124 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2021
    1. Additionally it has a lot of pros like lightweight, transparent, easily testable and reusable etc. In every way, Spring framework is magic.
  2. Jul 2021
  3. Jun 2021
  4. May 2021
    1. In 1962, a book called Silent Spring by Rachel Carson documenting the widespread ecological harms caused by synthetic pesticides went off like a metaphorical bomb in the nascent environmental movement.

      Where is the Silent Spring in the data, privacy, and social media space?

  5. Apr 2021
    1. Sweetshrub grows best in average to rich, well-drained soil in anywhere from full sun to deep shade. It prefers some shade in hot summer afternoons and it will grow lankier and less dense in shade than in sun. It is tolerant of a wide range of soil textures and pH but prefers rich loams.  Plant it 3 to 5 feet from other shrubs to give it adequate room to grow.  It blooms in early spring before leaves emerge, with the leaves, and sporadically thereafter.  

      Very tolerant of shade or sun and most soils.

  6. Mar 2021
  7. Feb 2021
    1. Course content headings should stand out in terms of font and position relative to other wording and outline. Use of bullets, italics and balancing does not enhance readability. Also, consistency of the columns and layout for the table are off, causing inconsistency and confusion due to improper alignments and proportion lacking overall for the contents table and outline. Topic headers are of the same color, value, shape and form for calling out new and important categories, where they should have different shape and form as well as alignment. Additional emphasis could be added to grading section to call out evaluative criteria for this are. Movement from section to section should be consistent with formatting and shapes as well as alignments that guide reader and students strategically. Hyperlinks could be properly formatted to allow for seamless movement through syllabus allowing for better connectivity and fluidity. More strategic use of images that guide learner in direction of necessary materials and reading texts associated with the class, which also allow for a variety and contrast between themes and required materials.

    1. Instead of reading for content or to better understand the ideas in the writing (which you will automatically do to some degree anyway), you are trying to understand how the piece of writing was put together by the author and what you can learn about writing by reading a particular text.

      The ability to understand Historical events requires a different skill set than the ability to put those understandings into words. historical study is saddled with the expectation of years of compiling data and research. To even pursue higher education it is required to do so. Learning how other Historians and individuals put their thoughts and research into an essay or collection is one of the most important weapons in a Historians arsenal.

    2. As a college student, you must be ready to explore and examine a wide range of ideas, whether you agree with them or not.

      This is my biggest take away from this article. Before understanding strategy, theory, or study one has to be able to take in and understand multiple objective points of truth. Our one understanding of an event or idea is just one of billions. To fully embrace other ideas even if they go against our very moral fiber is the most important tool any person can learn. It is not something that can be taught in school or through reading but in practicum and years of conscious effort and even that may not be enough.

    3. Review

      Some of my classmates have already highlighted this particular strategy but I feel it bears repeating. Reviewing not only helps to ensure you have a fresh understanding but also to make certain that an individual is confident in their study. If we also span a few years, revisiting old work and research can help put into perspective how our views have changed and the growth we've certainly achieved. Putting points together from two different times is a fantastic way to chart and understand growth from a personal and Historical perpective.

    4. . This means that the goal of the paper is to research a topic and develop an argument about it using evidence and facts to support your position.

      Argumentative style research and discussion helps to create an environment of discussion. By researching a topic through your own means and building an objective opinion it expands the avenues for how History can be interpreted. but more than that it allows researchers the means to justify and have discourse on their varying perspectives.

    5. Web sites and blogs can be a source of insight and information, but not all are useful as academic resources.

      The most important thing I believe for Historical study learning how to identify reputable sources for reference. Looking towards an authors experience on the subject, the domain of the website, and even if the material has been referenced elsewhere can help determining the validity of the material.

    1. How does the armed conflict in Guatemala compare with other wars?

      Here the author is showing exactly the questions he hopes to find answers to. These listed questions enable us to understand his motive and purpose for the layout of this article. Similarly I am looking for what his main purpose is in conveying the information and how best to look at it. Why did he write this? What does the information relate to? how can I interpret and utilize this research myself? these are my biggest questions and goals in tandem with understanding his own.

    2. (pp. , )

      The article utilizes annotations like these to directly link to articles and passages that the author used throughout. However more importantly the author uses dates throughout the writing to build not only physical reference points for curious users but to also enable the audience the ability to have a starting point for their own desired study.

    3. the geographical review

      The article is laid out in segments, distinguished by headers. This breaks up the information into easy to comprehend bursts that shift the focus onto new topics.

    4. As sick-ening as they are incriminating, the teeming contents of the ahpn are unlikely,given the impunity that prevails in Guatemala, to bring little more than tokenjustice to the perpetrators of among the most heinous abuses of human rights in allof Latin America.

      There seems to be more emphasis on building a foundation for explaining the history predating this event than the construction of an explicit argument. The piece acts more like a conduit with reference and definitions to help readers understand the context of preexisting organizations and events. This in turns enables us to understand the event more. By forgoing an overall argument we are instead able to better understand the grotesque nature of the themes of the event and form a base realization of its ramifications. Not all historical articles need to be argumentative, teaching is just if not more effective.

    1. Identify key distinctions. Scholars often make important conceptual distinctions in their work.

      This entire point right here from my personal opinion may be the most important in understanding History. The distinctions of ideas and experiences is what makes Historical Study so rewarding and complicated. Different viewpoints on the same event can create a whole picture and build a narrative inclusive to as many sides as possible. The variation is what creates depth of study and builds a base for further research.

    2. you must become what one author calls a “predatory” reader. That is, you must learn to quickly determine the important parts of the scholarly material you read

      This piece may be the single most critical point take away from the article. It states the overall message trying to be conveyed as well as sets up groundwork for further exploration. In study of any topic there is an abundance of information, deciphering and cross referencing that material is the objective purpose of historians. In order to understand and compile that information one has to be able to study quickly and efficiently past and new works. The steps that follow this statement are building upon its base claim.

    3. They also tell you what the paragraph that follows will be about.

      THE most valuable piece information,because if there is no other pieces of good evidence you can look back at the topic sentence.

    4. Identify “signposts.” 

      Having the knowledge of the basic foundation of literature and composition. Knowing the vocabulary and applying it to the subjects.

    5. Think pragmatically. 

      making sure to have a realistic mindset

    6. you must become what one author calls a “predatory” reader. That is, you must learn to quickly determine the important parts of the scholarly material you read

      You have to learn how to become a more assertive, dedicated reader that knows how to handle/ comprehend the material. While also learning to prioritize what is most important

    7. Finally

      "Predatory" reading makes me think of building a house. You have to get the foundation (argument?), build the frame (topic sentences and "signposts"), and add the walls, roof, ect. (the rest of the written work). After you've built your house, you should inspect it (reread) to prepare for sale.

    8. Signposts

      A good signpost should let us know where we are going and help us find our place when rereading.

    9. argument

      "Argument"-this is our main target.

    10. What does it “do” for the author’s argument?

      Ask your "why?" (Why does this matter? Why was this included?) and your "What?" (What is the writer's goal? What is the main take away here?)

    11. you must learn to quickly determine the important parts of the scholarly material you read

      Reading for pleasure gives us the time to take the material in as thoroughly as we'd like. "Predatory" reading of scholarly works requires us to select our target and take firm hold of it.

    12. Reading scholarly material requires a new set of skills.

      The best way for comprehending scholarly works is to understand the meaning of the work that you're reading and to look at all different angles.

    13. Think pragmatically.

      Reading for pleasure is a lot simpler than reading nonfiction books because when reading for pleasure, it would typically be a fiction story and those are always one path of reading. But when reading nonfiction or scholarly books, it's only taken form that persons point of view, even though there are probably a bunch other angles you could look at it through.

  8. Jan 2021
  9. Nov 2020
    1. too old for the spring

      Spring is usually associated with birth, life, and youth, so it makes sense that Mr. Neave being old would make him unfit for Spring. But on the other hand, I've never heard someone complain about being too old for Spring. I've heard my grandmother complain about winter or summer, but spring is a pretty nice and easy season for the elderly.

  10. Mar 2020
  11. Nov 2019
  12. Nov 2018
    1. As regime after regime fell, the world watched transfixed, glued to the social media feeds of thousands of young people from the region who had taken to tweeting, streaming, and reporting from the ground.

      I'm reminded of Gil Scott-Heron's seminal 1970 song The Revolution Will Not Be Televised


    1. properties or constructor arguments


    2. You can let Spring resolve collaborators (other beans) automatically

      在基于XML配置元数据,在bean的配置信息中我们可以使用<constructor-arg/><property/> 属性来实现Spring的依赖注入(DI)。Spring 容器也可以在不使用<constructor-arg>和<property>元素下自动装配各个bean之间的依赖关系。</property></constructor-arg>

      这个就是 Spring 提供的 @Autowiring annotation

  13. Mar 2018
    1. And we do desire to make known to our subjects who have settled there and who will in the future set up residence there that although they live in climates infinitely far away, we are always present to them by the reach of our power and our diligence in suc-coring them.

      Saying although they are far away they will still control them

    2. rules to maintain the teaching of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Church

      France wants to develop rules coming from the Roman Catholic Apostolic Church

    3. The Directors of the Company of the Indies having informed us that the Province and Colony of Louisiana has been firmly established by a great num-ber of our subjects who make use of Black slaves to cultivate their lands

      France is aware of how many Black slaves that were being used in Louisianna

    4. The original Code Nair was issued by French king Louis XIV in 1685 to govern slavery in these islands.

      The code came out way later then when they actually started slave trading

    1. greater fear to the English reporting they saw 200.

      Their plan to control the perception of others

    2. a group of proprietors received a royal grant to establish the colony of South Carolina.

      Even though not British land at the time they had a royal grant to establish a colony

    3. There is a small party of English out after them, and the most potent Kingdome of the Indians armed by us and continually in pursuit of them. . . . and if they can make good wine hear, which they have great hopes of, and this year will be the time of tryall which if it hits no doubt but the place will flourish exceedingly, but if the vines do not prosper I question whither it will ever be any great place of trade. . . .

      Sounds like the relationship between British colonists and neighboring Native nations was not good at least from the British side.

    1. wanted to entice English

      Will be a persuasive letter

    2. so that no man is to be molested or called in question for matters of Religious Concern; but every one to be obedient to the Civil Government, worshipping God after their own way.

      This new found land hasn't decided what religion will rule yet.

    1. Thou art not as bold nor as stout as we, because when thou goest on a voyage thou canst not carry upon thy shoulders thy buildings and thy edifices.

      Saying that no one is as bold or as stout as his people, with the Indian way of life, one can pick up and move home when they please.

    2. I am greatly astonished that the French have so little cleverness, as they seem to exhibit in the matter of which thou hast just told me on their behalf, in the effort to persuade us to convert our poles, our barks, and our wigwams into those houses of stone and of wood which are tall and lofty, according to their account, as these trees.

      Just by the beginning of the way that the Native American responds to the French, makes him seem very prideful of his own people.

    3. Thou reproachest us, very inappropriately, that our country is a little hell in contrast with France, which thou comparest to a terrestrial paradise, inasmuch as it yields thee, so thou safest, every kind of provision in abundance. Thou sayest of us also that we are the most miserable and most unhappy of all men, living without religion, without manners, without honour, without social order, and, in a word, without any rules, like the beasts in our woods and our forests, lacking bread, wine, and a thousand other comforts which thou hast in superfluity in Europe.

      Recognizing the way that the French and Europeans view Native American people and is disagreeing with it.

    1. We know that the seasons in the underworld are different from ours, because the water in the springs is always warmer in winter and cooler in summer than the outer air.

      Could be talking about the Underworld representing the other side of the world from were the cherokee were, when it stated that the underworld had opposite seasons then what the cherokee people had.

    2. When the animals above saw this, they were afraid that the whole world would be mountains, so they called him back, but the Cherokee country remains full of mountains to this day.

      Saying that the Great Buzzard flew through the cherokee country creating valleys and mountains just by the way he flew around early earth.

    3. The earth is a great island floating in a sea of water, and suspended at each of the four cardinal points by a cord hanging down from the sky vault, which is of solid rock. When the world grows old and worn out, the people will die and the cords will break and let the earth sink down into the ocean, and all will be water again. The Indians are afraid of this.

      The Cherokee Indians are afraid and believe that the world is going to get sunken under water because of the amount of people who die over time as the earth gets older. This is an interesting creation theory as it is obvious that their are so many tribes with so many different creation belief stories.

    4. Bald Eagle called to Coyote who happened to be going by and said to him, “Do you see that woman?” Try her first!”

      I think that the Bald Eagle god told the cayote to have intercoarse with a women before the first man of the world did, eventually letting the man and women live together.

    5. the Bald Eagle was the chief of the animals. He saw the world was incomplete and decided to make some human beings. So he took some clay and modeled the figure of a man and laid him on the ground.

      The Salinan Indians believed that the Bald Eagle was the creator of man and women as if it is a sort of animal god of humans on earth.

    1. Native peoples in the Southwest began constructing these highly defensible cliff dwellings

      These highly defensible cliff dwellings could be considered highly defensible due to the tall outside walls of the dwellings. Also the placement, being underneath a cliff, gives enemies no way of penetrating from the back.

    2. Cliff Palace had 23 kivas and 150 rooms housing a population of approximately 100 people; the number of rooms and large population has led scholars to believe that this complex may have been the center of a larger polity that included surrounding communities.

      There was 150 rooms built inside of a castle type of structure underneath a cliff in the Mesa Verde National Cliff Palace. The structure makes a different and clustered way of life for those living in 1190-1300 CE.

    1. I myself have heard the Spaniards themselves (who dare not assume the Confidence to deny the good Nature in them) declare, that there was nothing wanting in them for the acquisition of eternal grace,

      Another quick and subtle dig at the Native American people coming from the Spanish once again. When one doesn't understand something they usually criticize them.

    2. nd behave themselves very patiently, submissively and quietly towards the Spaniards, to whom they are subservient and subject; so that finally they live without the least thirst after revenge, laying aside all litigiousness, Commotion and hatred…

      Funny to see the Spaniards point of view on how the Native Americans reacted to being taken over and controlled by newcomers. The spaniards did not give the Native American people enough humanity as they conquered their lands.

  14. Feb 2018
    1. Allusive works are also prey to allegations of plagiarism at worst, and lack of originality at best. Eliot commented that one justification for including the notes to The Waste Landwas to counter the accusations of plagiarism that had greeted his earlier, heavily allusive poems.45Such accusations show a basic misunderstanding of the nature ofallusion. Plagiarism, unlike allusion, seeks to be invisible and undiscovered, and furthermore, it does not attempt to create any tensions of meaning between the old and new usage of the plagiarized materials.

      William Carlos Williams criticism of The Waste Land-- "copyist tendencies," and "the traditions of plagiarism." from Spring and All. A common criticism.

  15. Oct 2016
    1.   April is the cruellest month, breeding

      April is the cruelest month in that weather conditions are known to be less forgiving; rain messes up terrain, and some places deal with snow instead. Nonetheless the rain nourishes plants and pastures, and more life comes from what has died prior.

  16. Sep 2016
  17. May 2016
    1. Like generic application contexts, web application contexts are hierarchical. There is a single root context per application, while each servlet in the application (including a dispatcher servlet in the MVC framework) has its own child context.

      hierarchcal means root context & servelet context?

  18. Apr 2016
    1. The following autumn I ventured upon a college career against my mother's will.    I had written for her approval, but in her reply I found no encouragement.

      This passage exemplifies the theme of Zitkala Sa's despondent longing for her mother's encouragement and support. Zitkala Sa expresses this theme more as she moves farther away from her mother and continually discriminated against for being different.

  19. Mar 2016
    1. While I thus went on, filled with the thoughts of freedom, and resisting oppression as well as I was able, my life hung daily in suspense, particularly in the surfs I have formerly mentioned, as I could not swim. These are extremely violent throughout the West Indies, and I was ever exposed to their howling rage and devouring fury in all the islands.

      The use of imagery inspires fear and exemplifies Equiano's challenges.

    2. "—No peace is given To us enslav'd, but custody severe; And stripes and arbitrary punishment Inflicted—What peace can we return? But to our power, hostility and hate; Untam'd reluctance, and revenge, though slow, Yet ever plotting how the conqueror least May reap his conquest, and may least rejoice In doing what we most in suffering feel."

      This poem expresses the emotion and sensory experience of perseverance through brutality.

    3. those many instances of oppression, extortion, and cruelty, which I have been a witness to in the West Indies: but, were I to enumerate them all, the catalogue would be tedious and disgusting. The punishments of the slaves on every trifling occasion are so frequent, and so well known, together with the different instruments with which they are tortured, that it cannot any longer afford novelty to recite them; and they are too shocking to yield delight either to the writer or the reader. I shall therefore hereafter only mention such as incidentally befel myself in the course of my adventures.

      Equiano's use of emotion through the times that he is beaten is hard to read. Yet, the way he perseveres through his struggles is captivating.

    4. This speech of the captain was like life to the dead to me, and instantly my soul glorified God; and still more so on hearing my master immediately say that I was a sensible fellow, and he never did intend to use me as a common slave; and that but for the entreaties of the captain, and his character of me, he would not have let me go from the stores about as I had done; that also, in so doing, he thought by carrying one little thing or other to different places to sell I might make money.

      Equiano seems ecstatic that others are showing him compassion that most common slaves did not receive during this time period. This shift in tone could easily make the reader feel empathy and happiness for Equiano at the same time.

    5. Had I wished to run away I did not want opportunities, which frequently presented themselves; and particularly at one time, soon after this. When we were at the island of Gaurdeloupe there was a large fleet of merchantmen bound for Old France; and, seamen then being very scarce, they gave from fifteen to twenty pounds a man for the run. Our mate, and all the white sailors, left our vessel on this account, and went on board of the French ships. They would have had me also to go with them, for they regarded me; and they swore to protect me, if I would go: and, as the fleet was to sail the next day, I really believe I could have got safe to Europe at that time.

      Equiano is incredibly smart and he uses pathos to convince his readers of this. Even though there are a lot of opportunities for Equiano to leave and escape, he stays and through his servitude is able to gain freedom.

    6. in the year 1765; and during the time we were loading her, and getting ready for the voyage, I worked with redoubled alacrity, from the hope of getting money enough by these voyages to buy my freedom in time, if it should please God; and also to see the town of Philadelphia, which I had heard a great deal about for some years past; besides which, I had always longed to prove my master's promise the first day I came to him.

      During this time period, many Europeans feared that the bible would lead to higher educated slaves. In addition they believed that these educated slaves would in turn revolt against the abuse of power displayed by landowning whites.

    7. for one Sunday night, as I was with some negroes in their master's yard in the town of Savannah, it happened that their master, one Doctor Perkins, who was a very severe and cruel man, came in drunk; and, not liking to see any strange negroes in his yard, he and a ruffian of a white man he had in his service beset me in an instant, and both of them struck me with the first weapons they could get hold of. I cried out as long as I could for help and mercy; but, though I gave a good account of myself, and he knew my captain, who lodged hard by him, it was to no purpose. They beat and mangled me in a shameful manner, leaving me near dead. I lost so much blood from the wounds I received, that I lay quite motionless, and was so benumbed that I could not feel any thing for many hours. Early in the morning they took me away to the jail.

      The injustices committed by white landowning males demonstrates the destructiveness of the slave trade. Through abusing and dehumanizing slaves such as Equiano's slave owners and powerful white males were able to strip slaves of their identity and in Equiano's case even his family.

    8. When we were safe arrived at Montserrat, and I had got ashore, I forgot my former resolutions.—Alas! how prone is the heart to leave that God it wishes to love! and how strongly do the things of this world strike the senses and captivate the soul!—After our vessel was discharged, we soon got her ready, and took in, as usual, some of the poor oppressed natives of Africa, and other negroes; we then set off again for Georgia and Charlestown.

      Equiano sympathizes with African Americans as he was from Africa. Even though this is not proven, "Equiano must surely have known that the most intensive search would be made to discredit his work and, through it, the abolition movement. To invent a childhood that could at any time be publicly revealed as a fraud would be such a potentially damaging maneuver that Equiano, who was clearly deeply committed to the cause, would not have risked it. Under such circumstances, Equiano's account of his African origins must surely be reliable."

      Carey, Brycchan. "OLAUDAH EQUIANO African or American?" Ideas, iEsthetics, and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era: 229-46. Print.

    9. I had been told one evening of a wise woman, a Mrs. Davis, who revealed secrets, foretold events, &c. I put little faith in this story at first, as I could not conceive that any mortal could foresee the future disposals of Providence, nor did I believe in any other revelation than that of the Holy Scriptures; however, I was greatly astonished at seeing this woman in a dream that night, though a person I never before beheld in my life; this made such an impression on me, that I could not get the idea the next day out of my mind, and I then became as anxious to see her as I was before indifferent; accordingly in the evening, after we left off working, I inquired where she lived, and being directed to her, to my inexpressible surprise, beheld the very woman in the very same dress she appeared to me to wear in the vision. She immediately told me I had dreamed of her the preceding night; related to me many things that had happened with a correctness that astonished me; and finally told me I should not be long a slave: this was the more agreeable news, as I believed it the more readily from her having so faithfully related the past incidents of my life. She said I should be twice in very great danger of my life within eighteen months, which, if I escaped, I should afterwards go on well; so, giving me her blessing, we parted.

      This vision that Equiano encounters exemplifies his religious faith. Through this religious faith Equiano is able to think about the future in different settings. This particular vision foreshadows Equiano's plans and journey in the near future.

    10. When I left the room I immediately went, or rather flew, to the vessel, which being loaded, my master, as good as his word, trusted me with a tierce of rum, and another of sugar, when we sailed, and arrived safe at the elegant town of Philadelphia. I soon sold my goods here pretty well; and in this charming place I found every thing plentiful and cheap.

      Equiano continues to invest his good fortunes for greater profits in the future. His frugality and ability to understand a capitalistic system eventually leads Equiano to purchasing his freedom.

    11. but as I thought that if it were God's will I ever should be freed it would be so, and, on the contrary, if it was not his will it would not happen; so I hoped, if ever I were freed, whilst I was used well, it should be by honest means; but, as I could not help myself, he must do as he pleased; I could only hope and trust to the God of Heaven; and at that instant my mind was big with inventions and full of schemes to escape.

      In the scholarly article titled, "The Poetics of Belonging in the Age of Enlightenment: Spiritual Metaphors of Being in Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative," author Rebecka Fisher argues that, "Equiano uses onto-theological metaphors of being to resist the realities and politics of empire, a politics that ensured that polities could never smoothly transition from empires to states, that upheaval and shifting allegiances would consistently characterize an individual’s existence, and that the character of modern human being would always be of a fractured but navigable nature."

      Fisher, Rebecka Rutledge. "The Poetics of Belonging in the Age of Enlightenment: Spiritual Metaphors of Being in Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative." Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal: 72-97. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 7 Mar. 2016.

    12. 'I must sell you again: you cost me a great deal of money, no less than forty pounds sterling; and it will not do to lose so much. You are a valuable fellow,' continued he; 'and I can get any day for you one hundred guineas, from many gentlemen in this island.' And then he told me of Captain Doran's brother-in-law, a severe master, who ever wanted to buy me to make me his overseer. My captain also said he could get much more than a hundred guineas for me in Carolina.

      This is a common theme of separation from friends and family. Most slaves were dehumanized through being separated from their loved ones.

    13. I went with him into this vessel, and we took a load of new slaves for Georgia and Charles Town. My master now left me entirely to the captain, though he still wished for me to be with him; but I, who always much wished to lose sight of the West Indies, was not a little rejoiced at the thoughts of seeing any other country.

      This quote exemplifies Equiano's servitude but it also shows that he is partaking in some of the same cruelties that brought him to America. Instead of practicing civil disobedience Equiano is looking out for himself instead of a group of mistreated slaves.

    14. is it surprising that slaves, when mildly treated, should prefer even the misery of slavery to such a mockery of freedom? I was now completely disgusted with the West Indies, and thought I never should be entirely free until I had left them.

      Equiano expresses his opinions about slavery and being free. He laments that supposedly free blacks could be mistreated just as slaves are. In most cases legal documents that free blacks obtained were ignored and their liberties were basically non existent. This mockery of freedom is basically another form of slavery and with freedom came a lack of protection from one's master.

    15. These things opened my mind to a new scene of horror to which I had been before a stranger. Hitherto I had thought only slavery dreadful; but the state of a free negro appeared to me now equally so at least, and in some respects even worse, for they live in constant alarm for their liberty; and even this is but nominal, for they are universally insulted and plundered without the possibility of redress; for such is the equity of the West Indian laws, that no free negro's evidence will be admitted in their courts of justice.

      In the article titled,"Equiano's Nativity: Negative Birthright, Indigenous Ethic, and Universal Human Rights," author Yael Ben-Zvi argues that ""Equiano’s decision is not bound by English law but is enabled by a foundational indigenous liberty. Within a couple of weeks, Equiano experiences Blackstone’s qualifications of the “liberty” of the “free negro,” which, especially in the colonies. By contrast, his “original free African state” is an unambiguous alternative that had failed him only when the logic of affirmative communal attachment on which it rests was violated, at his initial kidnapping in Africa."

      Ben-Zvi, Yael. "Equiano's Nativity: Negative Birthright, Indigenous Ethic, and Universal Human Rights." Early American Literature: 399-423. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 7 Mar. 2016.

    16. Joseph Clipson, he told him he was not free, and that he had orders from his master to bring him to Bermudas. The poor man could not believe the captain to be in earnest; but he was very soon undeceived, his men laying violent hands on him: and although he shewed a certificate of his being born free in St. Kitt's, and most people on board knew that he served his time to boat building, and always passed for a free man, yet he was taken forcibly out of our vessel. He then asked to be carried ashore before the secretary or magistrates, and these infernal invaders of human rights promised him he should; but, instead of that, they carried him on board of the other vessel: and the next day, without giving the poor man any hearing on shore, or suffering him even to see his wife or child, he was carried away, and probably doomed never more in this world to see them again.

      This exemplifies the common theme of being separated from family. Not only does this dehumanize someone but it also represents that lack of rights of supposedly free blacks. In 1623 the English conquered St. Kitts and used slaves there. Since, St, Kitts was a starting destination for slavery it makes since that slavery and the injustices that come with it were common place at St.Kitts.

    17. In the midst of these thoughts I therefore looked up with prayers anxiously to God for my liberty; and at the same time I used every honest means, and endeavoured all that was possible on my part to obtain it.

      This is a common theme of Christianity in which Equiano uses as a resource to remain formidable. This quote also represents how Equiano's humility and servitude are gained through his religious faith.

    18. At one of our trips to St. Kitt's I had eleven bits of my own; and my friendly captain lent me five bits more, with which I bought a Bible. I was very glad to get this book, which I scarcely could meet with any where.

      In the article titled, "Cutting Edge: CHRISTIAN IMPERIALISM AND THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE," author Katie Cannon claims that Europeans during the 18th century "Used the Bible as the world’s constitution, regime apologists used legalistic literalist hermeneutics to convince themselves that African people are cursed with perpetual servitude. In turn, Europeans are ordained by God to control inferior people and exhorted to deal with such primitive pagans as usable, disposable functionaries"

      Cannon, Katie Geneva. "Cutting Edge: CHRISTIAN IMPERIALISM AND THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE." Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion (Indiana University Press): 127-34. Publisher Provided Full Text Searching File. Web. 7 Mar. 2016.

    19. We then proceeded to the markets to sell them; and Providence was more favourable to us than we could have expected, for we sold our fruits uncommonly well; I got for mine about thirty-seven bits. Such a surprising reverse of fortune in so short a space of time seemed like a dream to me, and proved no small encouragement for me to trust the Lord in any situation.

      Equiano is frugal and is incredibly smart. Through smart investments and good trading Equiano was able take advantage of a capitalistic system that was not supposed to favor slaves. This frugality and ability to save eventually led to Equiano purchasing his freedom.

    20. I now, in the agony of distress and indignation, wished that the ire of God in his forked lightning might transfix these cruel oppressors among the dead.

      Equiano tries to control his pride and suppress his anger through relying on God. Through his reliance on God Equiano is able to display the virtue of patience and fortitude. This particular text brings up the common theme of Christianity.

    21. When we came there, in some little convenient time he and I went ashore with our fruits to sell them; but we had scarcely landed when we were met by two white men, who presently took our three bags from us. We could not at first guess what they meant to do; and for some time we thought they were jesting with us; but they too soon let us know otherwise, for they took our ventures immediately to a house hard by, and adjoining the fort, while we followed all the way begging of them to give us our fruits, but in vain. They not only refused to return them, but swore at us, and threatened if we did not immediately depart they would flog us well.

      The cruelty of the rich exemplifies the abuse of power that the rich inflicted upon the poor in an effort to maintain complete control.

    22. Thus was I going all about the islands upwards of four years, and ever trading as I went, during which I experienced many instances of ill usage, and have seen many injuries done to other negroes in our dealings with Europeans: and, amidst our recreations, when we have been dancing and merry-making, they, without cause, have molested and insulted us. Indeed I was more than once obliged to look up to God on high, as I had advised the poor fisherman some time before.

      Equiano conveys hopelessness and vulnerability through the use of emotion. his description of inhumane treatment pulls at the heartstrings of the readers through sympathizing with them.

    23. But the captain liked me also very much, and I was entirely his right-hand man. I did all I could to deserve his favour, and in return I received better treatment from him than any other I believe ever met with in the West Indies in my situation.

      Equiano works diligently and adheres to legitimate authority. Equiano's hard work represents the dignity of Africans. This quote also exemplifies the high moral code that Equiano exemplifies through his servitude.

    24. I immediately thought I might in time stand some chance by being on board to get a little money, or possibly make my escape if I should be used ill: I also expected to get better food, and in greater abundance; for I had felt much hunger oftentimes, though my master treated his slaves, as I have observed, uncommonly well.

      even though Equiano and other slaves were treated well by his master, this was rarely the case. Around the mid 1400s when the Portuguese started using slave labor, Europeans realized that the use of slaves was a great economic opportunity. Thus, the Triangular trade started in full swing with the growth of sugar plantations where European manufactured goods were sent to Africa, the African Slaves were purchased and sent to America, and then the cash crops purchased in Americas returned to Europe. Since Slaves were seen as products they were often overworked and received little to no education, which led to many slaves having a strong reliance in God.

    25. Some time in the year 1763 kind Providence seemed to appear rather more favourable to me.

      In the article titled "The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade and the U.S. Underground Railroad," author Jones Hood described the horrors that were inflicted upon slaves during the transatlantic slave trade, "between 1441 and 1888, Europeans and African nations engaged in an economic practice that enslaved many millions of Africans. This enslavement caused terrible misery and wreaked untold havoc upon their cultural foundation."

      Hood, Jones Lottie. "The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade and the U.S. Underground Railroad." International Congregational Journal: 47-57. EBSCO eBook Collection. Web. 8 Mar. 2016.

    1. But over his heart there seemed to be a warm spot, where those young hands had placed that precious dollar. Tom put up his hand, and held it close to his heart.

      This is an incredible example of Stowe's attempt to create an emotional response within the reader. It truly sums up the love that Tom and George have for each other, which, in many ways, mirrors a father-son relationship.

    2. "O! Mas'r George, ye mustn't talk so 'bout yer father!"

      This mirrors the conversation that Chloe and Tom had earlier in the chapter. As previously stressed, the characterization of master George is critical. He is one of the few characters appearing in the novel thus far that is not only unhappy with slavery, but is attempting to do something about it. In many ways, he is the model character in the story. It is interesting to note that his age is never mentioned in the story...perhaps to create a broader sense of sympathy from the audience.

    3. It was in vain that he said to himself that he had a right to do it,—that everybody did it,—and that some did it without even the excuse of necessity;—he could not satisfy his own feelings; and that he might not witness the unpleasant scenes of the consummation, he had gone on a short business tour up the country, hoping that all would be over before he returned.

      This scene is incredibly powerful and again, plays an important role in creating an audience connection and provoking emotion. Here, we see Mr. Shelby desperately trying to convince himself that he made the right decision - that it was something that everybody did. However, in his attempt to do so, it is revealed that he is truly deeply troubled by the situation so much so that he cannot bear to witness Tom being taken away. This is one of Stowe's attempts to prove that the slave trade is immoral - that people who are involved in it are not ignorant to what may (and probably will) happen to these slaves.

    4. "I'm sorry," said Tom, "that Mas'r George happened to be away." George had gone to spend two or three days with a companion on a neighboring estate, and having departed early in the morning, before Tom's misfortune had been made public, had left without hearing of it. "Give my love to Mas'r George," he said, earnestly.

      The bond that Stowe has created between Master George and Tom in such a short amount of interaction is incredible. Tom says nothing about Mr. Shelby, who he passionately defended. It appears that Tom and Master George have a strong relationship that is introduced in a previous chapter in which George is teaching Tom how to properly write. It is an interesting that Stowe chose to create this strong relationship between a slave and a white child. Perhaps she did so to emphasize the idea that children cannot see color.

    5. Tom got in, and Haley, drawing out from under the wagon seat a heavy pair of shackles, made them fast around each ankle.

      It is interesting to note how passive Tom is during this situation. While the reader is receiving incredible levels of emotion from others - Aunt Chloe, Mrs. Shelby, etc - is seems that there is actually an incredibly minute focus on Tom, as he is being portrayed as emotionless and passive. This truly underlines his faith.

    6. "Tom," she said, "I come to—" and stopping suddenly, and regarding the silent group, she sat down in the chair, and, covering her face with her handkerchief, began to sob. "Lor, now, Missis, don't—don't!" said Aunt Chloe, bursting out in her turn; and for a few moments they all wept in company. And in those tears they all shed together, the high and the lowly, melted away all the heart-burnings and anger of the oppressed.

      This is devastating but also an incredible example of racial unity. This is an absolutely critical scene for Stowe to allow the audience to witness the pain that slavery causes for both white and black individuals. It is also a strategic technique. Throughout the text, Stowe characterizes Mrs. Shelby as the "perfectly right and just white woman". With her intended audience of women for this piece, this really allows women readers to sympathize with both black and white, as they yearn to by the "perfect" woman that Mrs. Shelby is.

    7. The boys, having eaten everything there was on the breakfast-table, began now to take some thought of the case; and, seeing their mother crying, and their father looking very sad, began to whimper and put their hands to their eyes. Uncle Tom had the baby on his knee, and was letting her enjoy herself to the utmost extent, scratching his face and pulling his hair, and occasionally breaking out into clamorous explosions of delight, evidently arising out of her own internal reflections.

      This is also an emotional scene for the reader. We are presented with two young children who seemingly don't understand what is going on - the children that, like Chloe, were raised in slavery and know nothing bad of it. It's interesting the way in which Stowe has created this "complex hierarchy of knowledge" here. There is Chloe, who understands the situation and is devastated, the two boys who understand that there is a bad situation occurring but know no details, and the baby, who understands nothing of it and is filled with happiness. Perhaps Stowe is utilizing this family to symbolize the white response to slavery.

    8. "Lor, Pete," said Mose, triumphantly,

      It is interesting to note Stowe's choice of names for these children - both of whom share commonalities with common biblical names: Moses and Peter. Perhaps Stowe chose these names as a reflection of Chloe and Tom's religious beliefs. On the other hand, they could have simply been a reflection of common names at the time.

    9. This nerves the African, naturally patient, timid and unenterprising, with heroic courage, and leads him to suffer hunger, cold, pain, the perils of the wilderness, and the more dread penalties of recapture.

      Stowe really plays with the audience's emotions in this entire description of the African American race. She describes them in a way that one may describe either a young child or a loyal pet- naturally innocent and naive. Here, she is attempting to provoke sympathy and/or empathy from the audience, who is receiving this image that African Americans are, in many ways, helpless. This really emphasizes Stowe's views that she does truly see many differences between the black and white race.

    10. I can't jest make out whar 't is, but thar's wrong somewhar, I'm clar o' that.

      This is incredibly sad. Aunt Chloe has spent her entire life in slavery and, knowing nothing else, she struggles to pinpoint the fault of the situation (though she knows there is one). At the time, millions of African American children were born into slavery and, for these children/adults, it was the norm. I wonder how that played a role in the abolitionist movement because many slaves were (so they thought) completely dependent on their white masters.

    11. it must be remembered that all the instinctive affections of that race are peculiarly strong

      This is interesting in the way that she is recognizing that there is a defined difference between the two races (this is introduced in her 1852 preface to her text where she describes African Americans as "...a character so essentially unlike the hard and dominant Anglo-Saxon race"). This text was met with much criticism, as many claimed that Stowe possessed prejudicial ideas. This paragraph truly underlines that view. The novel "The Concept of "Race" in Natural and Social Science" delves more into Stowe's incorporation of this, particularly focusing on this paragraph in the novel.

      Gates, E. Nathaniel. The Concept of Race "in Natural and Social Science." New York: Garland Publishing Inc, 1997. Print.

    12. thar don't a sparrow fall without him

      This is also a reference to biblical literature taken from Matthew 10:29, which essentially explains that one should not have fear because God always takes care of the situation. Again, this not only shows Tom's deep sense of religion, but Stowe's as well. She has inserted numerous references to the Bible and is evidently well educated in religion.

      Wong, Cliff, and Andrew Kwong. A Biblical Perspective on How to Handle Worry and Fear. N.p.: n.p., 2010. Print.

    13. "Chloe! now, if ye love me, ye won't talk so, when perhaps jest the last time we'll ever have together! And I'll tell ye, Chloe, it goes agin me to hear one word agin Mas'r. Wan't he put in my arms a baby?—it's natur I should think a heap of him. And he couldn't be spected to think so much of poor Tom. Mas'rs is used to havin' all these yer things done for 'em, and nat'lly they don't think so much on 't. They can't be spected to, no way. Set him 'longside of other Mas'rs—who's had the treatment and livin' I've had? And he never would have let this yer come on me, if he could have seed it aforehand. I know he wouldn't."

      It's incredibly interesting how much love that Tom has for his owner, Mr. Shelby, and how willing he is to stand up for him after he had just sold Tom. In many ways, Stowe is shifting the focus with this defense. He seems to be, in a way, idolizing his white master and creating a hierarchy that is illustrating himself as a lesser (ie. referring to himself as "poor Tom"). However, I think is also does show his intelligence via his recognition of the slaveholders being blinded by their own privilege.

    14. Ah, brave, manly heart,—smothering thine own sorrow, to comfort thy beloved ones!

      I found this to be strange. Throughout the text, we have seen a "distant narrator" who essentially exists only for the purpose of explaining what is happening between character dialogue. However, here we see something very different. For the first time, Stowe seems to be breaking out of that emotionless narrator position. Perhaps she does so to appeal to the readers' emotions on a deeper level by expressing a level of admiration for Tom and to truly emphasize the sadness of the situation. I found this change of narration to be incredibly interesting and quite effective.

    15. "There'll be the same God there, Chloe, that there is here."

      Again, this is an incredible claim by Tom. As his wife is slowly losing faith, he is putting complete faith in his God to carry him through the situation. This really shows the type of religious character that Tom is.

    16. "lifted up her voice and wept."

      This is from Genesis 21:16 (English Standard Version). In this section of the Book of Genesis, the word "slave" is frequently used. Many individuals at the time used the fact that slavery appeared in biblical texts to justify it. This is an interesting choice for Stowe to include as it truly underlines her value of religion.

    17. "So long as your grand folks wants to buy men and women, I'm as good as they is," said Haley; "'tan't any meaner sellin' on 'em, that 't is buyin'!"

      This is a really important point that Stowe is making. Since the first chapter, the audience is persuaded to dislike Haley. Here, he is making an incredible point: he is no worse than Mr. Shelby, who is seen as a "good guy". This really emphasizes the idea that no matter your role in slavery, you are equally wrong. With this quote, Haley is putting everyone on the same playing field.

    18. only rubbed away over and over on the coarse shirt, already as smooth as hands could make it

      This really aids in enhancing the emotional connection for the readers. Here, Aunt Chloe is trying desperately to distract herself from the immense pain of the fact that her husband is about to be taken away. Stowe does an incredible job at encouraging emotion from the reader, which is an incredibly critical part of this story. At the time, African Americans were seen as non-humans - they were thought not to be able to feel human emotions such a sadness and sorrow. Stowe forces the audience to feel sympathy throughout this entire text. This technique is incredibly clever.

    19. "I'll be real good, Uncle Tom, I tell you," said George. "I'm going to be a first-rater; and don't you be discouraged. I'll have you back to the place, yet. As I told Aunt Chloe this morning, I'll build our house all over, and you shall have a room for a parlor with a carpet on it, when I'm a man. O, you'll have good times yet!"

      The characterization of George was set up to allow the audience to build an emotional connection and to prove a point. He, in many ways, resembles the idea that nobody is born racist (also seen in previous chapters when he is teaching Tom how to write). He possesses an incredible amount of innocence (which is also seen a few lines down where he is telling Haley that he should be ashamed of himself) that offers him the idea that when he's "a man", he will make things perfect and good. He also appears not to see skin color and is one of the few individuals in the text who refers to black individuals as "men and women" as opposed to "creatures", going as far as to compare their treatment to the ways in which cattle are treated.

    20. Tom sat by, with his Testament open on his knee, and his head leaning upon his hand

      At this point in the text, we have already been introduced to religion as a theme. Tom turning to religion during a time like this - hours before he is about to be traded and torn from his family - speaks incredible volumes about the way that religion played a role in society. Stowe creates a wide range of individuals in this text who all can seemingly be connected through their beliefs. We have been introduced to slaves that have lost their faith because of their enslavement. This instance truly emphasizes the important role of religion in all individuals at the time.

  20. Feb 2016
  21. shaheenmaknojia.weebly.com shaheenmaknojia.weebly.com
    1. And thats the kind of educator I want to be!

      I agree with Brooke and Christen that you've got a nice framework here to develop. The picture tells a story, invites us into your family (I'm guessing, but a caption would clarify that) and your final line referencing your role in the family helps us learn about this familial role and the connection you see between it and your future as an educator. Now it's time to take things to the next level and share some of those specifics like your certificate level, perhaps an inspiration, a mentor, a quote, something about what you hope this site might do for your future students or their families. All these potential details will establish your credibility and begin to convey your authority.

    1. so that it is our duty to do justice and to restore to thefreemen their freedom, but it cannot be done i

      I think that King Affonso was ok with the slave traders taking the lower class and the prisoners of war, because those people were worthless. The slave trade grew rapidly and more slaves were needed, the Portuguese ravaged the society and took what slaves they wanted. King Affonso opened a Pandoras box.

    1. social and political advancement i

      The racial system that was established in the new world was a racial hierarchy. The system worked based on the purity of ones blood. Then it was used as a status for political and social advancement.

    1. Wave after wave she unleashed, until much of the land was underwater and many of the people were drowned.

      Olokun seems very bitter and full of rage not caring about how many other she would kill

    1. A long time ago human beings lived high up in what is now called heaven.

      The humans arrived in the world by coming from heaven.

    2. When the boys had grown to man’s estate, they decided that it was necessary for them to increase the size of their island,

      The twins created the world to become larger and modified the animals and plant life.

    3. After much discussion the toad was finally persuaded to dive to the bottom of the waters in search of soil. Bravely making the attempt, he succeeded in bringing up soil from the depths of the sea. This was carefully spread over the carapace of the Turtle, and at once both began to grow in size and depth.

      The animals helped the women when she came through the hole. The also helped prepare the earth for the women to live there.

    1. Then on the seventh day God rested, which is what we are suppose to do as well.

    2. Humanity and nature go hand in hand with each other, but the structure created puts humans having control over all of nature, together nature and humanity survive. I think society would see the structure built in this text thats supports order of creation. God authorizes this text, it is Gods word and creation.

  22. Jan 2016
    1. Native Americans lived free from the terrible diseases that ravaged populations in Asia, Europe and Africa. But their blessing now became a curse.

      The greed of the European countries brought diseases and slave into the Native Americans culture.

    2. Agriculture arose sometime between nine- and five-thousand years ago, almost simultaneously in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Mesoamericans in modern-day Mexico and Central America first domesticated maize and and developed perhaps the hemisphere’s first settled population around 1,200 BCE.

      How did they get the maize?

  23. Dec 2015
    1. That’s how Isis is recruiting and growing.

      Wow. Blaming "the stream" of social media for ISIS! How does that square with the celebration of social media as democratizing force in the Arab Spring?...

  24. Jun 2015
    1. the social media narrative recalled Cold War ideas that capitalist technology would triumph over communist inefficiency, as if people in the Middle East couldn’t have rebelled on their own without the gifts of American entrepreneurs. In the end, whatever was tweeted, there was no Twitter revolution in Iran.

      Would like to know more about the Cold War ideas referenced above.