354 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2022
  2. ivanov-petrov.livejournal.com ivanov-petrov.livejournal.com
    1. peggy-s: «Мечта – это же пространство абсолютной свободы».Почему-то это так не работает. Не знаю, может быть если специально потренироваться… Есть же люди, утверждающие, что они могут заказывать сновидения и ими управлять. С обыкновенными мечтами та же фигня. Нельзя начать мечтать о чем угодно. Мечта может быть нереальной (на то она и мечта), но она должна быть жизнеспособной. Маги бы сказали, что она должна быть наполнена энергией. И чем мечта страннее (нетипичная для каждого конкретного человека), тем больше ему требуется «энергии», чтобы об этом мечтать.Парадоксальным образом иногда легче получить что-то в реальности, чем мечтать об этом.
  3. Aug 2022
    1. Sadoff, J., Gars, M. L., Cardenas, V., Shukarev, G., Vaissiere, N., Heerwegh, D., Truyers, C., Groot, A. M. de, Scheper, G., Hendriks, J., Ruiz-Guinazu, J., Struyf, F., Hoof, J. V., Douoguih, M., & Schuitemaker, H. (2021). Durability of antibody responses elicited by a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S and substantial increase following late boosting (p. 2021.08.25.21262569). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.25.21262569

    1. Useful suggestions in regard tonote-taking will be found in Samuel S . Seward, Note-taking,Boston, 1910; and, especially for more advanced students, inEarle W. DOW, Principles of a note-system for hirton’calstudies, New York, 1924

      He's read Langlois/Seignobos and Bernheim, but doesn't recommend/reference them for note taking, but points to Seward and Dow instead.

      What are the differences between the four methods?

      Note that this advice is in 1931, a few years after Beatrice Webb's My Apprentice which has a section on note taking that prefers the first two without mention of the latter two.


      It would appear that Seward is the brother of William Henry Seward. see: https://hypothes.is/a/MwspfCBOEe2YCpesAgwiGQ

    1. Thought the middle names are similar, but slightly different spellings, this would seem to indicate that Stanford professor Samuel S. Seward, Jr. (author of Note-taking) is the brother of politician William Henry Seward.

    1. Historical Hypermedia: An Alternative History of the Semantic Web and Web 2.0 and Implications for e-Research. .mp3. Berkeley School of Information Regents’ Lecture. UC Berkeley School of Information, 2010. https://archive.org/details/podcast_uc-berkeley-school-informat_historical-hypermedia-an-alte_1000088371512. archive.org.

      https://www.ischool.berkeley.edu/events/2010/historical-hypermedia-alternative-history-semantic-web-and-web-20-and-implications-e.

      https://www.ischool.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/audio/2010-10-20-vandenheuvel_0.mp3

      headshot of Charles van den Heuvel

      Interface as Thing - book on Paul Otlet (not released, though he said he was working on it)

      • W. Boyd Rayward 1994 expert on Otlet
      • Otlet on annotation, visualization, of text
      • TBL married internet and hypertext (ideas have sex)
      • V. Bush As We May Think - crosslinks between microfilms, not in a computer context
      • Ted Nelson 1965, hypermedia

      t=540

      • Michael Buckland book about machine developed by Emanuel Goldberg antecedent to memex
      • Emanuel Goldberg and His Knowledge Machine: Information, Invention, and Political Forces (New Directions in Information Management) by Michael Buckland (Libraries Unlimited, (March 31, 2006)
      • Otlet and Goldsmith were precursors as well

      four figures in his research: - Patrick Gattis - biologist, architect, diagrams of knowledge, metaphorical use of architecture; classification - Paul Otlet, Brussels born - Wilhelm Ostwalt - nobel prize in chemistry - Otto Neurath, philosophher, designer of isotype

      Paul Otlet

      Otlet was interested in both the physical as well as the intangible aspects of the Mundaneum including as an idea, an institution, method, body of work, building, and as a network.<br /> (#t=1020)

      Early iPhone diagram?!?

      (roughly) armchair to do the things in the web of life (Nelson quote) (get full quote and source for use) (circa 19:30)

      compares Otlet to TBL


      Michael Buckland 1991 <s>internet of things</s> coinage - did I hear this correctly? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things lists different coinages

      Turns out it was "information as thing"<br /> See: https://hypothes.is/a/kXIjaBaOEe2MEi8Fav6QsA


      sugane brierre and otlet<br /> "everything can be in a document"<br /> importance of evidence


      The idea of evidence implies a passiveness. For evidence to be useful then, one has to actively do something with it, use it for comparison or analysis with other facts, knowledge, or evidence for it to become useful.


      transformation of sound into writing<br /> movement of pieces at will to create a new combination of facts - combinatorial creativity idea here. (circa 27:30 and again at 29:00)<br /> not just efficiency but improvement and purification of humanity

      put things on system cards and put them into new orders<br /> breaking things down into smaller pieces, whether books or index cards....

      Otlet doesn't use the word interfaces, but makes these with language and annotations that existed at the time. (32:00)

      Otlet created diagrams and images to expand his ideas

      Otlet used octagonal index cards to create extra edges to connect them together by topic. This created more complex trees of knowledge beyond the four sides of standard index cards. (diagram referenced, but not contained in the lecture)

      Otlet is interested in the "materialization of knowledge": how to transfer idea into an object. (How does this related to mnemonic devices for daily use? How does it relate to broader material culture?)

      Otlet inspired by work of Herbert Spencer

      space an time are forms of thought, I hold myself that they are forms of things. (get full quote and source) from spencer influence of Plato's forms here?

      Otlet visualization of information (38:20)

      S. R. Ranganathan may have had these ideas about visualization too

      atomization of knowledge; atomist approach 19th century examples:S. R. Ranganathan, Wilson, Otlet, Richardson, (atomic notes are NOT new either...) (39:40)

      Otlet creates interfaces to the world - time with cyclic representation - space - moving cube along time and space axes as well as levels of detail - comparison to Ted Nelson and zoomable screens even though Ted Nelson didn't have screens, but simulated them in paper - globes

      Katie Berner - semantic web; claims that reporting a scholarly result won't be a paper, but a nugget of information that links to other portions of the network of knowledge.<br /> (so not just one's own system, but the global commons system)

      Mention of Open Annotation (Consortium) Collaboration:<br /> - Jane Hunter, University of Australia Brisbane & Queensland<br /> - Tim Cole, University of Urbana Champaign<br /> - Herbert Van de Sompel, Los Alamos National Laboratory annotations of various media<br /> see:<br /> - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311366469_The_Open_Annotation_Collaboration_A_Data_Model_to_Support_Sharing_and_Interoperability_of_Scholarly_Annotations - http://www.openannotation.org/spec/core/20130205/index.html - http://www.openannotation.org/PhaseIII_Team.html

      trust must be put into the system for it to work

      coloration of the provenance of links goes back to Otlet (~52:00)

      Creativity is the friction of the attention space at the moments when the structural blocks are grinding against one another the hardest. —Randall Collins (1998) The sociology of philosophers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (p.76)

  4. Jul 2022
    1. various bibliographic catalog from the end of the '800 and '900 (from Paul Otlet/Henry La Fontaine Munaneum to Ranganathan faceted classification system passing through Niklas Luhmann, Carl Sagan and many others

      Look into Henry La Fontaine, Mundaneum, Ranganathan's faceted classification system.

      See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faceted_classification

      What was Carl Sagan's system?

  5. Jun 2022
    1. Establecida como una AG de responsabilidad limitada, la empresa descentralizada está estructurada de manera que posee entidades independientes que a su vez están incorporadas en jurisdicciones de todo el mundo.

      What kind of legal entity is convenient for a descentralized app (or startup)

  6. May 2022
    1. he also innovated in typography, being responsible for an influential font that omitted the long s.

      John Bell created an early and influential font which omitted the long s in English.

      reference: Barker, Hannah. "Bell, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2014.

    1. I think it may have been the British Library interview in which Wengrow says something like, you know, no one ever challenges a new conservative book and says, so and so has just offered a neoliberal perspective on X. But when an anarchist says something, people are sure to spend most of their time remarking on his politics. I think it's relevant that G&W call out Pinker's cherry-picking of Ötzi the ice man. They counter this with the Romito 2 specimen, but they insist that it is no more conclusive than Ötzi. So how does a challenging new interpretation gain ground in the face of an entrenched dominant narrative?

      This sentiment is very similar to one in a recent lecture series I'd started listening to: The Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida #.

      Lawrence Cahoone specifically pointed out that he would be highlighting the revolutionary (and also consequently the most famous) writers because they were the ones over history that created the most change in their field of thought.

      How does the novel and the different manage to break through?

      How does this relate to the broad thesis of Thomas S. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions?


      The comment Wengrow makes about "remarking on [an anarchist's] politics" as a means of attacking their ideas is quite similar to the sort of attacks that are commonly made on women. When female politicians make relevant remarks and points, mainstream culture goes to standbys about their voice or appearance: "She's 'shrill'", or "She doesn't look very good in that dress." They attack anything but the idea itself.

    1. GS11=Γin=Z02−Z01Z02+Z01

      According to the definition (2.4.11) and (2.4.10), GS11 should be :

      (Z_02 - Z_01^*)/(Z_02 + Z_01)

      There is a complex conjugate of Z_01 at the numerator, which is a consequence of the power-wave definition.

      Of course there is no change is Z_01 is real, but I think it should be mentioned, since the power-waves definition may lead to unexpected results for complex-valued impedances.

  7. Apr 2022
    1. It iseven more obvious in S/Z, where Barthes develops the concept oflexias as ‘contiguous fragments’ or ‘units of reading’ that ‘will notthen be regrouped [and] provided with a metameaning’ (Barthes,1991: 13-14).
  8. Mar 2022
    1. En somme, les études sur la communication des élèves atteints d’autisme permettent de mettre en évidence l’importance d’un contexte riche en stimulations appropriées (sons et images), mais également une évidente « stabilité » de l’information à décoder, le suivi des émotions des personnages, le rôle de l’imitation dans les apprentissages. Ces résultats encouragent donc l’usage d’outils informatiques adéquats pour améliorer la communication sociale chez les enfants atteints d’autisme.

      L'association de deux sujets qui n'ont pas de corrélation vérifiéé, revient dans la conclusion en contradiction avec la conclusion de l'étude de Ramdoss, S et al.

    2. Nous allons montrer par une courte analyse de quelques études l’impact du travail éducatif informatisé dans l’apprentissage de la communication sociale chez des enfants atteints d’autisme.

      En contradiction avec l'hypothèse :

      Results suggest that CBI should not yet be considered a researched-based approach to teaching communication skills to individuals with ASD. However, CBI does seem a promising practice that warrants future research. Les résultats suggèrent que le CBI ne devrait pas encore être considéré comme un approche fondée sur la recherche pour enseigner les compétences en communication aux personnes ayant Troubles du Spectre Autistique. Cependant, le CBI semble être une pratique prometteuse qui justifie des recherches futures.

    3. Ce programme nommé « I can word it too », disponible en hébreu et arabe, a été spécialement créé pour cette étude. Il reproduit les activités quotidiennes (jouer à des jeux, prendre les repas, faire sa toilette…) et demande à l’enfant ce à quoi il veut jouer, en lui présentant un choix de jeux sur l’écran

      ==>il s’agirait d’une déclinaison sur écran des outils et méthodes de communication améliorée et alternative (CAA), comme le PECS ou le Makaton. déjà existants, IDEOPICTO ou le langage conceptuel SACCADE

  9. Feb 2022
    1. https://hardhistoriesjhu.substack.com/

      Taking a moment to send a warm thank you to all the work (both visible and invisible) that Dr. Martha S. Jones and her lab are doing for the Johns Hopkins Community and far beyond. Where ever you live, I heartily recommend their newsletter Hard Histories at Hopkins.

  10. Jan 2022
    1. Cornelius Roemer. (2021, December 22). @mccarthy_kr I took a look at all these NY sequences. I don’t think these point mutations S:681H are real. Why? Because they appear all over the Omicron diversity. Some sequences have S:346K, some S:701V, most miss S679K, a few have it. That’s the signature of contamination/co-infection. Https://t.co/DcJD4q44EM [Tweet]. @CorneliusRoemer. https://twitter.com/CorneliusRoemer/status/1473507369455923203

    1. I l e s t u r g e n t d e d é pa s s e r l e s l o g i q u e s d e s i l o s. L a s a n t é m e n ta l e d e s e n fa n t s, v é r i ta b l e e n j e u d e s o c i é t é p o u r n o s e n fa n t s a u j o u r d’ h u i c o m m e p o u r l e s a d u lt e s q u ’ i l s s e r o n t d e m a i n , m é r i t e m i e u x q u e d e s a p p r o c h e s f r a g m e n ta i r e s e t u n e a p p r o c h e s t r i c t e m e n t s a n i ta i r e .
    1. Only recently has "memory training" become a butt of ridicule and a refuge of charlatans.

      Daniel Boorstin indicated in 1984 that "'memory training' had become the butt of ridicule and a refuge of charlatans", a concept which had begun by the 1880s with people selling memory tricks and training to the point that the journal Science published an article by George S. Fellows exposing an expensive program by Antoine Loisette, which had been advertised in the New York Times with quotes by Mark Twain. #

      The trend probably hit its peak when huckster and convicted fraudster Kevin Trudeau marketed audiocassette tapes of his "Mega Memory" course on late night infomercials until he was shut down by the Federal Trade Commission in the late 1990's.

      That history had begun to shift with the rise of memory sports and competitions into the early 2000s and popularized by Tyler Foer's book Moonwalking with Einstein.

  11. Dec 2021
    1. An NFT is a concrete product (a digital good), not a promise about the future. This fact alone makes the NFT boom more sustainable than the ICO boom.
  12. Oct 2021
    1. a) We need not have 4 banners. Just one overarching banner of the product. Learn more can be an anchor link to the capabilities listed in section 3. And below each is a product link, so the journey is good. Product is also there in top nav

  13. Aug 2021
  14. Jul 2021
    1. evidencia del stock

      ¿Cómo mínimo se debe considerar 10 o 12 unidades del producto como stock?

    Tags

    Annotators

  15. Jun 2021
    1. Oversharing. Crying, disclosing intimate details, and telling long (unrelated and/or unsolicited) stories about one’s personal life may indicate the lack of an essential social work skill: personal boundaries.

      Testing out the annotate feature. Student 1 will highlight sections according to the prompts, as shown HERE.

      For example: "This is me during interviews. I say too much and veer off topic."

  16. Apr 2021
    1. Lee, L. Y., Rozmanowski, S., Pang, M., Charlett, A., Anderson, C., Hughes, G. J., Barnard, M., Peto, L., Vipond, R., Sienkiewicz, A., Hopkins, S., Bell, J., Crook, D. W., Gent, N., Walker, A. S., Peto, T. E., & Eyre, D. W. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 infectivity by viral load, S gene variants and demographic factors and the utility of lateral flow devices to prevent transmission. MedRxiv, 2021.03.31.21254687. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.31.21254687

  17. Mar 2021
    1. An answer to Mr. Bendetsen's testimony came from Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of Johns Hopkins University, who in 1942 directed the Federal War Relocation Authority.In a written statement, Mr. Eisenhower, who was unable to attend because of illness, called the internment of Japanese-Americans ''an inhuman mistake.'' Moreover, he said, the threat of Japanese forces' invading the West Coast was ''extremely remote.''He said that the relocation furor could have been avoid, ''had not false and flaming statements been dinned into the people of the West Coast by irresponsible commentators and politicians.''
  18. Feb 2021
    1. Wiley  

      Similar to CUP and IOP, Sage, and Springer Nature, many UK institutions have signed a contract to fund Wiley's publishing activities for four more years as a result of Plan S, regardless of how many authors accepted manuscripts (AAM) are openly available in repositories. This fact undermines the arguments made above by the STM Association about the rights retention strategy (RRS) undermining financial sustainability.

      Furthermore, the financial credit cap for the Wiley deal is operationally low, resulting in additional expenditure for institutions at the end of the calendar year when open access support funds are running low. This additional cost is not sustainable for many institutions and unintentionally creates inequitable access to no-additional-cost publishing.

    2. Springer Nature  

      UK institutions have been through several terms of the Springer Compact deal and continue to negotiate amendments and additional terms with added expense. The Springer Compact deal delivers no-additional-cost publishing for an upfront commitment of funds by institutions. Regardless of how many authors accepted manuscripts (AAM) are openly available in repositories institutions continue to support Springer Nature's publishing activities. This fact undermines the arguments made above by the STM Association about the rights retention strategy (RRS) undermining financial sustainability.

    3. SAGE Publishing  

      Similar to CUP and IOP, many UK institutions have signed a contract to fund Sage's publishing activities for three years as a result of Plan S, regardless of how many authors accepted manuscripts (AAM) are openly available in repositories. This fact undermines the arguments made above by the STM Association about the rights retention strategy (RRS) undermining financial sustainability.

    4. IOP Publishing

      Similar to CUP, some UK institutions have signed a contract to fund IOP's publishing activities for four years as a result of Plan S, regardless of how many authors accepted manuscripts (AAM) are openly available in repositories. This fact undermines the arguments made above by the STM Association about the rights retention strategy (RRS) undermining financial sustainability.

    5. Cambridge University Press

      Many UK institutions have signed a contract to fund CUP's publishing activities for four years as a result of Plan S, regardless of how many authors accepted manuscripts (AAM) are openly available in repositories. This fact undermines the arguments made above by the STM Association about the rights retention strategy (RRS) undermining financial sustainability.

    6. what is allowed

      What is allowed = what is legal (i.e. copyright law) and what the journal is willing to publish or reject. If authors are told they should consult the journal and the only response is the journal's own policy, assuming it contradicts the right retention strategy (RRS), the Publisher/Editor/Production Editor will be misinforming the author and denying them their legal rights.

    7. to be sustainable this is a decision that needs to be applied at the level of individual journals, not through blanket policies

      It's my interpretation that the funders agree which is why Wellcome Trust wrote to publishers asking if they would change their policies to reflect the rights retention strategy.

    8. undermine the integrity of the Version of Record, which is the foundation of the scientific record, and its associated codified mechanisms for corrections, retractions and data disclosure. 

      This misrepresents the situation. Authors accepted manuscripts (AAM) have been shared on institutional and subject repositories for around two decades, with greater prevalence in the last decade. Despite this the version of record (VoR) is still valued and preserves the integrity of the scholarly record. The integrity of the VoR continues to be maintained by the publisher and where well-run repository management are made aware, corrections can be reflected in a repository. The solution to this problem is the publisher taking their responsibility to preserving the integrity of the scholarly record seriously and notifying repositories, not asserting that authors should not exercise their right to apply a prior license to their AAM.

    9. the Rights Retention Strategy is not financially sustainable

      So far as I know this is not tested or based on any evidence. If the publishers think an open accepted manuscript would undermine the version of record, it doesn't demonstrate much confidence in their added value to me.

    10. The Rights Retention Strategy ignores long-standing academic freedoms

      It’s not entirely clear what is meant by this statement. This is incredibly inflammatory rhetoric for most academics who take academic freedom very seriously - for very good reasons. However, the academic has the freedom not to accept a grant if they fundamentally disagree with the funder’s desired approach to effective dissemination of the research they support. Furthermore, the rights retention strategy (RRS) is in place to give the authors more freedom of choice over what happens to the version of record (VoR). Because of the RRS, the author can submit to the most appropriate journal for the research regardless of whether it explicitly provides a compliant route to publication (assuming the journal takes the submission forwards) or whether or not the author can access funds to pay a publication charge (APC) in a hybrid subscription journal.

    11. The Rights Retention Strategy provides a challenge to the vital income that is necessary to fund the resources, time, and effort to provide not only the many checks, corrections, and editorial inputs required but also the management and support of a rigorous peer review process

      This is an untested statement and does not take into account the perspectives of those contributing to the publishers' revenue. The Rights Retention Strategy (RRS) relies on the author's accepted manuscript (AAM) and for an AAM to exist and to have the added value from peer-review a Version of Record (VoR) must exist. Libraries recognise this fundamental principle and continue to subscribe to individual journals of merit and support lucrative deals with publishers. From some (not all) librarians' and possibly funders' perspectives these statements could undermine any mutual respect.

    12. However, we are unable to support one route to compliance offered by Plan S,

      The publishers below will not support the Plan S rights retention strategy (RRS). In its simplest form the RRS re-asserts the authors' rights as the rights holder to assign a copyright license of their choice (CC BY informed by their funding agency) to all versions of their research/intellectual output. In the case of the RRS states that the author should apply a CC BY license to their accepted manuscript (AAM) if they cannot afford to pay article processing charges or choose not to apply a CC BY license to the Version of Record (VoR), which they are free to do. Therefore, this statement is either saying the undersigned will not carry publications forward to publication (most appropriate approach), or they will not support the same copyright laws which fundamentally protects their rights and revenue after a copyright transfer agreement is signed by the rightsholder.

      Academy of Dental Materials

      Acoustical Society of America

      AIP Publishing

      American Academy of Ophthalmology

      American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

      American Chemical Society

      American Gastroenterological Association American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

      American Medical Association

      American Physical Society

      American Society for Investigative Pathology

      American Society for Radiation Oncology

      American Society of Civil Engineers

      American Society of Hematology

      American Society of Clinical Oncology

      American Association of Physicists in Medicine

      American Association of Physics Teachers

      AVS – The Society for Science and Technology of Materials, Interfaces, and Processing

      Brill

      British Journal of Anaesthesia

      Budrich Academic Press

      Cambridge Media

      Cambridge University Press

      Canadian Cardiovascular Society

      De Gruyter

      Duncker & Humblot

      Elsevier

      Emerald

      Erich Schmidt Verlag

      French Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

      Frommann-Holzboog Verlag

      Future Science Group 

      Hogrefe

      International Association for Gondwana Research

      IOP Publishing

      Journal of Nursing Regulation

      Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT).

      Julius Klinkhardt KG

      La Découverte

      Laser Institute America

      Materials Research Forum LLC

      The Optical Society (OSA)

      Pearson Benelux

      SAGE Publishing

      Society of Rheology

      Springer Nature

      Taylor & Francis Group

      The Geological Society of America

      Thieme Group

      Uitgeverij Verloren

      Verlag Barbara Budrich

      Vittorio Klostermann

      wbv Media

      Wiley

      Wolters Kluwer

  19. Nov 2020
  20. Sep 2020
    1. I was… not one of those assigned to watch our chosen one, so I can’t say much about exactly what happened within the walls of that house, but it seems the fight scarred the place in a way far deeper than simple fire. A scar in reality, that I believe has since been compounded by the interferences of other powers.
    1. Tuples are sequence of values. Tuples are immutable. Bracket operator indexes an element,slice,relational operators which work on lists aslo work on tuples. Built-in function divmod takes two arguments and returns a tuple of two values as quotient and remainder. If you have a sequence of values you can use * operator to pass it to asunction as multiplue arguments. Operation that collects multiple arguments into a tuple is known as 'gather'. Operation which makes a sequence behave like multiple arguments is called 'scatter'. Zip is a built-in function in the lists and tuples takes two or more sequences and interleaves them.If the sequences are not of same length, the result has the length of the shorter one. Tuples has built-in funtions sorted and reversed as it does not provide methods like sort an reverse which work as the same.

  21. Aug 2020
    1. Walls, A. C., Fiala, B., Schäfer, A., Wrenn, S., Pham, M. N., Murphy, M., Tse, L. V., Shehata, L., O’Connor, M. A., Chen, C., Navarro, M. J., Miranda, M. C., Pettie, D., Ravichandran, R., Kraft, J. C., Ogohara, C., Palser, A., Chalk, S., Lee, E.-C., … King, N. P. (2020). Elicitation of potent neutralizing antibody responses by designed protein nanoparticle vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. BioRxiv, 2020.08.11.247395. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.11.247395

  22. Jul 2020
    1. Corbett, K. S., Edwards, D., Leist, S. R., Abiona, O. M., Boyoglu-Barnum, S., Gillespie, R. A., Himansu, S., Schäfer, A., Ziwawo, C. T., DiPiazza, A. T., Dinnon, K. H., Elbashir, S. M., Shaw, C. A., Woods, A., Fritch, E. J., Martinez, D. R., Bock, K. W., Minai, M., Nagata, B. M., … Graham, B. S. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Development Enabled by Prototype Pathogen Preparedness. BioRxiv, 2020.06.11.145920. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.11.145920

  23. Jun 2020
  24. May 2020
  25. Mar 2020
    1. Hugo takes a template and all the content of the website in a markup format and converts it to the HTML that can be hosted as is.

      content + template→html

  26. Feb 2020
    1. How does Perma.cc work? You give Perma.cc the URL of the page you want to preserve and cite. Our software visits that URL, preserves what's there, deposits it into our collection, and gives you a unique URL (e.g. "perma.cc/ABCD-1234") - a "Perma Link" - that points to the record in our collection. You then can use that Perma Link in your citation to give readers access to a stable, accurate record of the source you referenced, even if the original disappears from the web.

      how does this compare to other web archive tools? is it really "permanent"? any disadvantages of this tool?

    1. why is board game so popular in Germany? does this award contribute to the healthy development of this market?

    1. Planning

      A very transparent way of author-reader communication, really give readers great anticipation. the whole website feels like a open-source project, with various media input (fan pic, character design, spotify play list)

  27. Dec 2019
    1. For the first time, a nonresident alien can take an equity stake in an S corporation, albeit indirectly as a trust beneficiary, without terminating the ESBT and S corporation statuses. This change presents a new opportunity for a nonresident alien to invest in an S corporation without compromising the entity's S corporation status. To be clear, the long-standing prohibition on a nonresident alien's being a direct S corporation shareholder (Sec. 1361(b)(1)(C)) was left intact. Accordingly, it is still necessary to ensure that under no circumstance could the trust distribute S corporation shares to a nonresident alien beneficiary, as such a distribution would jeopardize the trust's status as an ESBT as well as the S corporation status.
  28. Aug 2019
    1. ObamaCare, is the product of a Conservative Think-Tank. 60% of citizens get private insurance from their employers, 15% receive Medicare (65 and older), and the federal gov’t funds Medicaid for low-income families (the allocation to this fund has been declining).

      Lucky, Trump removed that

    2. United States and its Health care:      The gov’t has some government-run programs and private insurance.

      U.S. health care system

  29. Jul 2019
    1. but the old and diseased among them are supported by hospitals; for begging is a trade unknown in this empire.

      this sounds like a sort of utopia, their government supports people who need help such as those who are old or sick

  30. Mar 2019
    1. involves a complex interaction of conscious and unconscious processes.

      Ruiz, J. G., MD, Mintzer, M. J., MD, & Leipzig, R. M., MD, PhD. (2006) discuss the learning processes required to succeed in medical school. As of late, medical schools have implemented e-learning into their programs, which require many hours of study to appropriately learn material. "While e-learning should not be a substitute, it greatly compliments the learning process. -Ruiz, J. G., MD, Mintzer, M. J., MD, & Leipzig, R. M., MD, PhD. (2006)

    1. latent learning

      Question: When observing a friend shoot a basketball, and you're waiting your turn, you are given the ball and told to shoot but its your first time. After you shoot, the ball goes in and you're bamboozled as to how this happened. What type of learning was applied?

      Answer: Latent learning, which occurs when there is a reason to do a task.

    2. Remember, the best way to teach a person or animal a behavior is to use positive reinforcement

      Question: What is positive reinforcement, and what is an example from your own life?

      Answer: the addition of a reward following a behavior. An example of my personal life, would be earning money when mowing my parents yard without being asked.

    3. Why is shaping needed?

      An interesting TED talks about this can be found at:

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qXz2bcbivXw

    4. In his operant conditioning experiments, Skinner often used an approach called shaping

      Question: What is shaping, and what is its purpose when learning?

      Answer: Shaping is the process where you are rewarded through small steps that lead to the end goal of learning an objective. Its purpose is to learn the process of systems in a learning objective one small portion at a time.

    5. In discussing operant conditioning, we use several everyday words—positive, negative, reinforcement, and punishment—in a specialized manner. In operant conditioning, positive and negative do not mean good and bad

      Swanberg, A. B. (2010) discusses the positive and negative effects of personality traits in her" article. This applies directly to operant conditioning because once we have displayed certain traits in the classroom, or not showing up to the classroom, we begin to see the effects of operant conditioning. Once our grades start to slip, we will most likely become aware and not skip anymore, thus proves operant learning. Swanberg, A. B. (2010) states that "that there is a correlation between conscientiousness and academics."

      At WSU, you can learn more from operant learning at their lab, found at:

      https://labs.wsu.edu/operant-conditioning/

    1. There are specific steps in the process of modeling that must be followed if learning is to be successful.

      This simple fact is well portrayed in Steffens, K. (2006) article about self imposed learning, and what it takes to be successful at it. The link between the two isn't necessarily observing, but rather observing and then applying what we have learned. Steffens, K. (2006) writes beautifully regarding the potential for learning simply from observing and applying TELE systems.

      An additional resource and example of this can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3YIWd8Hx26A

    2. It was then that Claire knew she wanted to discipline her children in a different manner.

      Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009) have explained this theory of observational learning well in their article, which explains teachers observing higher educators from test groups and their teaching methods. While observing it was said that "an understanding came for teaching effectively, but maybe not meeting learning standards." Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009).

      An example resource of this found at WSU can be located at,

      https://opentext.wsu.edu/ldaffin/chapter/module-10-non-operant-procedures-respondent-conditioning-and-observational-learning/

  31. Sep 2018
  32. Aug 2018
    1. Open Access journals

      Would the definition here be "all content in the journal must follow the oa principles set forth by plan s" or "the journal offers oa possibilities". I would guess the former due to the highlighted section below about publication paywalls.

  33. May 2018
  34. Jan 2018
  35. Dec 2017
    1. Expressed in the most general terms, the Heisenberg effect refers to those research occasions in which the very act of measurement or observation directly alters the phenomenon under investigation. Although most sciences assume that the properties of an entity can be assessed without changing the nature of that entity with respect to those assessed properties, the idea of the Heisenberg effect suggests that this assumption is often violated. In a sense, to measure or observe instantaneously renders the corresponding measurement or observation obsolete. Because reality is not separable from the observer, the process of doing science contaminates reality.

      definition of the Heisenberg (observer) Effect in research

  36. Nov 2017
    1. Whistle-blowers and dissidents might need to use a different platform.)

      The way that he casually mentions whistle blowers and dissidents is troubling to say the least. Also, will dig up studies, but removing anonymity hasn't really shown to decrease trolling or other bad behavior. Also, "privacy" anyone?

      http://theweek.com/articles/632929/problem-internet-trolls-isnt-anonymity

  37. Oct 2017
    1. len

      len(s) is built-in function

      Return the length (the number of items) of an object. The argument may be a sequence (such as a string, bytes, tuple, list, or range) or a collection (such as a dictionary, set, or frozen set).

  38. Sep 2017
  39. Apr 2017
    1. This ability to focus one’s attention is essential for effective performance of many of life’s necessary and daily activities, such as acquiring and using selected information; making and carrying out plans; and self-regulation of responses and behavior to meet desired goals (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1982). Direct attention is, therefore, an important cognitive skill required on a daily basis for students processing multiple sources of information, and working towards their academic goals at universities.

      In contrast with the concept of "involuntary attention". Both types of attention utilize different sections of the brain and perform their tasks with incredible difference. Despite GSU students generally lacking a space to induce involuntary attention for rejuvination, I'd like to question and understand how our urban environment shapes the brains of our students differently than those with access to green spaces. How has prolonged direct attention created a difference in urban campus students compared to classic university students.

    2. Attention Restoration Theory

      defined as, "suggests that mental fatigue and concentration can be improved by time spent in, or looking at nature."

      Regardless of the parks avaliable to GSU students, none seem to specifically meet the standards set by Kaplan to maximize benefit: "-Extent (the scope to feel immersed in the environment)

      -Being away (providing an escape from habitual activities)

      -Soft fascination (aspects of the environment that capture attention effortlessly)

      -Compatibility (individuals must want to be exposed to, and appreciate, the environment"

      Immediatley avaliable green spaces within Atlanta hardly separate themselves from their own city envirlonment and meerly provide a small area recreational area rather than an escape. http://www.ecehh.org/research-projects/attention-restoration-theory-a-systematic-review/


      In relation to GSU's severe lack of student avaliable green space, "The natural world has previously been depicted as a restorative environment that replenishes ones resources and urban environments such as cityscapes have been seen to potentially reduce attentional capacity."

      https://positivepsychologyprogram.com/attention-restoration-theory-nature-lets-solve-problems/

    3. “natural scenery employs the mind without fatigue and yet exercises it; tranquilizes it and yet enlivens it; and thus through the influence of the mind over the body, gives the effect of refreshing rest and reinvigorating to the whole system

      This idea sums up the focus of this paper; the impact of natural spaces on the mind of students and how open green space revigorates mental fatigue. Many large closed campus schools (UGA, Georgia Tech, Berry, etc) feature the beauty and vigor of their campus' alongside their academic triumphs. The campus of a university must allow itself to create differentiated spaces based on necessities for relaxation versus work. Georgia State struggles with this concept by consistently immersing it's students within a bustling city life with fairly little down time.

    4. open spaces have not been systematically examined for their potential in replenishing cognitive functioning for attentional fatigued students

      What quality of open spaces replenishes cognitive function? How does this tie into Georgia States "cramped" campus?


      REVISION & RESPONSE: open, specifically natural, spaces replenish cognitive function by relaxing the brain and thought processes of a student. These spaces are less visually intensive than the typical information overload of a student's standard day. Georgia State, despite a severe lack of open space, does offer Hurt and Woodruff parks as alternative green areas to relax within. This lack of open space is an important issue within the built environment of GSU, as we lack a scientifically backed attribute of student success that most closed campus universities can offer.

    5. increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      Arguably bold claim; regardless of backing source for information, how do students perform on average with an explosion of technological progress over the past 20 years compared to before smartphones were widely popularized?

      Technology absolutely depletes student's "attentional resource", yet we see an increased trend in technological innovation within classroom spaces; is this setting students up for failure by providing distractions from their work?

      Technology has arguably also greatly enhanced the students ability to learn, share resources, and more accurately/timely locate information beneficial to their success rather than simply create distraction.

    6. . Today’s university must be resilient spaces in which the learning environment encompasses more than technology upgrades, classroom additions, and its academic buildings – in fact, the entire campus, including its open spaces, must be perceived as a holistic learning space that provides a holistic learning experience

      Does GSU conform to this standard? Is it necessary/true? How does GSU make up for a lack of "open spaces" utilizing it's built environment to establish a holistic learning space?


      Georiga State strays from Scholl/Gulwadi's ideals; establishing an interconnected learning environment through downtown Atlanta by creating a community of students who not only share like minded goals but also campus space together. Although the city lacks the natural relaxation nature can provide to alleviate stress, I believe students find solace in the student body culture of the university.

  40. Feb 2017
    1. increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      What role does technology play in the promotion or degradation of our learning and how does this tie in with how our attention is directed?


      Revision + Response: As technology becomes increasingly intertwined with all aspects of life, including education, concern should be raised as to how being consistently connected to an online space not only distracts us, but prevents natural attention rejuvination from students specifically, furthering levels of fatigue. As the evolution of education ties itself closer to technology and reliance on online spaces, it seems like the system is setting itself up for failure in the long run by breaking the division between educational spaces and natural/recreational ones.

    2. Learning is a lifelong and year-round pursuit, which takes place throughout the campus, not just fragmented indoors in designated instructional spaces

      This is extremely important to the general thesis of the piece and summarizes all the information before this statement well. How is learning facilitated outside of classrooms on campus? What creates a "holistic" learning space? How does a campus teach outside of it's classrooms?


      Revision + Response: A holistic learning space/experience details the entire daily process of a student's day, and their interactions in space between classrooms + nature. The process of learning expands beyond taking in information; internalizing ideas through natural experiences. Holistic learning experiences create a balance between work, extra curricular activities, and student social lives which allows them to continue education through an optimal, healthy process.

    3. we propose that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students.

      Thesis statement of the piece. What is an "attentional learning resource"? What is a "natural landscape" How do these concepts interact with one another.


      Revision + Response: The natural landscape of a university refers to the "green space" of a campus and it's relationship with the buildings that surround it. The natural landscape being an attentional learning resource outlines how learning and attention are facilitated outside of a classroom; the greenspace of a campus rejuvinates the mind allowing for students to relax but also mentally prepares them to continue their learning experience with less fatigue. The natural landscape of a campus is integral to the continued learning experience of it's students as it subconciously decompiles stress/depression.

    4. Direct attention requires mental effort and cognitive control for an individual to sustain focus and prevent distracting stimuli from interfering with an intended activity

      Describes what I am currently struggling with

    5. Many university founders desired to create an ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community, enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for classical or divinity learning, personal growth, and free intellectual inquiry

      How does this relate to the "perfect" built environment for learning? How does GSU defy these standards? How does GSU refute this claim

    6. diverse and evolving needs

      What are those needs? In what ways are they "diverse" and "evolving"? This sentence assumes "holistic learning spaces" are "good." Here's a source that outlines a debate about "holistic education"

  41. Jan 2017
  42. Dec 2016
  43. Nov 2016
    1. The 1620 agreement (first called the Mayflower Compact in 1793) was a legal instrument that bound the Pilgrims together when they arrived in New England. The core members of the Pilgrims' immigrant group were Separatists, members of a Puritan sect that had split from the Church of England, the only legal church in England at that time. Others in the group, however, had remained part of the Church of England, so not all of the Pilgrims shared the same religion.

      The Mayflower compact was a signature sheet that would be used for the signers to go to America for religious freedom.

  44. Oct 2016
    1. direct and indirect attention and restoration

      What I am curious about is how indirect attention and restoration can be used to create new college campuses? What does that entail?

    2. One way to examine this potential is to consider the entire campus with its buildings, roads and natural open spaces as a well-networked landscape system that supports student learning experiences.

      I totally agree with this statement but how exactly are they going to do it?

    3. we propose that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students.

      This sentence is consider the thesis statement. It talks about how the landscape of a university campus could effect the learning of a student. Which connects to the whole essay.

    4. permeable

      the word permeable means capable of being permeated : penetrable; especially : having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to pass through according to the Marriam Webster dictionary http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/permeable

    5. It is this holistic view of a campus’ spatial patterning and the student’s relationship with the natural and built environment or its landscape that is capable of having an effect on student learning

      If this is so, then why is the majority of classrooms (if not all) inside? Wouldn't this actually be a distraction for the student in a learning environment? Since there is to many things happening around the student might not be concentrated.

    6. Today the campus open space still remains a significant center for teaching and learning for students in natural resources management, sustainability/ecology, agriculture, forestry, etc. and more recently, a focus on environmental education and sustainable practices

      This topic sentence relates to the essay because it depicts how the students need to interact with nature, and a whole community outside of classrooms. As mentioned, the student is not closed up in a room where ideas cannot be created or found. It is good for the student to get some learning outside of a classroom, especially if it has to do with their major.

    7. holistic

      relating to or concerned with complete systems rather than with individual parts http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/holistic

    8. spatial patterning

      a perceptual structure, placement, or arrangement of objects on Earth. It also includes the space in between those objects. Patterns may be recognized because of their arrangement; maybe in a line or by a clustering of points. https://www.una.edu/geography/lights_night/step_1.htm

    9. These features can help enable and enhance a sense of being away and thereby lead to attention restoration

      These features help students forget that their at a college campus and helps them become more attentive, for example hurt park located at Georgia State.

    10. conceptualization

      to form in to a concept or make a concept of someting. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/conceptualization

    11. Defining “nature” can pose a bit of problem however.

      Many people have different perceptions of what nature is , it could refer to anything green for some or open spaces for others.

    12. Now as climate change is a major scientific and political issue, a renewed commitment to sustainability is evident in campus planning efforts to integrate built and open spaces within “green infrastructure”

      This is very important and is mostly applicable to colleges located somewhere urban such as Georgia State where global warming would pose more of a threat.

    13. Early American colleges and universities were self-sufficient and often built in rural locations with dormitories, dining halls and recreation facilities

      Many of these "early" colleges are still present today.They were probably built in rural locations to help students avoid distractions.

    14. 1). Well-designed and connected networks of indoor and open spaces on campuses can be key, yet typically overlooked catalysts, in student learning and a strong influence on students’ initial and longstanding experiences that promote a sense of belonging to the learning community

      A perfect example to support this statement,is the Georgia State plaza,Its an open space where students can go sit during class break.It gives students a sense of community as you're surrounded by your peers.

    15. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration (Wentworth & Middleton, 2014

      I couldn't agree with this statement more.College is definitely one of the most challenging times in a student's life.

    16. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located”

      This statement illustrates how the design of a campus plays an important part on whether students choose to attend it or not.

    17. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student

      This represents the main claim of the article and gives an insight on what the article is about.

    18. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration (Wentworth & Middleton, 2014). Thus, university students as a group are at a higher risk of attentional fatigue. Furthermore, increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      This could be a double edged sword like the statement describes. On one hand the use of technology has shown to decrease the students attention space with "something more interesting" in the palm of the students hand, but some students work better in this condition. The student will just have to know themselves and their own limitations to base their future classes on that.

    19. “one fifth of a student’s time is spent in the classroom, contributing about one quarter of the total learning variance

      With the digital age now approaching I think this may slightly change. Some students like the classroom because it's a time for them to meet other people and interact. Maybe some kids like the alone time with nature and over time with both opinions of in class or online classes.

    20. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student

      This is an interesting statement to make seeing that many students do tend to lean towards the digital age. It also acknowledges the fact that the new generation does have additional methods of learning in the day and age.

    21. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located”

      I feel like to a certain extent everyone feels as if their particular University should offer a certain feel to it. May it be a foreign University of a national one. For example, I love the city and I love Atlanta. The combination of store fronts in between classes the plethora of different types of people is actually exciting to me.

    22. we propose that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students.

      This statement doesn't really apply to me. I honestly like the feel of the "concrete jungle" that GSU offers. I feel as if the change in landscape wouldn't help me learn any better.

    23. Position Piece

      Position piece means there will be a call to action!

    24. uch an approach also goes beyond advertising the aesthetic value of the campus open spaces for student recruitment purposes to recognizing the entire campus landscape as a learning space and advertising its educational value – that is emphasizes something deeper than what meets the eye.

      This is an annotation about the entire piece: I find it strange that this entire article fails to mention the rise of online learning. Online learning from my personal experience requires even more direct attention than learning in a traditional classroom setting, thus making the need for nature restoration even more crucial.

    25. The preservation of open space is vital to the maintenance and effective functioning of a quality university learning environment

      The authors brought up their claim again in the conclusion to remind readers. For me, the article was quite repetitive and at some points I read the words without fully capturing the content. But I do understand their claim for the importance of nature on college campuses.

    26. traditional instructional classrooms (where students’ direct attention is most required) that are primarily structured for the visual mode of learning (e.g., whiteboards on designated walls, seating that faces the instructor)

      Traditional form of learning is also vital, it is like going back to the basics. Traditional learning can help with the hollistic learning also. I believe both are important, it is just some need to use one form more than the other. I would like to use the hollistic form but I need the traditional form more at times.

    27. Indoor (mostly built) Views to outside areas or wall photos/ murals Foliage or flowering plants indoors Greenhouse used for botany classes Plants within buildings Living laboratories Indoor fountains, aquariums Size, shape and location of windows Density and proximity of buildings Management of outdoor areas Quality of indoor and outdoor lighting

      I work better in the indoor nature settings because it is more private and not too overwhelming. I am not a fan of bugs and grass makes me itch so I enjoy being inside even though I still appreciate nature. Having plants and other natural resources inside is a great balance.

    28. Traditional campus indoor spaces, by necessity and function, provide ample opportunities for structured learning experiences that draw upon students’ direct attention. However, a student’s learning experience is not often balanced by unstructured or structured opportunities for drawing forth effortless, indirect attention that occur in human-nature interactions (Valles-Planells, et. al, 2014)

      Even if we try to act as if what surround us doesn't affect how we act, our surroundings play a huge role in our actions and even in our education as it is argued in this piece.

    29. Most American universities are situated on large number of acres (up to 28,000 acres) and function like miniature cities in their complexity of urban-natural configurations to provide a dynamic sensory experience

      I've been to many universities that are not large in size, but they still function like a small city so size is does not really affect how they function. Their operating system is what determines how they function.

    30. Interaction with natural environments (especially green nature) employs faculties of concentration not normally used – involuntary ones – thus allowing the neural mechanisms underlying directed attention a chance to rest and replenish.

      Some people like having things on standby just in case they want to use it and this is the case with the green spaces. Sometimes, professors want to do things out of the ordinary and take class outside.

    31. Subsequently, we expand the campus ‘learning environment’ to also include a university’s open space, we also include in our definition of nature, the concept of a “landscape.” Valles-Planells, Galinan, & Van Eetvelde (2014) define a landscape as a “holistic, spatial, and mental dynamic entity, which is the result of people-place interactions” (p. 1).

      This phrase says "we" as a generalization of everyone and i disagree because everyone has different interpretations of landscape.

    32. As an influential landscape designer of early campuses, Fredrick Law Olmstead worked with the philosophy that the physical landscape features had a direct impact on shaping human behavior, and offer students an active, experiential education versus passive or theoretical learning.

      In this part of the class, I now know that this quote is really true because we have been studying in this class how landscapes affect human behavior.

    33. By preserving and suitably integrating open spaces into the green infrastructure, universities can add value and quality to the campus environment by: forging a campus identity, creating a sense of community, curbing escalating campus density, serving social and recreational needs, providing environmental benefits, and facilitating fundraising and recruitment of both faculty and students (Griffith, 1994).

      I think that it is unfair for students to have to pay more for their education based on the looks of the school rather than the quality of their education.

    34. Today the campus open space still remains a significant center for teaching and learning for students in natural resources management, sustainability/ecology, agriculture, forestry, etc. and more recently, a focus on environmental education and sustainable practices (Painter, et. al., 2013).

      Once again, a lot of students won't focused on these characteristics unless they are in a special field or unless students really care about open spaces for recreational activities.

    35. The advent of land-grant institutions through the Morrill Act of 1862 required new buildings to be built with laboratories and observatory space for agricultural, technical education, and scientific research (Eckert, 2012; Turner, 1984).

      Unless students are going into a major that requires the use of laboratories, students won't pay attention to the quality of their school's laboratory.

    36. The college experience is a stimulating and demanding time in a student’s life where a multitude of curricular and extra-curricular situations require frequent and heavy use of direct, focused attention and concentration (Wentworth & Middleton, 2014).

      The college life is one of the most exciting experiences that a person will have in their life. In both small and big campuses, there are always actives happening on the daily basis and many students look for a campus that is correctly built for these activities.

    37. Kathleen G Scholl, Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi

      What is their relevance to this topic? No title present means lack of credibility for the author.

    38. Such an approach also goes beyond advertising the aesthetic value of the campus open spaces for student recruitment purposes to recognizing the entire campus landscape as a learning space and advertising its educational value – that is emphasizes something deeper than what meets the eye.

      It is not merely an "aesthetic" approach to campus design, is is enhancing educational value. This is important to remember when writing the summary.

    39. Well-designed and connected networks of indoor and open spaces on campuses can be key, yet typically overlooked catalysts, in student learning and a strong influence on students’ initial and longstanding experiences that promote a sense of belonging to the learning community (Boyer, 1987; Greene, 2013).

      Now that I think about it, if a student plans to live on campus, the design of the building is really important to him or her because those buildings will be the buildings were they will spend their college careers.

    40. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located” (Dober, 1996, p.47).

      If you plan to attend a university or college outside of your home city or state, then you should expect a difference in design. However, if you plan to attend a university or college inside your home city or state, the design will remain the same for the most part.

    41. provide visionary and heuristic scenarios for a university of the future, we need a vision for integrating a systemic view of what these integrated campus nature networks would like in the future. In addition, there is a need to conduct more focused and nuanced research on identifying the human-nature mechanisms that lead to (among others) attentional resource benefits.

      Here is the call to action! We "need" and "there is a need."

    42. However, a student’s learning experience is not often balanced by unstructured or structured opportunities for drawing forth effortless, indirect attention that occur in human-nature interactions (Valles-Planells, et. al, 2014).

      I must have missed something because I read this article as a bunch of examples of how college campuses are designed to create a balance. I will have to reread to understand the aspect of unbalance.

    43. Therefore, we propose that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students.
      • As a student, I pay more attention to the quality of the education that I am receiving. Is the landscape really important when you’re getting an education?
    44. Interaction with natural environments (especially green nature) employs faculties of concentration not normally used – involuntary ones – thus allowing the neural mechanisms underlying directed attention a chance to rest and replenish.

      This is so interesting. Going to school in the city, it is much harder achieve this because of constant stimulation. I struggle with this on a daily basis and often times be as drastic to leave the city on vacation in order to reset.

    45. After a period of prolonged cognitive demands and mental saturation, difficulties in concentrating, reduced performance on tasks, higher rates of irritability and tension, and more impulsive and hostile behavior may arise

      My theory is, the point in which people start to have trouble paying attention after a prolonged period of cognitive demands, reflects a bell curve in relevance to age. A young elementary aged child can only pay attention for so long before he/she becomes distracted. The length becomes longer and longer through adolescence and college age and most of adult life, and then once a person starts to become elderly, it declines.

    46. nature or natural environment as the… “physical features and processes of nonhuman origin that people ordinarily can perceive, including the “living nature” of flora and fauna, together with still and running water, qualities of air and weather, and the landscapes that comprise these and show the influences of geological processes” (Hartig, et al., 2014, p. 21.2)

      Operational definition of nature

    47. Furthermore there is a subjective component to the concept

      There is pretty much a subjective definition to everything. The definition of any single word can be defined subjectively based on a persons personal experience of that word.

    48. there is a need to conduct more focused and nuanced research on identifying the human-nature mechanisms that lead to (among others) attentional resource benefits.

      This is implying that campuses or at least areas designed for students to study are needed to often allow them to balance out their minds and relax while working to keep them in a set pace where they don't feel obligated or frustrated inside a building or type of closed-in room.

    49. After a period of prolonged cognitive demands and mental saturation, difficulties in concentrating, reduced performance on tasks, higher rates of irritability and tension, and more impulsive and hostile behavior may arise

      Feeling constantly stressed out can cause a student or a person to latch out in assertive behavior.

    50. Interaction with nature, in particular, can help to maintain or restore cognitive function such as direct attention, problem solving, focus and concentration, impulse inhibition, and memory, which can become depleted from fatigue or with overuse

      Human to nature interaction usually can reflect from one another as the human becomes almost "one with nature" being able to communicate and circulate through it whereas if the human was in a structured environment, they almost feel as though they are a bird caged.

    51. natural scenery employs the mind without fatigue and yet exercises it; tranquilizes it and yet enlivens it; and thus through the influence of the mind over the body, gives the effect of refreshing rest and reinvigorating to the whole system

      This implies that a natural environment instead of a structured one urges to ease the mind to be open and circulate, not feel closed up or to cause any pain to it.

    52. The inclusion of the automobile on campus resulted in parking lots claiming large areas of natural open space within a “ring road” type of plan, in which vehicles were mostly kept outside the pedestrian oriented campus core

      Because most campuses were designed for students being capable to travel by foot or through pavement, the parking lots or decks or garages for those who either commute to campus or the faculty and staff of the campus are usually placed in the outer barrier of the campus because of the structure that has been already primarily set. Plus, in a way to eliminate any danger of those traveling to class being struck by a vehicle on the way.

    53. Open space and “zones” for disciplines became far more common than closely clustered buildings previously designed to protect students from the lures of the outside world

      Traditional college campuses that have been around for nearly over centuries were created in rural territories to keep students in separating them from the "outside world" while living amongst it. Recently, newer college campuses are built in either urban or suburban areas to expose the student to the world around them. For example, when I previously went to Valdosta State, the school campus is all in one area and the city of Valdosta surrounds it making the campus the center of the city. Transferring to Georgia State, the campus is so expanded that it takes 15 minutes for me to walk from my dorm to the classroom buildings whereas it was a quick 5 minute walk from my dorm that was across campus from the classroom buildings back in Valdosta.