403 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2023
    1. Recent work has revealed several new and significant aspects of the dynamics of theory change. First, statistical information, information about the probabilistic contingencies between events, plays a particularly important role in theory-formation both in science and in childhood. In the last fifteen years we’ve discovered the power of early statistical learning.

      The data of the past is congruent with the current psychological trends that face the education system of today. Developmentalists have charted how children construct and revise intuitive theories. In turn, a variety of theories have developed because of the greater use of statistical information that supports probabilistic contingencies that help to better inform us of causal models and their distinctive cognitive functions. These studies investigate the physical, psychological, and social domains. In the case of intuitive psychology, or "theory of mind," developmentalism has traced a progression from an early understanding of emotion and action to an understanding of intentions and simple aspects of perception, to an understanding of knowledge vs. ignorance, and finally to a representational and then an interpretive theory of mind.

      The mechanisms by which life evolved—from chemical beginnings to cognizing human beings—are central to understanding the psychological basis of learning. We are the product of an evolutionary process and it is the mechanisms inherent in this process that offer the most probable explanations to how we think and learn.

      Bada, & Olusegun, S. (2015). Constructivism Learning Theory : A Paradigm for Teaching and Learning.

    1. I nodded, not knowing why a doctor was speaking like this. But maybe these people were ill, and he was trying to cure them. There must have been medicine in his words—can there be medicine in words?

      I think this can be a common mistake people make when learning the English language. Calling someone Dr. when they aren't really a doctor can be confusing. When Vuong mentions that "there must have been medicine in his words", it shows how powerful and healing MLK's speech was to the people in the crowd.

    2. The man’s inflections made me think of waves on a sea.

      By saying this, he's saying that the speaker has a strong voice amongst everyone else there, just like how waves can have a strong current in calm water.

  2. Jul 2023
    1. China hat sich nicht auf die Forderung des amerikanischen Sonderbeauftragten John Kerry eingelassen, gemeinsam verschärfte Ziele für die Dekarbonisierung zu fixieren. Stattdessen hat Xi Jinping noch einmal betont, dass China seinen eigenen Weg zur CO<sub>2</sub> Neutralität definieren werde. Es ist Kerry weder gelungen, die chinesische Führung davon abzubringen weitere Kohlekraftwerke in Dienst zu nehmen noch, sie von einer schnelleren Reduktion der Methanemissionen zu überzeugen https://www.nytimes.com/2023/07/19/world/asia/xi-china-climate-kerry.html

  3. Jun 2023
  4. May 2023
    1. He asked how I was doing, and when, as usual, I just said,“Fine,” he wouldn’t let me get away with it.“No,” he said. “You’re not fine, Viji.”I said nothing.

      mom asks me how school was and this is always how it plays out

    2. “I don’t mind if you have no faith in religion, Viji. Just as longas you have faith in the goodness within yourself.

      my mother told me this berfore aswell

    3. I’m not mean about any one religion,” I said. “They’re allequally silly.

      i agree

    4. Soon, I’d setthe whole place yawning.

      this same thing happens when augusto shouts "BREEEK"

    5. Celina Aunty called me into the schoolroom andmotioned me toward one of the empty desks.“Sit,” she ordered. “Write.”“Write?” I said. “Why?”

      right when i was going to sleep my mother made me write and practice to pass a test

    6. I tried a few times but kept choking up, unable to get beyondthe first sentences.

      when i get exited or sad the same happens to me

    7. hen I saw him—scrubbed clean by a nurse, with his hair cutshort and washed and brushed—I could hardly believe it wasMuthu.

      when i take a bath i look 10x prettier aswell

    8. Muthu lay in beds near one another. You were each hooked upto a contraption that dripped medicine and food and water into yourveins,

      my cousin has once been in this situation

    9. “Did you use mosquitonets?” “Did you boil the water before you drank it?” “Whatmedication did you try to give her?”

      doctors ask the exact same questions to my mother when i go to a hospital

    10. “Rich boys, for sure,” Arul said. “You have to be rich to wastetime going on escapades at night instead of catching up on precioussleep

      i do homework in the middle of the night

    11. Arul placed his candle beside the others. You watched asintently as when you made your bead necklaces.

      ive done this before

    12. As we walked away, you and Muthu started playing a game,tossing a bit of concrete into the air like a ball and trying to catch itagain before it fell.

      i do this with a tenis ball and i catch it with a punch to practice

    13. The drone of bloodthirsty mosquitoes had wokenme several times during the night, and my arms itched with bites.

      This was a huge problem for me when i didnt have a ventilator, i would have to sleep in the couch but sometimes they followed

    14. My voice came out all panicky. I had avision of a ghost swallowing you whole.

      i had a dream i was escaping a ghost

    15. But I cared. I cared about him as strongly as if we’d known eachother all our lives. I couldn’t imagine our future without him andMuthu in it.

      i also met a girl in 5th grade which i loved, and i cared about her like i met her my whole life, but she left...

    16. But my dad was the best fisherman in our village.

      my father is also a good fisherman

    17. I felt too excited to sleep, so I sneaked out to join him.

      this happened once in a sleepover

    18. “Don’t you ever think about the future?” I challenged him.“No,” Muthu said. “There’s enough to worry about every daywithout worrying about tomorrow.”

      seems like the procrastinator version of me

    19. You set it free, Rukku,” I cut him short. “Now it can goanywhere it feels like. That was really nice of you.”

      i once did that because i thought it would go to space and find aliens

    20. “You really never pray?” Arul looked horrified. “Even the wrongGods are better than no God.”

      heard that before

    21. It sounded like our father, O. R. T. Narayan,something something—all in English, not Tamil like Amma’sprayers.

      i recognize this prayer and i used to preach it in the USA

    22. “Give me something,” she whined. “I have to look after mybrother. See him?” She gestured at a small boy—stark naked—whowas sleeping behind her.

      this situation happened to my family when we went to egypt

    23. She sat with you, showing you ways to tie pretty knots and braidstrands together.

      i tried to learn that when i was in a school on the USA

    24. “No banana?”“No, sorry.”“Papaya?” you suggested.“No.”“Guava?”“No. No pomegranate, no jackfruit, no oranges, no sapotes, nosweet limes. No nothing.”

      seems like my fridge

    25. “Want to come for a swim?” Muthu grinned at you. “The water’snice and cool.”

      i like swimming

    26. I couldn’t help petting him. His coat was smooth. He wiggledand sniffed my hand.

      same, cant help petting my dog no matter what

    27. “Get away from that puppy, Rukku. It might bite.”

      My dog loves to bite

    28. Homesicknesspinched my heart for a moment. I thought of the rare weekendswhen Appa was away and Amma had enough energy to join us so wecould cook a meal together.

      how i felt when going to the nr

    29. The smell of roasting chillis tickled my nose

      the smell of crabs makes me feel that way

    30. The conductor looked at me and then at you, and stuck a handin his pocket and pulled out a hard green sweet that had melted outof shape.

      i have been to ubers that have this function

    31. he set packages wrapped in newspaper onthe cracked kitchen counter. “Presents for my girls.”

      My father also gave me a wrapped present once

    32. We’d just finished our dinner when we heard Appa’s heavyfootsteps. The sound of him staggering up the stairs to ourapartment told us all we needed to know.

      This situation is similar, when my father arrives his footsteps are heavy so i know he arrived.

    1. such S-NSSAI is comprised of either both an SST and an SD or only an SST without a standardised SST value and no SD

      non-standard values,

  5. Apr 2023
  6. Feb 2023
    1. Tesla will offer a software update free of charge to customers, the agency said.

      Aren't these updates pushed over the air?

      So now every time someone releases a software update, media is going to call it a recall? 🤔

    1. Kawakatsu, Mari, Philip S. Chodrow, Nicole Eikmeier, and Daniel B. Larremore. “Emergence of Hierarchy in Networked Endorsement Dynamics.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118, no. 16 (April 20, 2021): e2015188118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2015188118.

      Reading with respect to suggestion of:<br /> DeDeo, Simon, and Elizabeth A. Hobson. “From Equality to Hierarchy.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118, no. 21 (May 25, 2021): e2106186118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2106186118.

      See: related notes at https://hypothes.is/a/doCbOKJYEe27O1tS21jybA

  7. Jan 2023
    1. Data are tools that scientists use to understand the world and communicate with each other: sources of knowledge, rather than knowledge in themselves.

      Los datos son herramientas que los científicos utilizan para comprender el mundo y comunicarse entre sí: fuentes de conocimiento, más que conocimiento en sí mismos


  8. Dec 2022
  9. Nov 2022
    1. All statements must end with a semicolon, ; Keywords and other code elements are case-sensitive

      What is Examples of syntax in C ?

  10. Oct 2022
    1. [T.S.] Eliot stood—as he once famously said of himself—for conservatism in politics, classicism in literature, and Catholicism, or rather Anglo-Catholicism, in religion. He looked back into the past, the mediaeval past, as a confirmed laudator temporis acti and in the mediaeval past he looked back not only to John Donne among the metaphysical poets, nor only to William Shakespeare among the Elizabethan dramatists, but before them to the great Dante among Italian poets and behind Dante, though not so obviously, to St. Thomas Aquinas among the scholastic theologians. (From "T.S. Eliot's Metaphysics" by Peter Milward, Culture and Civilization 2009.)
  11. Sep 2022
  12. ivanov-petrov.livejournal.com ivanov-petrov.livejournal.com
    1. peggy-s: «Мечта – это же пространство абсолютной свободы».Почему-то это так не работает. Не знаю, может быть если специально потренироваться… Есть же люди, утверждающие, что они могут заказывать сновидения и ими управлять. С обыкновенными мечтами та же фигня. Нельзя начать мечтать о чем угодно. Мечта может быть нереальной (на то она и мечта), но она должна быть жизнеспособной. Маги бы сказали, что она должна быть наполнена энергией. И чем мечта страннее (нетипичная для каждого конкретного человека), тем больше ему требуется «энергии», чтобы об этом мечтать.Парадоксальным образом иногда легче получить что-то в реальности, чем мечтать об этом.
  13. Aug 2022
    1. Sadoff, J., Gars, M. L., Cardenas, V., Shukarev, G., Vaissiere, N., Heerwegh, D., Truyers, C., Groot, A. M. de, Scheper, G., Hendriks, J., Ruiz-Guinazu, J., Struyf, F., Hoof, J. V., Douoguih, M., & Schuitemaker, H. (2021). Durability of antibody responses elicited by a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S and substantial increase following late boosting (p. 2021.08.25.21262569). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.25.21262569

    1. Useful suggestions in regard tonote-taking will be found in Samuel S . Seward, Note-taking,Boston, 1910; and, especially for more advanced students, inEarle W. DOW, Principles of a note-system for hirton’calstudies, New York, 1924

      He's read Langlois/Seignobos and Bernheim, but doesn't recommend/reference them for note taking, but points to Seward and Dow instead.

      What are the differences between the four methods?

      Note that this advice is in 1931, a few years after Beatrice Webb's My Apprentice which has a section on note taking that prefers the first two without mention of the latter two.

      It would appear that Seward is the brother of William Henry Seward. see: https://hypothes.is/a/MwspfCBOEe2YCpesAgwiGQ

    1. Thought the middle names are similar, but slightly different spellings, this would seem to indicate that Stanford professor Samuel S. Seward, Jr. (author of Note-taking) is the brother of politician William Henry Seward.

    1. Historical Hypermedia: An Alternative History of the Semantic Web and Web 2.0 and Implications for e-Research. .mp3. Berkeley School of Information Regents’ Lecture. UC Berkeley School of Information, 2010. https://archive.org/details/podcast_uc-berkeley-school-informat_historical-hypermedia-an-alte_1000088371512. archive.org.



      headshot of Charles van den Heuvel

      Interface as Thing - book on Paul Otlet (not released, though he said he was working on it)

      • W. Boyd Rayward 1994 expert on Otlet
      • Otlet on annotation, visualization, of text
      • TBL married internet and hypertext (ideas have sex)
      • V. Bush As We May Think - crosslinks between microfilms, not in a computer context
      • Ted Nelson 1965, hypermedia


      • Michael Buckland book about machine developed by Emanuel Goldberg antecedent to memex
      • Emanuel Goldberg and His Knowledge Machine: Information, Invention, and Political Forces (New Directions in Information Management) by Michael Buckland (Libraries Unlimited, (March 31, 2006)
      • Otlet and Goldsmith were precursors as well

      four figures in his research: - Patrick Gattis - biologist, architect, diagrams of knowledge, metaphorical use of architecture; classification - Paul Otlet, Brussels born - Wilhelm Ostwalt - nobel prize in chemistry - Otto Neurath, philosophher, designer of isotype

      Paul Otlet

      Otlet was interested in both the physical as well as the intangible aspects of the Mundaneum including as an idea, an institution, method, body of work, building, and as a network.<br /> (#t=1020)

      Early iPhone diagram?!?

      (roughly) armchair to do the things in the web of life (Nelson quote) (get full quote and source for use) (circa 19:30)

      compares Otlet to TBL

      Michael Buckland 1991 <s>internet of things</s> coinage - did I hear this correctly? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things lists different coinages

      Turns out it was "information as thing"<br /> See: https://hypothes.is/a/kXIjaBaOEe2MEi8Fav6QsA

      sugane brierre and otlet<br /> "everything can be in a document"<br /> importance of evidence

      The idea of evidence implies a passiveness. For evidence to be useful then, one has to actively do something with it, use it for comparison or analysis with other facts, knowledge, or evidence for it to become useful.

      transformation of sound into writing<br /> movement of pieces at will to create a new combination of facts - combinatorial creativity idea here. (circa 27:30 and again at 29:00)<br /> not just efficiency but improvement and purification of humanity

      put things on system cards and put them into new orders<br /> breaking things down into smaller pieces, whether books or index cards....

      Otlet doesn't use the word interfaces, but makes these with language and annotations that existed at the time. (32:00)

      Otlet created diagrams and images to expand his ideas

      Otlet used octagonal index cards to create extra edges to connect them together by topic. This created more complex trees of knowledge beyond the four sides of standard index cards. (diagram referenced, but not contained in the lecture)

      Otlet is interested in the "materialization of knowledge": how to transfer idea into an object. (How does this related to mnemonic devices for daily use? How does it relate to broader material culture?)

      Otlet inspired by work of Herbert Spencer

      space an time are forms of thought, I hold myself that they are forms of things. (get full quote and source) from spencer influence of Plato's forms here?

      Otlet visualization of information (38:20)

      S. R. Ranganathan may have had these ideas about visualization too

      atomization of knowledge; atomist approach 19th century examples:S. R. Ranganathan, Wilson, Otlet, Richardson, (atomic notes are NOT new either...) (39:40)

      Otlet creates interfaces to the world - time with cyclic representation - space - moving cube along time and space axes as well as levels of detail - comparison to Ted Nelson and zoomable screens even though Ted Nelson didn't have screens, but simulated them in paper - globes

      Katie Berner - semantic web; claims that reporting a scholarly result won't be a paper, but a nugget of information that links to other portions of the network of knowledge.<br /> (so not just one's own system, but the global commons system)

      Mention of Open Annotation (Consortium) Collaboration:<br /> - Jane Hunter, University of Australia Brisbane & Queensland<br /> - Tim Cole, University of Urbana Champaign<br /> - Herbert Van de Sompel, Los Alamos National Laboratory annotations of various media<br /> see:<br /> - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311366469_The_Open_Annotation_Collaboration_A_Data_Model_to_Support_Sharing_and_Interoperability_of_Scholarly_Annotations - http://www.openannotation.org/spec/core/20130205/index.html - http://www.openannotation.org/PhaseIII_Team.html

      trust must be put into the system for it to work

      coloration of the provenance of links goes back to Otlet (~52:00)

      Creativity is the friction of the attention space at the moments when the structural blocks are grinding against one another the hardest. —Randall Collins (1998) The sociology of philosophers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (p.76)

  14. Jul 2022
    1. various bibliographic catalog from the end of the '800 and '900 (from Paul Otlet/Henry La Fontaine Munaneum to Ranganathan faceted classification system passing through Niklas Luhmann, Carl Sagan and many others

      Look into Henry La Fontaine, Mundaneum, Ranganathan's faceted classification system.

      See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faceted_classification

      What was Carl Sagan's system?

  15. Jun 2022
    1. Establecida como una AG de responsabilidad limitada, la empresa descentralizada está estructurada de manera que posee entidades independientes que a su vez están incorporadas en jurisdicciones de todo el mundo.

      What kind of legal entity is convenient for a descentralized app (or startup)

  16. May 2022
    1. he also innovated in typography, being responsible for an influential font that omitted the long s.

      John Bell created an early and influential font which omitted the long s in English.

      reference: Barker, Hannah. "Bell, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2014.

    1. I think it may have been the British Library interview in which Wengrow says something like, you know, no one ever challenges a new conservative book and says, so and so has just offered a neoliberal perspective on X. But when an anarchist says something, people are sure to spend most of their time remarking on his politics. I think it's relevant that G&W call out Pinker's cherry-picking of Ötzi the ice man. They counter this with the Romito 2 specimen, but they insist that it is no more conclusive than Ötzi. So how does a challenging new interpretation gain ground in the face of an entrenched dominant narrative?

      This sentiment is very similar to one in a recent lecture series I'd started listening to: The Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida #.

      Lawrence Cahoone specifically pointed out that he would be highlighting the revolutionary (and also consequently the most famous) writers because they were the ones over history that created the most change in their field of thought.

      How does the novel and the different manage to break through?

      How does this relate to the broad thesis of Thomas S. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions?

      The comment Wengrow makes about "remarking on [an anarchist's] politics" as a means of attacking their ideas is quite similar to the sort of attacks that are commonly made on women. When female politicians make relevant remarks and points, mainstream culture goes to standbys about their voice or appearance: "She's 'shrill'", or "She doesn't look very good in that dress." They attack anything but the idea itself.

    1. GS11=Γin=Z02−Z01Z02+Z01

      According to the definition (2.4.11) and (2.4.10), GS11 should be :

      (Z_02 - Z_01^*)/(Z_02 + Z_01)

      There is a complex conjugate of Z_01 at the numerator, which is a consequence of the power-wave definition.

      Of course there is no change is Z_01 is real, but I think it should be mentioned, since the power-waves definition may lead to unexpected results for complex-valued impedances.

  17. Apr 2022
    1. It iseven more obvious in S/Z, where Barthes develops the concept oflexias as ‘contiguous fragments’ or ‘units of reading’ that ‘will notthen be regrouped [and] provided with a metameaning’ (Barthes,1991: 13-14).
  18. Mar 2022
    1. En somme, les études sur la communication des élèves atteints d’autisme permettent de mettre en évidence l’importance d’un contexte riche en stimulations appropriées (sons et images), mais également une évidente « stabilité » de l’information à décoder, le suivi des émotions des personnages, le rôle de l’imitation dans les apprentissages. Ces résultats encouragent donc l’usage d’outils informatiques adéquats pour améliorer la communication sociale chez les enfants atteints d’autisme.

      L'association de deux sujets qui n'ont pas de corrélation vérifiéé, revient dans la conclusion en contradiction avec la conclusion de l'étude de Ramdoss, S et al.

    2. Nous allons montrer par une courte analyse de quelques études l’impact du travail éducatif informatisé dans l’apprentissage de la communication sociale chez des enfants atteints d’autisme.

      En contradiction avec l'hypothèse :

      Results suggest that CBI should not yet be considered a researched-based approach to teaching communication skills to individuals with ASD. However, CBI does seem a promising practice that warrants future research. Les résultats suggèrent que le CBI ne devrait pas encore être considéré comme un approche fondée sur la recherche pour enseigner les compétences en communication aux personnes ayant Troubles du Spectre Autistique. Cependant, le CBI semble être une pratique prometteuse qui justifie des recherches futures.

    3. Ce programme nommé « I can word it too », disponible en hébreu et arabe, a été spécialement créé pour cette étude. Il reproduit les activités quotidiennes (jouer à des jeux, prendre les repas, faire sa toilette…) et demande à l’enfant ce à quoi il veut jouer, en lui présentant un choix de jeux sur l’écran

      ==>il s’agirait d’une déclinaison sur écran des outils et méthodes de communication améliorée et alternative (CAA), comme le PECS ou le Makaton. déjà existants, IDEOPICTO ou le langage conceptuel SACCADE

  19. Feb 2022
    1. https://hardhistoriesjhu.substack.com/

      Taking a moment to send a warm thank you to all the work (both visible and invisible) that Dr. Martha S. Jones and her lab are doing for the Johns Hopkins Community and far beyond. Where ever you live, I heartily recommend their newsletter Hard Histories at Hopkins.

  20. Jan 2022
    1. Cornelius Roemer. (2021, December 22). @mccarthy_kr I took a look at all these NY sequences. I don’t think these point mutations S:681H are real. Why? Because they appear all over the Omicron diversity. Some sequences have S:346K, some S:701V, most miss S679K, a few have it. That’s the signature of contamination/co-infection. Https://t.co/DcJD4q44EM [Tweet]. @CorneliusRoemer. https://twitter.com/CorneliusRoemer/status/1473507369455923203

    1. I l e s t u r g e n t d e d é pa s s e r l e s l o g i q u e s d e s i l o s. L a s a n t é m e n ta l e d e s e n fa n t s, v é r i ta b l e e n j e u d e s o c i é t é p o u r n o s e n fa n t s a u j o u r d’ h u i c o m m e p o u r l e s a d u lt e s q u ’ i l s s e r o n t d e m a i n , m é r i t e m i e u x q u e d e s a p p r o c h e s f r a g m e n ta i r e s e t u n e a p p r o c h e s t r i c t e m e n t s a n i ta i r e .
    1. Only recently has "memory training" become a butt of ridicule and a refuge of charlatans.

      Daniel Boorstin indicated in 1984 that "'memory training' had become the butt of ridicule and a refuge of charlatans", a concept which had begun by the 1880s with people selling memory tricks and training to the point that the journal Science published an article by George S. Fellows exposing an expensive program by Antoine Loisette, which had been advertised in the New York Times with quotes by Mark Twain. #

      The trend probably hit its peak when huckster and convicted fraudster Kevin Trudeau marketed audiocassette tapes of his "Mega Memory" course on late night infomercials until he was shut down by the Federal Trade Commission in the late 1990's.

      That history had begun to shift with the rise of memory sports and competitions into the early 2000s and popularized by Tyler Foer's book Moonwalking with Einstein.

  21. Dec 2021
  22. Oct 2021
    1. a) We need not have 4 banners. Just one overarching banner of the product. Learn more can be an anchor link to the capabilities listed in section 3. And below each is a product link, so the journey is good. Product is also there in top nav

  23. Aug 2021
  24. Jul 2021
    1. evidencia del stock

      ¿Cómo mínimo se debe considerar 10 o 12 unidades del producto como stock?



  25. Jun 2021
    1. Oversharing. Crying, disclosing intimate details, and telling long (unrelated and/or unsolicited) stories about one’s personal life may indicate the lack of an essential social work skill: personal boundaries.

      Testing out the annotate feature. Student 1 will highlight sections according to the prompts, as shown HERE.

      For example: "This is me during interviews. I say too much and veer off topic."

  26. Apr 2021
    1. Lee, L. Y., Rozmanowski, S., Pang, M., Charlett, A., Anderson, C., Hughes, G. J., Barnard, M., Peto, L., Vipond, R., Sienkiewicz, A., Hopkins, S., Bell, J., Crook, D. W., Gent, N., Walker, A. S., Peto, T. E., & Eyre, D. W. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 infectivity by viral load, S gene variants and demographic factors and the utility of lateral flow devices to prevent transmission. MedRxiv, 2021.03.31.21254687. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.31.21254687

  27. Mar 2021
    1. An answer to Mr. Bendetsen's testimony came from Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of Johns Hopkins University, who in 1942 directed the Federal War Relocation Authority.In a written statement, Mr. Eisenhower, who was unable to attend because of illness, called the internment of Japanese-Americans ''an inhuman mistake.'' Moreover, he said, the threat of Japanese forces' invading the West Coast was ''extremely remote.''He said that the relocation furor could have been avoid, ''had not false and flaming statements been dinned into the people of the West Coast by irresponsible commentators and politicians.''
  28. Feb 2021
    1. Wiley  

      Similar to CUP and IOP, Sage, and Springer Nature, many UK institutions have signed a contract to fund Wiley's publishing activities for four more years as a result of Plan S, regardless of how many authors accepted manuscripts (AAM) are openly available in repositories. This fact undermines the arguments made above by the STM Association about the rights retention strategy (RRS) undermining financial sustainability.

      Furthermore, the financial credit cap for the Wiley deal is operationally low, resulting in additional expenditure for institutions at the end of the calendar year when open access support funds are running low. This additional cost is not sustainable for many institutions and unintentionally creates inequitable access to no-additional-cost publishing.

    2. Springer Nature  

      UK institutions have been through several terms of the Springer Compact deal and continue to negotiate amendments and additional terms with added expense. The Springer Compact deal delivers no-additional-cost publishing for an upfront commitment of funds by institutions. Regardless of how many authors accepted manuscripts (AAM) are openly available in repositories institutions continue to support Springer Nature's publishing activities. This fact undermines the arguments made above by the STM Association about the rights retention strategy (RRS) undermining financial sustainability.

    3. SAGE Publishing  

      Similar to CUP and IOP, many UK institutions have signed a contract to fund Sage's publishing activities for three years as a result of Plan S, regardless of how many authors accepted manuscripts (AAM) are openly available in repositories. This fact undermines the arguments made above by the STM Association about the rights retention strategy (RRS) undermining financial sustainability.

    4. IOP Publishing

      Similar to CUP, some UK institutions have signed a contract to fund IOP's publishing activities for four years as a result of Plan S, regardless of how many authors accepted manuscripts (AAM) are openly available in repositories. This fact undermines the arguments made above by the STM Association about the rights retention strategy (RRS) undermining financial sustainability.

    5. Cambridge University Press

      Many UK institutions have signed a contract to fund CUP's publishing activities for four years as a result of Plan S, regardless of how many authors accepted manuscripts (AAM) are openly available in repositories. This fact undermines the arguments made above by the STM Association about the rights retention strategy (RRS) undermining financial sustainability.

    6. what is allowed

      What is allowed = what is legal (i.e. copyright law) and what the journal is willing to publish or reject. If authors are told they should consult the journal and the only response is the journal's own policy, assuming it contradicts the right retention strategy (RRS), the Publisher/Editor/Production Editor will be misinforming the author and denying them their legal rights.

    7. to be sustainable this is a decision that needs to be applied at the level of individual journals, not through blanket policies

      It's my interpretation that the funders agree which is why Wellcome Trust wrote to publishers asking if they would change their policies to reflect the rights retention strategy.

    8. undermine the integrity of the Version of Record, which is the foundation of the scientific record, and its associated codified mechanisms for corrections, retractions and data disclosure. 

      This misrepresents the situation. Authors accepted manuscripts (AAM) have been shared on institutional and subject repositories for around two decades, with greater prevalence in the last decade. Despite this the version of record (VoR) is still valued and preserves the integrity of the scholarly record. The integrity of the VoR continues to be maintained by the publisher and where well-run repository management are made aware, corrections can be reflected in a repository. The solution to this problem is the publisher taking their responsibility to preserving the integrity of the scholarly record seriously and notifying repositories, not asserting that authors should not exercise their right to apply a prior license to their AAM.

    9. the Rights Retention Strategy is not financially sustainable

      So far as I know this is not tested or based on any evidence. If the publishers think an open accepted manuscript would undermine the version of record, it doesn't demonstrate much confidence in their added value to me.

    10. The Rights Retention Strategy ignores long-standing academic freedoms

      It’s not entirely clear what is meant by this statement. This is incredibly inflammatory rhetoric for most academics who take academic freedom very seriously - for very good reasons. However, the academic has the freedom not to accept a grant if they fundamentally disagree with the funder’s desired approach to effective dissemination of the research they support. Furthermore, the rights retention strategy (RRS) is in place to give the authors more freedom of choice over what happens to the version of record (VoR). Because of the RRS, the author can submit to the most appropriate journal for the research regardless of whether it explicitly provides a compliant route to publication (assuming the journal takes the submission forwards) or whether or not the author can access funds to pay a publication charge (APC) in a hybrid subscription journal.

    11. The Rights Retention Strategy provides a challenge to the vital income that is necessary to fund the resources, time, and effort to provide not only the many checks, corrections, and editorial inputs required but also the management and support of a rigorous peer review process

      This is an untested statement and does not take into account the perspectives of those contributing to the publishers' revenue. The Rights Retention Strategy (RRS) relies on the author's accepted manuscript (AAM) and for an AAM to exist and to have the added value from peer-review a Version of Record (VoR) must exist. Libraries recognise this fundamental principle and continue to subscribe to individual journals of merit and support lucrative deals with publishers. From some (not all) librarians' and possibly funders' perspectives these statements could undermine any mutual respect.

    12. However, we are unable to support one route to compliance offered by Plan S,

      The publishers below will not support the Plan S rights retention strategy (RRS). In its simplest form the RRS re-asserts the authors' rights as the rights holder to assign a copyright license of their choice (CC BY informed by their funding agency) to all versions of their research/intellectual output. In the case of the RRS states that the author should apply a CC BY license to their accepted manuscript (AAM) if they cannot afford to pay article processing charges or choose not to apply a CC BY license to the Version of Record (VoR), which they are free to do. Therefore, this statement is either saying the undersigned will not carry publications forward to publication (most appropriate approach), or they will not support the same copyright laws which fundamentally protects their rights and revenue after a copyright transfer agreement is signed by the rightsholder.

      Academy of Dental Materials

      Acoustical Society of America

      AIP Publishing

      American Academy of Ophthalmology

      American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

      American Chemical Society

      American Gastroenterological Association American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

      American Medical Association

      American Physical Society

      American Society for Investigative Pathology

      American Society for Radiation Oncology

      American Society of Civil Engineers

      American Society of Hematology

      American Society of Clinical Oncology

      American Association of Physicists in Medicine

      American Association of Physics Teachers

      AVS – The Society for Science and Technology of Materials, Interfaces, and Processing


      British Journal of Anaesthesia

      Budrich Academic Press

      Cambridge Media

      Cambridge University Press

      Canadian Cardiovascular Society

      De Gruyter

      Duncker & Humblot



      Erich Schmidt Verlag

      French Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

      Frommann-Holzboog Verlag

      Future Science Group 


      International Association for Gondwana Research

      IOP Publishing

      Journal of Nursing Regulation

      Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT).

      Julius Klinkhardt KG

      La Découverte

      Laser Institute America

      Materials Research Forum LLC

      The Optical Society (OSA)

      Pearson Benelux

      SAGE Publishing

      Society of Rheology

      Springer Nature

      Taylor & Francis Group

      The Geological Society of America

      Thieme Group

      Uitgeverij Verloren

      Verlag Barbara Budrich

      Vittorio Klostermann

      wbv Media


      Wolters Kluwer

  29. Nov 2020
  30. Sep 2020
    1. I was… not one of those assigned to watch our chosen one, so I can’t say much about exactly what happened within the walls of that house, but it seems the fight scarred the place in a way far deeper than simple fire. A scar in reality, that I believe has since been compounded by the interferences of other powers.
    1. Tuples are sequence of values. Tuples are immutable. Bracket operator indexes an element,slice,relational operators which work on lists aslo work on tuples. Built-in function divmod takes two arguments and returns a tuple of two values as quotient and remainder. If you have a sequence of values you can use * operator to pass it to asunction as multiplue arguments. Operation that collects multiple arguments into a tuple is known as 'gather'. Operation which makes a sequence behave like multiple arguments is called 'scatter'. Zip is a built-in function in the lists and tuples takes two or more sequences and interleaves them.If the sequences are not of same length, the result has the length of the shorter one. Tuples has built-in funtions sorted and reversed as it does not provide methods like sort an reverse which work as the same.

  31. Aug 2020
    1. Walls, A. C., Fiala, B., Schäfer, A., Wrenn, S., Pham, M. N., Murphy, M., Tse, L. V., Shehata, L., O’Connor, M. A., Chen, C., Navarro, M. J., Miranda, M. C., Pettie, D., Ravichandran, R., Kraft, J. C., Ogohara, C., Palser, A., Chalk, S., Lee, E.-C., … King, N. P. (2020). Elicitation of potent neutralizing antibody responses by designed protein nanoparticle vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. BioRxiv, 2020.08.11.247395. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.11.247395

  32. Jul 2020
    1. Corbett, K. S., Edwards, D., Leist, S. R., Abiona, O. M., Boyoglu-Barnum, S., Gillespie, R. A., Himansu, S., Schäfer, A., Ziwawo, C. T., DiPiazza, A. T., Dinnon, K. H., Elbashir, S. M., Shaw, C. A., Woods, A., Fritch, E. J., Martinez, D. R., Bock, K. W., Minai, M., Nagata, B. M., … Graham, B. S. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Development Enabled by Prototype Pathogen Preparedness. BioRxiv, 2020.06.11.145920. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.11.145920

  33. Jun 2020
  34. May 2020
  35. Mar 2020
    1. Hugo takes a template and all the content of the website in a markup format and converts it to the HTML that can be hosted as is.

      content + template→html

  36. Feb 2020
    1. How does Perma.cc work? You give Perma.cc the URL of the page you want to preserve and cite. Our software visits that URL, preserves what's there, deposits it into our collection, and gives you a unique URL (e.g. "perma.cc/ABCD-1234") - a "Perma Link" - that points to the record in our collection. You then can use that Perma Link in your citation to give readers access to a stable, accurate record of the source you referenced, even if the original disappears from the web.

      how does this compare to other web archive tools? is it really "permanent"? any disadvantages of this tool?

    1. why is board game so popular in Germany? does this award contribute to the healthy development of this market?

    1. Planning

      A very transparent way of author-reader communication, really give readers great anticipation. the whole website feels like a open-source project, with various media input (fan pic, character design, spotify play list)

  37. Dec 2019
    1. For the first time, a nonresident alien can take an equity stake in an S corporation, albeit indirectly as a trust beneficiary, without terminating the ESBT and S corporation statuses. This change presents a new opportunity for a nonresident alien to invest in an S corporation without compromising the entity's S corporation status. To be clear, the long-standing prohibition on a nonresident alien's being a direct S corporation shareholder (Sec. 1361(b)(1)(C)) was left intact. Accordingly, it is still necessary to ensure that under no circumstance could the trust distribute S corporation shares to a nonresident alien beneficiary, as such a distribution would jeopardize the trust's status as an ESBT as well as the S corporation status.
  38. Aug 2019
    1. ObamaCare, is the product of a Conservative Think-Tank. 60% of citizens get private insurance from their employers, 15% receive Medicare (65 and older), and the federal gov’t funds Medicaid for low-income families (the allocation to this fund has been declining).

      Lucky, Trump removed that

    2. United States and its Health care:      The gov’t has some government-run programs and private insurance.

      U.S. health care system

  39. Jul 2019
    1. but the old and diseased among them are supported by hospitals; for begging is a trade unknown in this empire.

      this sounds like a sort of utopia, their government supports people who need help such as those who are old or sick

  40. Mar 2019
    1. involves a complex interaction of conscious and unconscious processes.

      Ruiz, J. G., MD, Mintzer, M. J., MD, & Leipzig, R. M., MD, PhD. (2006) discuss the learning processes required to succeed in medical school. As of late, medical schools have implemented e-learning into their programs, which require many hours of study to appropriately learn material. "While e-learning should not be a substitute, it greatly compliments the learning process. -Ruiz, J. G., MD, Mintzer, M. J., MD, & Leipzig, R. M., MD, PhD. (2006)

    1. latent learning

      Question: When observing a friend shoot a basketball, and you're waiting your turn, you are given the ball and told to shoot but its your first time. After you shoot, the ball goes in and you're bamboozled as to how this happened. What type of learning was applied?

      Answer: Latent learning, which occurs when there is a reason to do a task.

    2. Remember, the best way to teach a person or animal a behavior is to use positive reinforcement

      Question: What is positive reinforcement, and what is an example from your own life?

      Answer: the addition of a reward following a behavior. An example of my personal life, would be earning money when mowing my parents yard without being asked.

    3. Why is shaping needed?

      An interesting TED talks about this can be found at:


    4. In his operant conditioning experiments, Skinner often used an approach called shaping

      Question: What is shaping, and what is its purpose when learning?

      Answer: Shaping is the process where you are rewarded through small steps that lead to the end goal of learning an objective. Its purpose is to learn the process of systems in a learning objective one small portion at a time.

    5. In discussing operant conditioning, we use several everyday words—positive, negative, reinforcement, and punishment—in a specialized manner. In operant conditioning, positive and negative do not mean good and bad

      Swanberg, A. B. (2010) discusses the positive and negative effects of personality traits in her" article. This applies directly to operant conditioning because once we have displayed certain traits in the classroom, or not showing up to the classroom, we begin to see the effects of operant conditioning. Once our grades start to slip, we will most likely become aware and not skip anymore, thus proves operant learning. Swanberg, A. B. (2010) states that "that there is a correlation between conscientiousness and academics."

      At WSU, you can learn more from operant learning at their lab, found at:


    1. There are specific steps in the process of modeling that must be followed if learning is to be successful.

      This simple fact is well portrayed in Steffens, K. (2006) article about self imposed learning, and what it takes to be successful at it. The link between the two isn't necessarily observing, but rather observing and then applying what we have learned. Steffens, K. (2006) writes beautifully regarding the potential for learning simply from observing and applying TELE systems.

      An additional resource and example of this can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3YIWd8Hx26A

    2. It was then that Claire knew she wanted to discipline her children in a different manner.

      Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009) have explained this theory of observational learning well in their article, which explains teachers observing higher educators from test groups and their teaching methods. While observing it was said that "an understanding came for teaching effectively, but maybe not meeting learning standards." Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009).

      An example resource of this found at WSU can be located at,


  41. Sep 2018
  42. Aug 2018
    1. Open Access journals

      Would the definition here be "all content in the journal must follow the oa principles set forth by plan s" or "the journal offers oa possibilities". I would guess the former due to the highlighted section below about publication paywalls.

  43. May 2018
  44. Jan 2018
  45. Dec 2017
    1. Expressed in the most general terms, the Heisenberg effect refers to those research occasions in which the very act of measurement or observation directly alters the phenomenon under investigation. Although most sciences assume that the properties of an entity can be assessed without changing the nature of that entity with respect to those assessed properties, the idea of the Heisenberg effect suggests that this assumption is often violated. In a sense, to measure or observe instantaneously renders the corresponding measurement or observation obsolete. Because reality is not separable from the observer, the process of doing science contaminates reality.

      definition of the Heisenberg (observer) Effect in research

  46. Nov 2017
    1. Whistle-blowers and dissidents might need to use a different platform.)

      The way that he casually mentions whistle blowers and dissidents is troubling to say the least. Also, will dig up studies, but removing anonymity hasn't really shown to decrease trolling or other bad behavior. Also, "privacy" anyone?


  47. Oct 2017
    1. len

      len(s) is built-in function

      Return the length (the number of items) of an object. The argument may be a sequence (such as a string, bytes, tuple, list, or range) or a collection (such as a dictionary, set, or frozen set).

  48. Sep 2017
  49. Apr 2017
    1. This ability to focus one’s attention is essential for effective performance of many of life’s necessary and daily activities, such as acquiring and using selected information; making and carrying out plans; and self-regulation of responses and behavior to meet desired goals (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1982). Direct attention is, therefore, an important cognitive skill required on a daily basis for students processing multiple sources of information, and working towards their academic goals at universities.

      In contrast with the concept of "involuntary attention". Both types of attention utilize different sections of the brain and perform their tasks with incredible difference. Despite GSU students generally lacking a space to induce involuntary attention for rejuvination, I'd like to question and understand how our urban environment shapes the brains of our students differently than those with access to green spaces. How has prolonged direct attention created a difference in urban campus students compared to classic university students.

    2. Attention Restoration Theory

      defined as, "suggests that mental fatigue and concentration can be improved by time spent in, or looking at nature."

      Regardless of the parks avaliable to GSU students, none seem to specifically meet the standards set by Kaplan to maximize benefit: "-Extent (the scope to feel immersed in the environment)

      -Being away (providing an escape from habitual activities)

      -Soft fascination (aspects of the environment that capture attention effortlessly)

      -Compatibility (individuals must want to be exposed to, and appreciate, the environment"

      Immediatley avaliable green spaces within Atlanta hardly separate themselves from their own city envirlonment and meerly provide a small area recreational area rather than an escape. http://www.ecehh.org/research-projects/attention-restoration-theory-a-systematic-review/

      In relation to GSU's severe lack of student avaliable green space, "The natural world has previously been depicted as a restorative environment that replenishes ones resources and urban environments such as cityscapes have been seen to potentially reduce attentional capacity."


    3. “natural scenery employs the mind without fatigue and yet exercises it; tranquilizes it and yet enlivens it; and thus through the influence of the mind over the body, gives the effect of refreshing rest and reinvigorating to the whole system

      This idea sums up the focus of this paper; the impact of natural spaces on the mind of students and how open green space revigorates mental fatigue. Many large closed campus schools (UGA, Georgia Tech, Berry, etc) feature the beauty and vigor of their campus' alongside their academic triumphs. The campus of a university must allow itself to create differentiated spaces based on necessities for relaxation versus work. Georgia State struggles with this concept by consistently immersing it's students within a bustling city life with fairly little down time.