124 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2018
    1. one family of children who came from London for sea air after the whooping cough

      In the 18th century English physicians would prescribe cold sea water and sea air to cure a variety of sicknesses. It was common for ailing people to be dunked in the freezing sea, as "the adrenaline from the shock of cold was thought to have soothing effects on the body, calming anxiety and restoring the body-soul balance".

      https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/08/the-historic-healing-power-of-the-beach/279175/

      This historical question has been debated up to the twenty-first century:

      Does the Sea Air Have Curative Powers? - WSJ https://www.wsj.com/articles/does-the-sea-air-have-curative-powers-1407797285

      Does the sea air have healing powers? | Fox News https://www.foxnews.com/health/does-the-sea-air-have-healing-powers

      Out of the blue: The healing power of the sea - ABC News www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-26/could-sea-help-manage-mental-illness/8343932

    2. physic

      (old-fashioned term) a medicine that purges; cathartic; laxative.

      https://www.dictionary.com/browse/physic

    3. chamber-horse

      An eighteenth-century exercise machine.

      "…A special type of chair, commonly called a 'Chamber Horse', because the motion made as you sat on it was similar to that of a trotting horse."

      http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/objects/uIVOye4BRy-Sh5k7_PF_iQ

    4. liberal

      what are the connotations of this in this historical context? I'm not sure how to look this up but I'd like to know.

  2. Nov 2018
    1. Holographic computing made possible

      Microsoft hololens is designed to enable a new dimension of future productivity with the introduction of this self-contained holographic tools. The tool allows for engagement in holograms in the world around you.

      Learning environments will gain ground with the implementation of this future tool in the learning program and models.

      RATING: 5/5 (rating based upon a score system 1 to 5, 1= lowest 5=highest in terms of content, veracity, easiness of use etc.)

  3. Oct 2018
    1. cross-functional

      A cross functional team is one which comprises members with skill sets in different areas.

    2. allied healthcare professionals

      Allied healthcare professionals include physical therapists, scientists, technologists, administrators, managers, and assistants

    3. world’s first robot lawyer

      In 2015, 19-year-old student Joshua Browder launched DoNotPay, a website which generates appeals against park tickets. This was widely reported as "the world's first robot lawyer." For more information, see https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p031rmqv

    1. United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

      The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an international bill of rights for women. Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination.

    2. set forth to build an independent country

      Advancing the welfare of women was an important part of the PAP's platform when it was elected in 1959. Among other things, the PAP banned polygamy—one husband marrying multiple wives—and introduced the Women's Charter, a document which protects the rights of women, children, and families.

    3. Uppsala University in Sweden

      Mr. Lee was speaking at the Socialist International Congress. In his speech, he called for "the realisation of a satisfying life for all," and discussed the challenges facing developing countries which had just achieved their independence.

    4. democratic socialist ideals

      Democratic socialism refers to an ideology in which the goals of socialism—such as equality and justice—are achieved within a democratic rather than authoritarian system. Since its founding the PAP has described itself as democratic socialist.

  4. Sep 2018
    1. e Diversity Action Committ

      The Diversity Action Committee is a nonprofit which advocates for the inclusion of women on corporate boards, which are responsible for governing big companies.

    2. Give equal opportunities to all regardless of rank, race, religion, sex in a given nation and you are likely to draw from each of your nationals, the best in him. Gi

      Advancing the welfare of women was an important part of the PAP's platform when it was elected in 1959. Among other things, the PAP banned polygamy—one husband marrying multiple wives—and introduced the Women's Charter, a document which protects the rights of women, children, and families.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Theories of situated activity, co-construction of knowledge, and distributed intelligence helped connect learning to its contexts.

      This is a nice (very brief) summary with links to more information.

    2. On the other hand, you had the situated view, which helped establish a contextu-alized science for learning, in which learning at the minimum required investigating the social and cultural contexts of learning, and at the maximum treated learning as inherently a phenomenon not in the head but in the relationships between person and their context.
    3. contextualizatio

      What is this referring to?

    1. In many ways the Stream is best seen through the lens of Bakhtin’s idea of the utterance. Bakhtin saw the utterance, the conversational turn of speech, as inextricably tied to context. To understand a statement you must go back to things before, you must find out what it was replying to, you must know the person who wrote it and their speech context. To understand your statement I must reconstruct your entire stream.

      If the semantics are correct here, then Bakhtin may be the originator of the idea of context collapse.

  5. Aug 2018
    1. But honestly, this is mostly just a post giving myself permission not to own my replies.

      I love this! Great rimshot at the end. Sometimes giving yourself the permission is important.

      I know there are others who don't own every reply they make because they also feel like replies are more contingent on context which primarily lives in the other place. It's fine for some of those conversations to be ephemeral and not "owned". In other case, if it's a reply to something you really care about and want to own, then by all means, own that one thing, but leave all the others out.

    1. “the dynamic weaving of events, interactions, situations, and phases that comprise those relationships” (2000, p. 27), the dynamic weaving of events, interactions, and situations being very similar to narrative.

      Temporal context definition.

      Furthers the notion of narrative and how relationships between events/things is transformed into a cohesive whole which is necessary for sensemaking.

    1. If you look long enough you can find my early terrible writing. You can find blog posts in which I am an idiot. I’ve had a lot of uninformed and passionate opinions on geopolitical issues from Ireland to Israel. You can find tweets I thought were witty, but think are stupid now. You can find opinions I still hold that you disagree with. I’m going to leave most of that stuff up. In doing so, I’m telling you that you have to look for context if you are seeking to understand me. You don’t have to try, I’m not particularly important, but I am complicated. When I die, I’m going to instruct my executors to burn nothing. Leave the crap there, because it’s part of my journey, and that journey has a value. People who came from where I did, and who were given the thoughts I was given, should know that the future can be different from the past.
    2. I had been a victim of something the sociologists Alice Marwick and danah boyd call context collapse, where people create online culture meant for one in-group, but exposed to any number of out-groups without its original context by social-media platforms, where it can be recontextualized easily and accidentally.
    3. Context collapse is our constant companion online.
    4. It helped me learn a lesson: Be damn sure when you make angry statements.
    5. I had even written about context collapse myself, but that hadn’t saved me from falling into it, and then hurting other people I didn’t mean to hurt.
    6. I am not immune from these mistakes, for mistaking a limited snapshot of something for what it is in its entirety. I have been on the other side.
  6. May 2018
    1. Irish dance halls were very popular during the 1950's amongst Irish-Americans. They allowed people to have fun, dance, and also meet possible romantic partners. The image above parallels this moment in the text because it showcases how women tended to stay together in groups (like Patty, Diana, and Eilis) and wait for men to ask them to dance.

    1. Bartocci’s, the department store Eilis works at was likely inspired by Abraham and Strauss. Abraham and Strauss, also known as A&S, was a famous department store located at the corners of Hoyt and Fulton in Brooklyn. Abraham and Strauss was unlike the small and specialized shops (like Miss Kelly’s general store) that an Irish immigrant would have been used to at this time. A&S sold many different kinds of products, including clothing for all ages, furniture, and sporting goods. This was done in order to compete with other Brooklyn retailers and offer customers one-stop shopping.

    1. The information contained in the information system is notsufficient in itself; the temporal context within which it can be placed,organized according to the trajectory, helps makes sense of it.

      Likewise, in SBTF data collection. Temporal contexts are crucial but often not captured consistently or at all.

      What are the temporal contexts in crisis situations that could/should be collected so that it doesn't lack meaning or is misinterpreted later?

    2. Sonnenwald, D.H. and L.G. Pierce (2000): Information Behavior in Dynamic Group WorkContexts: Interwoven Situational Awareness, Dense Social Networks and ContestedCollaboration in Command and Control.Information Processing and Management, vol. 36,pp. 461–479.

      Get this paper on context and situational awareness.

  7. Mar 2018
  8. Feb 2018
    1. Máire Ní Mhongáin

      As Ciarán Ó Con Cheanainn writes in Leabhar Mór na nAmhrán, the oldest written version of this song dates to 1814, and is found in MS Egerton 117 in the British Library. Oral lore in Conneamara has it that Máire Ní Mhongáin’s three sons joined the British Army, and that Peadar deserted soon after joining, and emigrated to America. It seems probable that their involvement was in the French Revolutionary Wars or the Napoleonic Wars, the major conflicts fought by the British Army in the final decade of the eighteenth century and the first decade of the nineteenth respectively.

      Máire Ní Mhongáin seems to have resonated among Irish emigrant communities in the United States. My evidence for this is that Micheál Ó Gallchobhair of Erris, County Mayo, collected songs from Erris emigrants living in Chicago in the 1930s, over a century after the occasion of ‘Amhrán Mháire Ní Mhongáin’s’ composition. It features in his collection, which you access via the following link: http://www.jstor.org.ucc.idm.oclc.org/stable/20642542?seq=2#page_scan_tab_contents

      The virulent cursing of departed sons by the mother, named Máre, produces the effect of striking g contrasts with John Millington Synge’s bereaves mother, Old Maurya, in Riders to the Sea.

      My Irish Studies blog features an in-depth account of typical features of the caoineadh genre to which Amhrán Mháire Ní Mhongáin belongs. You can access it via the following link: johnwoodssirishstudies.wordpress.com/2018/01/03/carraig-aonair-an-eighteenth-century-west-cork-poem/

    1. Bean an tSeanduine - Sean Nós 2

      ‘Bean an tSeanduine’ features all of the conventions of the malmariée genre we have previously encountered in ‘An Seanduine Cam’. Also, it is a good example of the speaker blaming her parents for her plight, which is another regular feature of this song type.

      As well as being one of the finest examples of the genre, it is perhaps the most well-known and commonly sung, owing in large part to the simplicity and catchiness of its monosyllable end-rhymes.

      As well as Ó Tuama, Meidhbhín Ní Úrdail has written about the common features of the chanson de la malmariée. Her article ‘The Representation of the Feminine: Some evidence from Irish language sources’ in Eighteenth-Century Ireland/Iris an Dá Chultúr is a rich source of information on the topic. In ‘Bean an tSeanduine’, we have a fine example of what Ní Úrdail calls the description of ‘the plight of a beautiful young woman, trapped in an unhappy marriage to an impotent elderly spouse who is ignorant of her mental and physical frustration’. However, when we consider the particular humour of this song, we can identify how it serves to empower the female speaker.

      ‘Bean an tSeanduine’ differs from ‘An Seanduine Cam’ in that there is no third-person narrator. Like ‘An Seanduine Cam’, the humour of the song relies on a ridiculing of the old man, although here the young woman herself is his detractor. Each of his brags meet a witty riposte. When he claims wealth, she calls him a miser, and when he wonders what would become of his if he died during the night, she jokes that death is an immanent danger. When mockery of this kind is voiced by the female speaker, it serves to empower her, and inspire in the listener a sense of sympathy and respect.

    1. An Seanduine Cam - Corn Uí Riada 2016

      The song’s first two verses are spoken by a third-person narrator. In its humorous exaggeration, the first verse caricatures recognized conventions of arranged marriage. This narrative consciously situates itself in a genre whose familiarity to the listener is a necessary part of the humour. It addresses the economic incentives which were the major precipitating factors of marriage arrangements in rural Ireland during the eighteenth century. It also invokes the misery which such marriages often visited upon young women.

      In his essay ‘Love in Irish Folksong’, Seán Ó Tuama identifies among typical features of the malmariée genre that ‘a young woman speaks (in the first person) of her anguish,’ that ‘the description of the husband can be unbelievably grotesque and ribald: he is humped, crippled; he coughs, grunts, whines at night; most of all, he is cold as lead, important, and completely fails to satisfy her desires’, and that ‘she discloses that she is going to leave him for a young man’ (149). ‘An Seanduine Cam’ provides clear examples of all of these traits.

      Moreover, because these tendencies find expression in a debate form, and are redoubled in response to the unfeeling man, the resistant character of the put-upon young woman is strongly emphasized.

    1. of

      ‘as I got it twelve years ago from an old man, named Walter Sherlock, in the County Roscommon, a man who is since dead’ (31)

      It is worth noting that recordings of native Irish speakers from nineteen counties, made in 1930 and 1931, can be accessed at https://www.doegen.ie/counties Roscommon Irish, which Hyde had heard spoken by some final remaining speakers, can be heard here.

    2. chúige

      ‘what you yourself and the late John O’Daly, following in the footsteps of Edward Walsh, to some extent accomplished for Munster, more than thirty years ago’ (iv)

      John O’Daly (1800-1878) was an editor and publisher. He published Edward Walsh’s Reliques of Irish Jacobite Poetry (1844), as well as two series of Poets and Poetry of Munster, the first by James Clarence Mangan (1849), and the second by George Sigerson (1860). In another of his works, Mise agus an Conradh (1937), Hyde wrote ‘Ní raibh éinne, lena linn, a rinne níos mó ar a shlí féin chun Gaeilge a leathnú agus a shaothrú’ (There was noone, during O’Daly’s time, who did as much as he did to popularize Gaelic’, my trans.) The most comprehensive biography of John O’Daly is that in Beathaninéis, vol. 2, by Diarmuid Breathnach and Mairéad Ní Mhurchú. It is available online at https://www.ainm.ie/Bio.aspx?ID=1193

      The most comprehensive biography I have found in English is the entry in The Oxford Companion to Irish Literature, edited by Robert Welch.

    3. grádh

      ‘My Dear Dr. Sigerson’ (iv)

      The Dr. Sigerson in question is George Sigerson (1836-1925), a physician and an eminent translator of Gaelic poetry. When the Gaelic League was founded in 1893, Hyde was elected as its present, and so absented his role as president of the National Literary Society. Sigerson succeeded him, and was the society’s incumbent present when Love Songs of Connacht was published.

      A direct address to the National Literary Society was famously performed by Hyde in 1892. The central idea of his speech titled ‘The Necessity for De-Anglicising Ireland’ was that there was an indissoluble link between a nation’s language and its culture, and that it was a sign of cultural weakness to mimic English ways and habits of thought.

      The beginning of Love Songs of Connacht reminds us of the ideological backdrop from which the book emerges. For in-depth accounts of the development of the idea that language and nationhood are inextricably linked, see Diarmuid Ó Giolláin’s Locating Irish Folklore: Tradition, Modernity, Identity (2000), and Joep Leerssen’s National Thought in Europe: A Cultural History (2006). You can read the text of Hyde’s 1892 speech to the National Literary Society at http://historymuse.net/readings/HYDENecessityforDeAnglicizingIreland1892.html

  9. Jan 2018
    1. “The Green Revolution.”

      Remember to explain what was this.

      And probably how researching on this affects your interpretative lenses and agreement with the author

    2. Mark Zuckerberg and his wife, Priscilla Chan, announced that they were giving 99 percent of their wealth to charity.

      Context and facts are given.

    3. Today's billionaires

      Contexts and facts are given.

  10. Dec 2017
    1. How does an insubstantial word like “apple” lead you to think of a real thing—an object of a certain size that is red, round, sweet, and has a shiny, thin-peeled skin? How could a plain acoustic sound produce such complex states of mind, involving all those qualities of color, substance, taste, and shape? Presumably, each different quality involves a different agency. But then—in view of all we’ve said about why different agents can’t communicate—how could such varying recipients all “understand” the selfsame messages? Do language-agents have unusual abilities to communicate with different kinds of agencies?

      What article doesn't bring up is the context of the environment that the person grew up in. If we were to describe the word apple to someone who has never seen or tasted it, they would not be able to visualize what it is with just the word. The mind would try to relate it to an object that you have already experience to fill in what an "apple" may be.

  11. Oct 2017
    1. As information literacy instruction is also a form of storytelling, animated GIFs might be a good format for library tutorials. Suhr’s reasons included: A group of pictures gives immediate feedback as to how much information is being conveyed. A screencast, on the other hand, doesn’t give much of a clue as to what the user is committing to. Pictures have natural break points between steps. A series of images enhances closure, which is the phenomenon of observing the parts but perceiving the whole. Comics artists employ closure by carefully sequencing panels and knowing what to keep “off-screen.” A series of animated GIFs combines closure with the dynamic element of video.

      GIFs (and their resurgence) are an interesting hybrid approach falling somewhere between videos and images. One can see how modelling videos after animated GIFs could be a good way to provide quick, just-in-time information.

    1. panes

      During WWI "panes" were visors of the gas mask that were used during war. Recall that this war was the introduction of chemical warfare; there was a lack of preparation in terms of understanding what exactly the gas was capable of doing to a human. Captain A.J. Waugh (as cited in Jones, 2014) expressed, “uncontrolled anxiety during a gas attack could cause men to tear off their protective masks” which would result in agonizing pain or death; however, the goal of chemical warfare was to instill fear and destroy the enemy.

    2. As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.

      Here we have a picture from WWI capturing a terrifying wave of gas being released. You can see how the fumes look as though they resemble waves of the ocean about to swallow up the soldiers; the words of the speaker coming alive when he states "I saw him drowning."

    3. Gas! GAS! Quick, boys!—An ecstasy of fumbling

      WWI marked the introduction of chemical warfare which in return created complete terror and pandemonium; soldiers were not prepared for the effects of chemical warfare. As Jones indicates, the use of chemical warfare was to “terrorize the enemy and make their troops temporarily lose their minds.” Alexander Watson also claimed in his study (as cited in Jones, 2014) “gas created uncertainty: unlike shrapnel, it killed from the inside, eroding a soldier’s sense of control, while raising the terrifying fear of being suffocated." Going off the “created uncertainty” we have the use of "ecstasy" which encompasses a trance-like state; coinciding with the idea of being "drunk with fatigue" (see above annotation) from the effects of the gas. The delayed reactions of the soldiers against the gas would result in a behavior of "fumbling." The gas was designed to attack the nervous system; accelerating the deterioration of the body and mind.

    4. Dulce et Decorum Est

      This title was written in Latin and originally comes from the Roman poet Horace ode (III.2.13) which translates to “sweet and fitting it is to die for one’s country.” Horace’s ode paints patriotism and nationalism in a positive light as opposed to Owen’s bitter and stark realization of the cost of patriotism; paid for at the expense of the physical and mental deterioration of the soldier’s body during the First World War. As Harold Bloom suggest, Owen’s aim was “to attack the concept that sacrifice is sacred; he hoped to destroy the glamorized decency of war.” It is important to keep the title in mind in regards to what it means in the connotation of sweet verses sickly.

    1. O’Donovan Rossa

      Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa was a famous Irish Leader who fought for Ireland's independence.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeremiah_O%27Donovan_Rossa

    2. Araby

      "Araby" is from a collection of fifteen short stories, published in 1914, titled Dubliners. Joyce was born in Dublin, Ireland, and Dubliners shows his intimate knowledge of the city. He uses real locations, even street names, throughout the collection of stories. The "Mapping Dubliners Project" uses Google Maps to trace the specific paths taken in Joyce's stories.

      http://mappingdubliners.org

    3. Freemason

      Freemasonry is a secretive organization that the Catholic church has opposed since the 1700's. Roman Catholicism was, and still is, the principal religion in Ireland. The boy's aunt seems to be weary of non-Irish ideas and ideals.

    4. The Abbot, by Walter Scott, The Devout Communicant and The Memoirs of Vidocq.

      Nearly every detail Joyce includes is intentional. It's safe to say that he did not randomly choose these three texts.

      The Abbot, by Walter Scott, is a romance novel about Mary queen of Scots being imprisoned.

      The Devout Communicant could refer to a few religious texts with the same name.

      The Memoirs of Vidocq is a ghost-written autobiography about a French criminal who becomes a cop.

      Why did the priest happen to have these specific books?

    5. North Richmond Street

      A link, from the "Mapping Dubliners Project", about North Richmond Street: http://mappingdubliners.org/north-richmond-street/

  12. blog.ashleyalexandraa.com blog.ashleyalexandraa.com
    1. Primitive and modern, simple and complicated, with a bit of Washington and a bit of Nimrod. You are the United States, You are the future invader the naive America who has Indian blood, that still prays to Jesus Christ and still speaks Spanish.

      These lines begin to highlight the dualities for the American people. From "Washington" being the first president of the United States an important American figure, to the biblical allusion to Nimrod who was "the first on earth to be a mighty man". The contrasts continue with asserting that America still has "Indian Blood" and still speaks Spanish lending to their past conquest of Mexican/Indigenous land.

    2. Netzahualcoyotl

      Netzahualcoyotl was a King, philosopher, and poet from the Aztec Empire.

      Another key part to Dario's poem is his constant allusions to powerful people of Latin American's pre-columbian past. Here he alludes to Montezuma, but he also alludes to Cuahtemoc in the following lines. These allusions can allow the reader to see an alternate history where Latin America is powerful before Western influence. Montezuma was another Aztec leader famous for his dramatic confrontation with the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés.

  13. Jun 2017
    1. December 29, 1931.

      Consider this date. What of importance was going on around the time that Carl Becker gave this speech before the American Historical Association?

  14. May 2017
    1. Let the full-blown garden flowers of the ancients in their own morning glory stand; to breathe life into late blossoms that have yet to bud will be his sole endeavor.

      Lu Chi’s use of metaphors of a garden to illustrate his point of how writers are the gardeners of future writers comes from his own personal life and experience. Lu Chi came from a long line of military leaders, but he also followed in his grandfather Lu Sun’s foot steps whose first passion was to be a servant to the earth. As such Lu Chi had a deep respect for his culture, the land and knew the seasons, its soil and the people from his state well. Lu Chi grew up in the Lu family estate which was a large and prosperous property with rolling hills and had rice fields, mulberry and bamboo groves and they also grew other produce and animals. However, Lu Chi also carried on the martial tradition of the family and joined the army. But, he achieved greater fame as a man of writing then a general on the battlefield. During this era armies and farming were very important for the survival of the people, they depended on the military for protection and farming for food and sustenance. Also literacy was high and most people couldn’t read nor write, for Lu Chi to use metaphor is to make the text easy to read and relatable to the people of his time.

    2. Now one feels blithe as a swimmer calmly borne by celestial waters, and then, as a diver into a secret world, lost in subterranean currents. Arduously sought expressions, hitherto evasive, hidden, will be like stray fishes out of the ocean bottom to emerge on the angler’s hook;

      Historically Medieval China had its own dark age marked with many invasions and wars, it was a time when people struggled and searched for light in their dark world. For the Chinese people during this time, their search took various forms from religion, the arts, music and literature. Lu Chi wrote his Wen Fu as a direct expression of this search through literature. We can see that he infused religious teachings as a way to explain this text of how one can reach a state of conscious to unconscious by putting in the hard work of making the mind tranquil like water so that inspiration and creativity can finally surface (anglers hook).

    1. Responses to Ed Folsom's "Database as Genre: The Epic Transformation of Archives

      So an interesting thing about this article is that i's part of a set of articles, all responding to the same essay by Ed Folsom about the Whitman Archive. Jerome McGann (big name in digital humanities) slammed it, saying he didn't understand what a database was. Meredith McGill criticizes a number of things he claims his archive can do. Hayles is actually pretty friendly to Folsom, and in his response, he mentions he wants to make use of her "natural symbionts" phrasing.

    2. The Language of New Media

      Generally, a pretty cool book about new media, even though it's old enough to start making college visits.

  15. Apr 2017
    1. But six of the cases got their measles-mumps-rubella vaccine—the MMR shot—and still managed to get infected.

      brought focus to the key facts

    1. hen we ascribe little responsibilityto the rhetor with respect to what he has chosen to give salience

      This did seem like an odd consequence of Blitzer's argument. For example, it seemed irrelevant that Lincoln was the person who delivered the Gettysburg Address, and that he chose to address the situation in the particular way he did, emphasizing unity over further antagonism. Blitzer's explanation is that some of the situation (needing unity over antagonism, I suppose) still exists, but there are a lot of ways to respond to the urgency of war, and historically a call to unity and peace is not necessarily the natural and dominant narrative. We need to grant Lincoln some agency for making those rhetorical choices which impacted the way the war eventually ended (with the Southerners becoming countrymen again rather then citizens of a deposed state).

    1. Meal1ing;-contextisageu"eral.couditiQI1ofhumancommunicationandisnot~~onymouswithrhetoricalsituation

      This is obviously key, but I feel like some examples would help.

      Can we think up some good examples of this difference?

      I suspect it's the difference between situational factors which are not directly relevant/impactful to the rhetoric (such as whether the speech was delivered on a Wednesday, whether there was a light rain the night before, the size of the room in which the rhetor is speaking) and the factors which contribute to some urgency that demands a rhetorical response (recent political actions, a sudden death, impending threats from an outside force, etc.)

    2. eporterscreatedhundredsofmessages

      I like this example; the moment was so urgent that it demanded a rhetorical response, but a particular kind of rhetorical response that could be predicted before it was ever written out. It could be predicted so easily that hundreds of reporters performed it almost at once. There are certain types of rhetorical performances that we expect, and certain people from whom we expect those responses, to the point that they become comforting and predictable, regardless of the drama of the context:

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g0ou1RG38Pc

    3. magineforamomenttheGettysburgAddressentirelyseparatedfromitssituationandexistingforusindependentofanyrhetoricalcontext

      This is of course easier said than done. I think this video is an interesting experiment of this idea in action, though. It includes 40 "inspirational moments" from different films. In context, each is the climax of the film, and is meant to be a persuasive rhetorical moment, but pulled from their contexts and strung together, many of the moments lose their emotional impact unless perhaps you are already so familiar with that particular film that the context floods back to you all at once:

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d6wRkzCW5qI

    1. Put this in the crown of your hats, gentlemen! A fool of either sex is the hardest animal to drive that ever required a bit. Better one who jumps a fence now and then, than your sulky, stupid donkey, whose rhinoceros back feels neither pat or goad.

      Rough paraphrase: “Get this through your heads! An idiot, male or female, is the hardest thing to convince to change their mind. It is better to have someone that completely surprises you now and again with his or her ideas, instead of someone who remains so stubbornly close-minded they cannot feel good or bad about it.”

      This is the closing “emotional punch” required to grab a reader, perhaps even agitate them. as long as it draws attention, it can be an effective tactic to illustrate the point the author wishes to make. With an approach that is both emotional and even mildly condescending, this is the form of editorial form Fern is talking about women needing to apply themselves to throughout the body of her own editorial.

    1. that little man in black there say a woman can't have as much rights as a man      cause Christ wasn't a woman

      This "little man in black" must be a priest, likely one from a better established or higher church position if he is in the traditional black robes instead of plainclothes. Flimsy justification has been used from positions of power to explain away blatant contradictions, and many religious institutions are historically notorious for this. It is reminiscent of Cotton Mather and his justifications of “moral slavery” in The Negro Christianized, where the use of some dubious logic and religious rhetoric sets up a precedent that can be easily abused. It appears to be the same in this case, where this priest puts forth the argument that men and women are not equal, no doubt using church literature to justify his point. Though these arguments seem easily open for debate, the unfortunate truth is that centers of faith were the corner stones of society for generations, acting as the main moral authorities for those they shepherded. Debating them would be like debating their legitimacy, practically questioning the words of god himself. If this priest were to say that women are second to men, it would be hard to argue without the massive backlash. In a way, it is a powerful form of self-fulfilling language, if it is to be said then the congregation will agree. Whether it is out of faith or out of fear, the reactions are still controlled by the “bandwagoning” logical fallacy, and it puts the dissenting argument vulnerable to attack. It should be noted that even today this very argument is still used in some of the more “extreme” religious sectors around the world, but as people open up to discussion and engage in proper argument, no doubt these discrepancies could be dismantled and the idea of equality could replace segregation.

  16. Mar 2017
    1. his emphasis has been upon local, humane, sustainable, and intelligent design. In his latest book he really takes on the role of outsider, pariah even, when he blames those in his own profession for the death march that is modern architecture and design.

      Connection

      Humane sustainable local

    1. Fellow-citizens, pardon me, allow me to ask, why am I called upon to speak here to-day? What have I, or those I represent, to do with your national independence? Are the great principles of political freedom and of natural justice, embodied in that Declaration of Independence, extended to us? and am I, therefore, called upon to bring our humble offering to the national altar, and to confess the benefits and express devout gratitude for the blessings resulting from your independence to us?

      I could imagine that this made the crowd very uncomfortable. It is one thing to point out hypocrisies and injustice at the hands of the maliciously ignorant, but to bluntly point at the blissfully/well-intended ignorant and honestly put them in the positon where they can see their own missteps is presumably more effective. Taking a common concept and then turning it into an argumentative weapon is as simple as realizing a pre-existing level of cognitive dissonance. Douglass is correct, what does a day of freedom mean to a people that are not free? Why then would these people want to speak about it? A sense of shame is put upon the crowd not for their inaction, but for their assumption and their generalizations that, in all honesty, may have been unknowingly delaying the situation of slavery through their ignorance. It is sometimes the biting critique of the subtle action that makes for a lasting and thoughtful argument.

    1. Derrida then criticizes speech-act theory for relying on this exploded notion of context.

      This was actually a major point of contention in our senior seminar class a few weeks back, when we were reading J.L. Austin's speech-act theory in How to Do Things with Words. Particularly when we discussed how the similarity between performative and constative (non-performative) statements begins to increase when evaluating their infelicities (lack of success; failures):

      “In order to explain what can go wrong with statements we cannot just concentrate on the proposition involved (whatever that is) as has been done traditionally. We must consider the total situation in which the utterance is issued—the total speech-act—if we are to see the parallel between constative statements and performative utterances, and how each can go wrong."

      Austin urges us here to seek out context as a way of identifying how both performative and constative statements can go wrong (or become "infelicitous") in distinct ways. Though performative and constative statements may appear similar without proper context, Austin argues that they become clearly different when considering individual situations.

    2. In "Signature Event Context," Derrida in fact attacks the idea that "context" can help to account for meaning.
    1. Progressive values demand empathy for the poor and this often manifests as hatred for the rich.
    2. I’m realizing more and more how desperately this perspective is needed as I watch researchers and advocates, politicians and everyday people judge others from their vantage point without taking a moment to understand why a particular logic might unfold.
  17. Feb 2017
  18. Jan 2017
    1. All human beings do this.

      It's interesting how this piece explores universality as well as context. There's a difficulty in determining biological universality, and it can result in misunderstandings and overgeneralizations, so awareness of the context, such as the location of these caves and their physical environments and shamanistic practices, proves important in understanding "pre-rhetoric." But I also think that there's a breaking down of the binary of science and art by using understandings of human biology and the physical environment of these caves in order to interpret the drawings.

  19. Dec 2016
  20. Nov 2016
    1. We're not the ones who're meant to follow.

      Armstrong and Dirnt turned to music as an escape and to bring a little excitement into their admittedly staid, suburban lives. Though many of their punk brethren have accused them of selling out, complaining that real punk rock cannot be found on a major corporate label, Green Day's success has not cast a shadow over their drive for fun. Dirnt commented to Rolling Stone, "I told Bill, 'Let's just take it as far as we can. Eventually we'll lose all the money and everything else, anyway. Let's just make sure we have one great big story at the end.'"

    2. Green Day

      Green Day began in San Francisco, California, as an escape for two troubled teens— Michael Dirnt and Billie Joe Armstrong. Dirnt (born Michael Pritchard) was the son of a heroin-addicted mother. A Native American woman and her white husband adopted Dirnt, but they divorced when he was an adolescent. At that time, Dirnt returned to his birth mother, then left home at age fifteen, renting a room from the family of a school friend—Billie Joe Armstrong. (The friendship had solidified around the time of the death of Armstrong's father, when Billie Joe was about ten years old.) Dirnt and Armstrong eventually moved out on their own, inhabiting various basements throughout Berkeley, California, and frequenting a club called the Gilman Street Project.Armstrong and Dirnt hired Jeff Kiftmeyer as the new drummer and began touring. Upon their return to California in 1990, Gilman Street Project regular Tré Cool replaced Kiftmeyer as the drummer. This combination turned into the formula for Green Day's success as the band tried to bring punk rock into the mainstream.This trio of tattooed, pierced, and dyed-hair 22-year-olds emerged in 1994 as one of the hottest commodities in the entertainment business and ushered in punk as the heir apparent to grunge in rock and roll's quirky evolution. For all their efforts, the band has helped make punk mainstream and opened the gates for other punk bands including former Lookout! labelmates, the Offspring and Rancid.

    3. "American Idiot" - Green Day

      Green Day's first number one album since 1994's multi-platinum Dookie--which is likely due to the fact that while the lyrics may have a deeper meaning, the hooks are still there, and they are played with the same intensity that made the group famous more than a decade ago. Spin said the title track was "Green Day's most epic song yet.

    4. And can you hear the sound of hysteria?

      Like their punk predecessors, Green Day showed commitment and passion in their songs while reveling in disorder with their outlandish stage theatrics. Whether drawn to the on-stage antics or the music, listeners have always responded well to Green Day. Audiences have purchased an unprecedented number of the band's albums and continue to attend their concerts in large numbers. Both critics and music industry organizations have handed the band honors and praise for its music and lyrics.

    5. All across the alien nation,

      Their lyrics dwell on "hormone-related" issues such as alienation, resentment, disillusionment, hopelessness, and self-destruction. Typically punk, they preach redemption through realism. It is not surprising then that Green Day's material was once classified as "music for people with raging hormones and short attention spans.

    6. Well, maybe I'm the ______ America.

      Moreover, critics lauded Dookie for its melodies and lyrics as well as for its controlled frenzy. In June 1994, Time reviewer Christopher John Farley even went so far as to declare the work the best rock CD of the year. In 1995, Dookie won the prestigious Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Performance. Rolling Stone Music Awards also recognized Dookie as the best album of the year and named Green Day the best band of 1995. "Longview" from Dookie also received two honors at Billboard's Music Video Awards. It was MTV's constant playing of "Longview" that made the punk-pop song more than an alternative hit and Green Day a major crossover success with mainstream audiences. Similarly, Green Day's singles earned impressive credits. In 1995, for example, "When I Come Around" spent more than twenty weeks on Billboard's Hot 100 Chart, eighteen weeks on the Modern Rock Tracks Chart, eleven weeks on the Hot 100 Recurrent Air Play List, and nine weeks on the Top 40 Air Play Chart. The next year "Geek Stink Breath" endured for eight weeks on Billboard's Hot 100 Air Play Chart.

    7. Don't want a nation under the new media.

      If ever an alternative rock group epitomized modern punk, it would be Green Day. Influenced by groups like British punk rockers The Sex Pistols and The Clash, as well as by the 1960s British Invasion pop group The Kinks, Green Day's Billie Joe Armstrong, Mike Dirnt, and Tré Cool built on the British punk sound of the 1970s to carve their own place in pop music history.

    8. Now everybody do the propaganda,And sing along to the age of paranoia.

      The work challenges listeners to dig deeper than the high-octane guitars and thundering drums that drive the record's jubilant pop sheen. This is a multi-layered, literate narrative that effectively wields anger, wit, and bombast to expose the ugliness that seeps below the surface of this country's patriotism, commercialism, and nationalism.

    9. We're not the ones who're meant to follow.

      "A lot of rock music lacks ambition. Rock has become stagnant. There are a lot of bands that aren't doing anything differently than what's currently going on in pop music--like issuing a single, putting out a record, making a video, and hopefully getting on a tour with a bigger band. I think the reason hip-hop has become so much bigger than rock lately is because those artists are much more ambitious, and they are making records that have a concept and characters. They sound like a script." ~Billy Joe Armstrong

    10. Television dreams of tomorrow.

      "All my songwriting is about creating a statement and taking action. On American Idiot, it's reflecting on what's going on in the world right now." ~Billy Joe Armstrong

    1. He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

      This points out what the King of England had been doing to cause this.

  21. Sep 2016
    1. This part would perhaps be a little bit clearer for readers if it included estimates of global temperature change during these different times, to associate with these numbers on sea level change.
  22. Aug 2016
    1. The very disrespect of Russians for objective truth--indeed, their disbelief in its existence--leads them to view all stated facts as instruments for furtherance of one ulterior purpose or another.

      Very revealing. Is this evidence of asian cultural influence?

    1. There was a culture then, almost a requirement, that one needed to build platforms and contexts (social or political) to support one’s thesis, and then material practice would follow. These issues were pressing, because by this time I had begun to teach at Cooper Union. I was negotiating between promoting a rigorous painting model and a new context—conversations with students and colleagues about contemporary art issues and institutional critique. So it was a very complicated time for me as an educator, to figure out how to insist on a conversation about painting rigor in relation to contemporary art. I continued to go the way that I needed to with my own work, both protecting it from the institutional framework and furthering my ideas about painting in school and in the studio—it was a tough, amazing time.
  23. Jul 2016
    1. Communication was a central concern of black and white teachers, parents, and mill personnel who felt the need to know more about how others communicated: why students and teachers often could not understand each other, why questions were sometimes not answered, and why habitual ways of talking and listening did not always seem to work.

      So this is why Heath's ethnography is a cornerstone of ethnographies of communication.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. who felt the need to know more about how others communicated

      History/background for why Heath's study is a foundational cornerstone of ethnographies of communication.

    1. right-click

      Windows=right-click Mac=context menu

    2. Diigo

      Diigo is my 'comfy' link, image, and pdf collector. It serves the same function as Hypothes.is--annotator and aggregator. It has many more functions than Hypothes.is including outlining, screenshots, autoblogging.

    3. Zotero

      Zotero is my go-to academic info database. It gathers meta-tags so that it can automatically create citations, bibliographies, and reports. Unlike its competitor Mendeley, it is open source and free. It works as a standalone and as an extension.

  24. Apr 2016
    1. From: Jennifer Scribner-Snyder To: Beth Fremont Sent: Wed, 08/18/1999 9:06 AM Subject: Where are you?

      This novel opens with an unusual form of point of view: an email exchange. Embedded in this first chapter are allusions to the era in which the novel is set. How does the email "POV" and the allusions help contextualize the story?

  25. Jan 2016
    1. The journal will accommodate data but should be presented in the context of a paper. The Winnower should not act as a forum for publishing data sets alone. It is our feeling that data in absence of theory is hard to interpret and thus may cause undue noise to the site.

      This will be the case also for the data visualizations showed here, once the data is curated and verified properly. Still data visualizations can start a global conversation without having the full paper translated to English.

    1. Equality of political rights will not compensate for the denial of the equal right to the bounty of nature. Political liberty, when the equal right to land is denied, becomes, as population increases and invention goes on, merely the liberty to compete for employment at starvation wages. This is the truth that we have ignored. And so there come beggars in our streets and tramps on our roads; and poverty enslaves men whom we boast are political sovereigns; and want breeds ignorance that our schools cannot enlighten; and citizens vote as their masters dictate; and the demagogue usurps the part of the statesman; and gold weighs in the scales of justice; and in high places sit those who do not pay to civic virtue even the compliment of hypocrisy; and the pillars of the republic that we thought so strong already bend under an increasing strain.

      This paragraph wisely incorporates some of the key words found in our Pledge of Allegiance: liberty, justice, and republic. The passage highlights the corruption the hides behind the principles our country is prided on. "The pillars of the republic" for which we stand are weakening, because there is not truly liberty and justice for all. Liberty requires equality, and justice cannot be influenced by money.

    2.  the evils arising from the unjust and unequal distribution of wealth, which are becoming more and more apparent as modern civilization goes on, are not incidents of progress, but tendencies which must bring progress to a halt

      This particular section of the piece seems to really attack the Robber Barons of the Gilded Age (Rockefeller, Carnegie, etc.). My interpretation of the document is: George is trying to convey a thought most citizens wouldn't have thought of, and that is the thought, "money does NOT equal progress". There is plenty of money to be spread around in order to make an equal distribution of wealth. The reason why George feels progression is halted is because there is a flaw in the way that wealth is distributed.

    3. the evils arising from the unjust and unequal distribution of wealth, which are becoming more and more apparent as modern civilization goes on, are not incidents of progress, but tendencies which must bring progress to a halt

      Paraphrase: There is no coincidence that inequality is occurring in the world due to certain evils that are becoming more apparent as time passes and will lead to the end of progress.

      Context: People are beginning to recognize and voice their opinions about social inequality during this time period, such as unequal distribution of wealth. When before only a few people spoke out about this injustice. The inequality that is occurring is not an accident that occurs as time moves forward, but is the direct result of the corrupt mindset of some individuals. This mindset will cause civilization to stop progressing.

      Example: For example, some people still have the mindset that only prestigious citizens (meaning political figures or people whose family has had a legacy of being wealthy or well known) should be wealthy. This mindset hinders a community because everyone does not have equal access to resources and this inequality is the very thing that leads to poverty and an accumulation of poverty does not equal progress.

    1. National Constitution Center

      Image Description

      The National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is across the street from Independence Hall where both the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence were signed.

      Image Description

      The choice of location is obviously deeply symbolic, linking Obama’s presidential bid with the founding moment of US history. A black president would go a long way to “finishing” the “improbable experiment” in equality begun by the Constitutional Convention in 1787.

    2. March 18, 2008

      Image Description

      This now famous speech was originally delivered during Obama's campaign for the 2008 Democratic Party presidential nomination. While it was given in response to criticism over his association with the controversial pastor Jeremiah Wright, the speech more broadly serves to locate his historic campaign within the arc of US history.

  26. Dec 2015
    1. Consider the aspectpan objectqhas››››—pa weightq. At some point in history, thiswould have been considered a valid function. Now we know that the same objectwould have a different weight on the moon than it has on earth. Thus as world-views change, we often need to add more information to our olog. Even the validityofpan object on earthqhas››››—pa weightqis questionable. However to build a modelwe need to choose a level of granularity and try to stay within it, or the whole modelevaporates into the nothingness of truth!
  27. Sep 2015
    1. Second, this archive is meant to bridge a gap between the digital world, where anything that cannot be concretely categorized is often left by the wayside, and the physical object with its rich set of significations. Rather than the standard structure of a TEI document, an alternative TEI schema privileging the manuscript page as an object and its appearance has been used throughout. Additionally, where necessary other metadata standards have been incorporated into the description as well. In this way, the hope is that the physical object is described and displayed in a way that preserves the connections made by the physical object itself while also holding to common and accepted metadata standards.

      Makes sense to me after 2 years of postdoc. Is it at all possible to simplify this to a non TEI using audience--if you want to appeal to them?

    1. This page, presented as a series of questions, is intended to help prevent that abstraction. It is also intended to remind the reader that although these items are currently being viewed digitally they exist in the physical world as very real objects and that both the decisions made and the means by which they are interpreted should reflect that.
  28. Feb 2014
    1. Chapter 1, The Art of Community We begin the book with a bird’s-eye view of how communities function at a social science level. We cover the underlying nuts and bolts of how people form communities, what keeps them involved, and the basis and opportunities behind these interactions. Chapter 2, Planning Your Community Next we carve out and document a blueprint and strategy for your community and its future growth. Part of this strategy includes the target objectives and goals and how the community can be structured to achieve them. PREFACE xix Chapter 3, Communicating Clearly At the heart of community is communication, and great communicators can have a tremendously positive impact. Here we lay down the communications backbone and the best practices associated with using it

      Reading the first 3 chapters of AoC for discussion in #coasespenguin on 2013-02-11.

    2. THE ART OF

      The Art of Community

    1. To read his pro ofs, one must b e privy to a whole sub culture of motivations, standard arguments and examples, habits of thought and agreed-up on mo des of reasoning.

      One of the most damning things about mathematical writing. So much "rigor" and not enough context.

    1. Advice from Doug Mcilroy

      I love finding these kinds of documents that capture the thoughts of moments in history where simple, profound ideas are made manifest and have the kind of longevity to still be the core of the foundation that the modern world is built on.

    1. As far as I know, the major concerns of Zotero are: Storing and searching items in a library Assigning user-supplied metadata to these items Exporting the metada in some common bibliogaphic formats Additional, it appears Zotero allows to store notes. So what's the relationship to h? To the extent notes in Zotero can accommodate the richness of an annotation, it could be a storage backend for h. Notes are page-level annotations, at least. We could allow Zotero users with existing libraries to import their notes as annotations.

      The question "So what's the relationship to h?" is a good one here; in particular, where does h end and other services/apps begin? I have quite a few thoughts in this area, including possible h spin-off companies, but my first interest in thinking about integrating it with other services is more from a strategic engineering perspective: what are the best places to focus h development so that it fits that composable unix-y philosophy of "do one thing well"; and I translate that thinking from tool to person... how can h help me do one thing well? As an end-user, even though I am admittedly a power-user with a lot of tools, I actually want to use as few tools as possible. The browser-extension part of h is the single most important part of the project from my end-user perspective-- the back-end infrastructure is there to support the browser-extension doing one thing well.

      The one thing I want h to do for me that I can't do with any other tool that I know of is to allow me to rapidly track my reading and thinking and note-taking habits together. I want to be able to quickly select multiple portions of text and apply commentary and tags to the text within particular activity-based or goal-based contexts. The last part of that thought is the essential element I need that is missing. Speeding up the text selection would be very helpful in making it a tool I want to use on a daily basis for everything I do, but the contexts feature is what will make h a killer app for me.

    1. Alternatively, Daphne Koller and Andrew Ng who are the founders of Coursera, a Stanford MOOC startup, have decided to use peer evaluation to assess writing. Koller and Ng (2012) specifically used the term “calibrated peer review” to refer to a method of peer review distinct from an application developed by UCLA with National Science Foundation funding called Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR). For Koller and Ng, “calibrated peer review” is a specific form of peer review in which students are trained on a particular scoring rubric for an assignment using practice essays before they begin the peer review process.
    1. Ho w to R ead a Judicia l Opin ion: A G uid e for N ew L aw Stu den ts Professor Orin S. Kerr George Washington University Law School Washington, DC Version 2.0 (August 2005) This essay is desig ned to help entering law students understand ho w to read cas es for class. It explains what judicial opinions are, how they are structured, and what you should look for when you read them. Part I explains the various ingredients found in a typical judicial opinion, and is the most essential section of the essay . Par t II discusses what you should look for when you re ad an opinion for class. Part II I con clu des with a brief discussion of why law schools use the case method.

      I need a way to add tags to a document that will apply to all annotations in a particular document (except where explicitly canceled).

      The problem is that I often want to query all annotations related to a specific document, collection of documents, or type of activity.

      Type of activity requires further explanation: Given a document or collection of documents I may annotate the document for different reasons at different times.

      For example, while annotating the reading materials, video transcripts, and related documents for the CopyrightX course there are certain types of annotations that may be "bundled together" so that when I search for those things later I can easily narrow my searches to just that subset of annotations; but at the same time I need a way to globally group things together.

      While reading judicial opinions the first activity/mode of interaction with a particular document may be to identify the structure of the judicial opinion (the document attached to this annotation describes the parts of the judicial opinion I might want to identify: *caption, case citation, author, facts of the case, law of the case, disposition, concurring and/or dissenting opinions, etc).

      The above-described mode I may use for multiple documents in one session related to the course syllabus for the week.

      To connect each of these documents together I might add the tags: copyx (my shorthand for the name of the course, CopyrightX), week 1 (how far into the course syllabus), foundations (the subject matter in the syllabus which may span week 1, week 2, etc), judicial opinions (the specific topic I am focused on learning at the moment (may or may not be related to the syllabus).

      Later on another day I might update my existing annotations or add new ones when I am preparing to study for an exam. I might add tags like to study, on midterm, on final to mark areas I need to review.

      After the exam I might add more tags based on my test score, especially focusing on areas that received a poor score so I can study that section more or, if I missed some sections so didn't study and it resulted in a poor score in that area, add tags to study for later if necessary.

      I have many more examples and modes of interaction in mind that I can explain more later, but it all hinges on a rich and flexible tagging system that:

      • allows tagging a document once in a way that applies to all annotations in a document
      • allows tagging a session once in a way that applies to all annotations in all documents connected to a particular session
      • allows tagging a session and/or a document that bundles together new tags added to an annotation (e.g. tags for grammar/spelling, tags for rhetological fallacy classification, etc)
      • fast keyboard-based selection of content
      • batch selection of annotation areas with incremental filling-- I may want to simply select all the parts of a document to annotate first and then increment through each of those placeholders to fill in tags and commentary
      • Mark multiple sections of the document at once to combine into a single annotation
      • Excerpting only parts of a text selection, but still carry the surrounding textual context with the excerpt to easily expose the surrounding context when necessary
      • A summary view of a document that is the result of remixing parts of the original document with both clarifications or self-containing summary re-writes and/or commentary from the reader
      • structural tagging vs content tagging
  29. Nov 2013
    1. But we produce these representations in and from ourselves with the same necessity with which the spider spins. If we are forced to comprehend all things only under these forms, then it ceases to be amazing that in all things we actually comprehend nothing but these forms.

      All that we comprehend exists in context to the forms and concepts we create and the webs we weave.

    2. This awakens the idea that, in addition to the leaves, there exists in nature the "leaf": the original model according to which all the leaves were perhaps woven,

      When in actuality "leaf" is merely the distinction of singularity, meaning not "leaves". Not based on an "original" model at all, but a distinction what it is related, and not equal to. Concepts and words only create "context"; the water that all distinctions, all rhetoric, and all convention swims in.

  30. Oct 2013
    1. In like manner, whether an exordium be necessary or superfluous, whether it should be short or long, whether it should be wholly addressed to the judge, or, by the aid of some figure of speech, directed occasionally to others, whether the statement of facts should be concise or copious, continuous or broken, in the order of events or in any other, the nature of the causes themselves must show

      Everything depends on context and situation, writer's must learn how to gauge these for themselves.

    1. A word taken singly is more often objectionable than faultless, for however we may express anything with propriety, elegance, and sublimity, none of these qualities arise from anything but the connection and order of the discourse, since we commend single words merely as being well suited to the matter.

      Importance of context. meaning only comes through connection