structure of the kelp forests of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska. Without sea otters, the kelp forests collapsed due to overgrazing by urchins and other herbivores, leading to implications for numerous other organisms in the system. With sea otter predation on urchins, the kelp system was stable and supported a much higher diversity of organisms at all trophic levels (Fig 3).

    5. R. T. Paine, Am. Nat. 103, 91 (1969)

      In this letter, Paine notes the importance of predators to community stability not only to the system that he studied (the intertidal of the Pacific Northwest) but also that of other simple or complex systems worldwide.

  10. May 2018
    1. Je ne suis pas en faveur des cathédrales, mais pas non plus en faveur du bazar.

      Allusion à la métaphore proposée par Eric Raymond dans son essai https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Cath%C3%A9drale_et_le_Bazar .

      Pour faire court, la cathédrale représente une approche top-down et hiérarchique, le bazar représente une approche bottom-up, émergente et collaborative.

    1. one level is chosen as the “reference”, and its mean behaviour is represented by the intercept. Each column of the resulting matrix represents the difference between the mean of one level and this reference level
  11. Apr 2018
    1. stocks and stones,

      stocks and stones: idols made of wood or rock; cf. Jeremiah 2:26-27: "As the thief is ashamed when he is found, so is the house of Israel ashamed; they, their kings, their princes, and their priests, and their prophets, | Saying to a stock, Thou art my father; and to a stone, Thou hast brought me forth: for they have turned their back unto me, and not their face: but in time of their trouble they will say, Arise, and save us." See also Wisdom of Solomon 14:21: "And this was an occasion to deceive the world: for men, serving either calamity or tyranny, did ascribe unto stones and stocks the incommunicable name"; and Milton, Sonnet 18, "On the Late Massacre in Piedmont": "When all our fathers worshipped stocks and stones" (4).

    1. According to hooks, the “assumption that [we]are somehow an earthy mother goddess who has built-incapacities to deal with all manner of hardship withoutbreaking down, physically or mentally” (p. 70)

      IMPORTANT. everyone in the play is said to be wearing a mask. this mask is the symbolism of her hiding from her suffering and mental illness.

      *must read hooks'

    2. n fact, some women preferred a Whitetherapist, feeling that would ensure that their private sufferingwould remain private in their closely-knit West Indiancommunity, and would provide an “outside” perspective

      This preferance for white women therapists in this exact respect can actually be harmdul. because a white woman is not truly what she needs to talk to. also sarah has been looking for solace in a white people, she doesn't need an outside perspective, what she needs is someone who actually understands her.

      this reaching for white people is what caused her confusion in the first place. Her desire for whiteness while being black- or rather her refusal to ackowledge the power/strength/beauty of her blackness is what kills her.

      At once she states that she bludgeoned her father with a black mask/head. this is a metaphor that she was so hurt that her father chose the white life that she'd rather have him die as a black beast than to see him live as black man married to a white woman. so she killed him in an ugly portrayal of blackness- to justify her desire to be affiliated with white people. She doesn't want to claim her father or ackowledge her hypocrisy.

      In fact, we can read her boyfriend as her therapist. he's white, jewish, and seems to find amusement in her lies, hatred, and body. this amusement of problems is because he's so far detached from the situation he can't provide any empathy and understanding to her actions and much less read into her obvious cries for help.

      read more into the need for black ppl to see black therapists*

  12. Mar 2018
    1. the content (metaphors, recurring images, narratives) and the format ofspeech (disavowals, changes in volume, and contradictions) to identifyhow individual speakers mark their proximity to and distance from cul-tural discourses.

      Can these distinctions be found in a close reading of Sarah's other selves? what is there proximity to and distance from cultural discoruses

      Must read "The listening Guide"

  13. Dec 2017
    1. J. E. K. Byrnes, L. Gamfeldt, F. Isbell, J. S. Lefcheck, J. N. Griffin, A. Hector, B. J. Cardinale, D. U. Hooper, L. E. Dee, J. E. Duffy, Investigating the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality: Challenges and solutions. Methods Ecol. Evol. 5, 111–124 (2014).

      Byrne's review focuses on the impacts of assemblage diversity on ecosystem functions.

      This study acknowledges the impact of diversity on resource utilization and thus productivity, however the focus is on the characterization of multi-functionality.

    2. C. Fissore, J. Espeleta, E. A. Nater, S. E. Hobbie, P. B. Reich, Limited potential for terrestrial carbon sequestration to offset fossil-fuel emissions in the upper midwestern US. Front. Ecol. Environ. 8, 409–413 (2010).

      Fissore's review argues that carbon sequester by forests in the mid-west can not off set fossil fuel based carbon dioxide emissions. The study compares hypothetical scenarios necessary to offset significant proportions of the carbon dioxide emissions by converting landscapes into carbon sequestering species.

    3. R. F. Follett, Soil management concepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils. Soil Tillage Res. 61, 77–92 (2001).

      Follett discusses the role organic soils play in the movement of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the soil. This review characterizes terrestrial soils as carbon sinks which is important for crop management.

    4. P. B. Reich, D. Tilman, S. Naeem, D. S. Ellsworth, J. Knops, J. Craine, D. Wedin, J. Trost, Species and functional group diversity independently influence biomass accumulation and its response to CO2 and N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 10101–10106 (2004).

      Reich compares the role of CO2 and N on species richness and functional group diversity.

      This study compares the roles of functional group diversity and species richness has on biomass accumulation in an elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen environment.

    5. R. Sedjo, B. Sohngen, Carbon sequestration in forests and soils, in Annual Review of Resource Economics, G. C. Rausser, Ed. (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, 2012), vol. 4, pp. 126–143

      Sejo discusses the role species richness plays in effecting economic value.

      This review puts emphasis on the role of biodiversity on marginal economic value represented as carbon storage for conservation efforts.

    6. D. A. Fornara, D. Tilman, Plant functional composition influences rates of soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation. J. Ecol. 96, 314–322 (2008).

      Fornara reviews the mechanisms that control carbon and nitrogen accumulation in soils.

      The review covers the relationships between biodiversity and carbon and nitrogen accumulation in soils, with an emphasis on the c3 and c4 grasses.

    7. T. L. Daniels, Integrating forest carbon sequestration into a cap-and-trade program to reduce net CO2 emissions. J. Am. Plann. Assoc. 76, 463–475 (2010).

      Daniels reviews the role forests play in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. His focus however is primarily advocating for including carbon sequester by forests into management plans or a cap-and-trade program.

    8. A. D. Barnosky, N. Matzke, S. Tomiya, G. O. U. Wogan, B. Swartz, T. B. Quental, C. Marshall, J. L. McGuire, E. L. Lindsey, K. C. Maguire, B. Mersey, E. A. Ferrer, Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature 471, 51–57 (2011).

      Barnosky discusses the events known as mass extinctions and compares the rates of extinction for these events to modern rates of extinction. PB

    9. Increasing species richness from 1 to 10 had twice the economic value of increasing species richness from 1 to 2.

      Each additional degree of species richness is worth less than the previous degree of richness in terms of economic value. Therefore, the economic value does not increase in direct proportion with the species richness, although they are correlated.

      SC

    10. B. J. Cardinale, K. L. Matulich, D. U. Hooper, J. E. Byrnes, E. Duffy, L. Gamfeldt, P. Balvanera, M. I. O'Connor, A. Gonzalez, The functional role of producer diversity in ecosystems. Am. J. Bot. 98, 572–592 (2011).

      Cardinale reviews the roles of primary producer biodiversity with respect to ecological processes critical to the functionality and health of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. PB