44 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2020
  2. Jun 2020
    1. Starr, T. N., Greaney, A. J., Hilton, S. K., Crawford, K. H., Navarro, M. J., Bowen, J. E., Tortorici, M. A., Walls, A. C., Veesler, D., & Bloom, J. D. (2020). Deep mutational scanning of SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain reveals constraints on folding and ACE2 binding [Preprint]. Microbiology. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.17.157982

  3. May 2020
  4. Mar 2020
    1. Channel binding: Depending on the DH functions, it might be possible for a malicious party to engage in multiple sessions that derive the same shared secret key by setting public keys to invalid values that cause predictable DH output (as in the previous bullet). It might also be possible to set public keys to equivalent values that cause the same DH output for different inputs. This is why a higher-level protocol should use the handshake hash (h) for a unique channel binding, instead of ck, as explained in Section 11.2.
    1. Thus it's an incomplete fix, and the correct solution is binding the transcript.
    2. It's well-understood nowadays that channel binding must cover the session transcript.
  5. Feb 2020
    1. § 151-21. Recall Any Town officer, as defined by 17 V.S.A. § 2646, may be recalled by the following process: (1) A petition shall be filed with the Town Clerk signed by not less than twenty-five percent of the number of registered voters at the time the petition is submitted. (2) The petition shall request a meeting of the voters of the Town for the purpose of recalling a Town officer and shall set forth the name of the person to be recalled, the reason for the recall, and shall identify the office he or she holds.

      St. Johnsbury, VT - recall

    1. 133-103. Recall Any elected official or official appointed to elective office holding a Town office may be recalled by the following process: (1) A petition signed by not less than 35 percent of the number of registered voters voting in the last annual Town meeting shall be filed with the Town Clerk. (2) The petition shall request a special Town meeting for the purpose of recalling a specific person or persons and shall state the office that they hold. (3) The selectmen shall act upon the petition within seven days by warning a special Town meeting. (4) The Town meeting shall be held not less than 30 days and not more than 40 days from the date of the receipt of the petition. (5) The special Town meeting shall be warned as provided by the general law of this State. (6) At least four days but not more than 15 days prior to the voting, an informational meeting shall be held at which time both the elected official and the proponents for the recall shall have the opportunity to discuss the issue of recall. The informational meeting shall be warned in conjunction with the warning for the special Town meeting. (7) Voting on the issue of recall shall be by Australian ballot. A majority of the legal votes cast shall be needed to effect a recall of that official.

      Poultney VT - Recall

    1. § 127-108. Referendum (a) All Town ordinances, except as specified in section 110 of this charter, may be repealed by vote of the Town as follows: A petition signed by not less than 10 percent of the registered voters shall be filed with the Town Clerk requesting a vote on the question of repealing the ordinance. The selectmen shall call a special Town meeting to be held within 60 days of the date of filing the petition, to vote on whether the ordinance shall be repealed. The ordinance shall be repealed only if at least 15 percent of the registered voters vote and a majority of that number vote for repeal. (b) Within 40 days after passage of an ordinance, five percent of the registered voters shall constitute sufficient signatures for a referendum petition, and all other procedures of subsection (a) of this section shall apply. § 127-109. Initiative Any lawful ordinance may be enacted by vote of the Town as follows: A petition signed by not less than five percent of the registered voters shall be filed with the Town Clerk requesting enactment of the ordinance and accompanied by the text thereof. The selectmen shall call a special Town meeting to be held within 60 days of the date the petition is filed, unless prior to such meeting, the selectboard members shall have enacted the ordinance. The warning for the meeting shall include the text of the proposed ordinance and shall provide for a "yes" or "no" vote as to its enactment. The ordinance shall be adopted if at least 15 percent of the registered voters vote and a majority of that number vote for adoption. The ordinance shall take effect on the 30th day following adoption.

      Middlebury VT - Initiatives and Referendums

    1. § 124-6. Removal of elected Town officers Any elected Town officer may be removed from office subject to the following conditions and procedures: (1) A written petition, signed by not less than 15 percent of the registered voters of the Town, seeking the removal of such Town officer or officers, and requesting a vote of the Town at a regular or special meeting called for the purpose, shall be filed with the Selectboard and the Town Clerk. (2) Within 15 days after receipt of the petition, the Selectboard shall warn a special Town meeting, or if the annual meeting is to occur within 45 days of the filing of the petition, include an article in the warning for the annual meeting, for the purpose of voting, by Australian ballot, on whether the officer or officers shall be removed from office. (3) The officer or officers shall be removed from office only if at least as many registered voters of the Town cast votes in the special Town meeting or annual meeting as voted in the election wherein the officer subject to the vote of removal was originally elected. (4) Removal shall require a majority of the votes cast at the regular or special Town meeting. (5) If an officer is removed according to the foregoing procedure, the officer shall forthwith cease to hold office and the office shall become vacant. The vacancy shall be filled as provided by law and this charter. (6) Only one petition for removal may be filed against any given elected officer during any 12-month period of his or her term of office. (Added 2005, No. M-9 (Adj. Sess.), § 2, eff. Feb. 24, 2005.)

      Jericho VT - Recall

    1. Any lawful ordinance may be enacted by vote of the Town as follows:  A petition signed by not less than 15 percent of the registered voters shall be filed with the Town Clerk requesting enactment of the ordinance and accompanied by the text thereof. The selectmen shall call a special Town meeting to be held within 60 days of the date the petition is filed, unless prior to such meeting, the selectmen shall have enacted the ordinance. The warning for the meeting shall include a summary of the text of the proposed ordinance, its effective date and penalty provision for violation thereof, and shall be posted and published as the law of this State requires for special meeting generally. The warning shall provide for a "yes" and "no" vote by ballot as to its enactment. Copies of the proposed ordinance shall be posted in its entirety in at least five locations in Town for at least 30 consecutive days to the date of said special Town meeting. In the discretion of the selectmen, the enactment of such ordinance may be proposed as an article in the warning for the next ensuing annual Town meeting, providing that such annual meeting shall be held within 120 days of the filing of such petition for enactment.

      Hardwick, VT - initiatives and referendums

    1. (2) Petition for inclusion in the warning of an article to adopt an ordinance. (A) Such petition shall be signed by at least 10 percent of the voters of the Town and shall state that it is to be binding.

      Brattleboro - Binding Initiatives

    2. § 107-3.5. Recall (a) The voters of the Town may recall any of the elected Town or Town School District officers listed in subchapter 2, section 2.1 of this charter. (b) A recall petition, signed by at least 25 percent of the legal voters of the Town, and bearing their addresses, shall be filed with the Town Clerk within 15 calendar days of its issue. The Town Clerk upon receipt of a valid petition shall, between 45 and 60 calendar days, hold a special election with voting by Australian ballot to consider the recall of an elected Town officer. (c) When such a petition is approved by a majority of the ballots cast at such special election, the Town officer named in the petition shall thereupon cease to hold the office. (d) A vacancy resulting from the recall of an officer shall be filled in the manner prescribed by law. (e) A recall petition shall not be brought against an individual more than once within 12 months. (Amended 2011, No. M-10 (Adj. Sess.), § 2, eff. April 27, 2012.)

      Brattleboro - recall

    3. § 107-3.4. Referendum The voters of the Town may petition for a referendum, by Australian ballot of all voters of the Town, on a final vote on a warned article taken by Representative Town Meeting. Such petition shall be filed within 10 days after adjournment of the meeting. (1) A petition for referendum shall be signed by at least five percent of the voters of the Town; or (2) A petition for referendum shall be signed by at least 50 Representative Town Meeting members. (Amended 2011, No. M-10 (Adj. Sess.), § 2, eff. April 27, 2012.)

      Brattleboro - Referendums

    1. (c) The warning for annual and special City meetings shall, by separate articles, specifically indicate the business to be transacted, including the offices and the questions to be voted upon. The warning also shall contain any legally binding article or articles requested by 10 percent of the registered voters of the City. Petitions requesting that an article or articles be placed on the warning shall be filed with the City Clerk on or before the filing deadline set forth in 17 V.S.A. § 2642(a)(3). (Amended 2005, No. M-7, § 4; 2007, No. M-5, § 2; 2017, No. M-10, § 2, eff. May 30, 2017.)

      Popular Initiatives and Referendums - City of Barre, VT

    1. (5) contain any article requested by petition signed by at least 10 percent of the voters and filed with the Town Clerk at least 45 days prior to the day of the meeting; and

      Popular Initiatives and Referendums - Barre, VT

    1. § 19-410. General authority for initiative and referendum (a) Initiative. The qualified voters of the City shall have power to propose ordinances to the Council and, if the Council fails to adopt an ordinance so proposed without any change in substance, to adopt or reject it at a City election, provided that such power shall not extend to the budget or capital improvements program or any ordinance relating to appropriation of money, levy of taxes, or salaries of City offices or employees. (b) Referendum. The qualified voters of the City shall have power to require reconsideration by the Council of any adopted ordinance and, if the Council fails to repeal an ordinance so reconsidered, to approve or reject it at a City election, provided that such power shall not extend to the budget or capital improvements program or any emergency ordinance or ordinance relating to appropriation of money or levy of taxes. (Added 2015, No. M-19 (Adj. Sess.), § 2, eff. May 17, 2016.) § 19-411. Commencement of proceedings; affidavit (a) Any qualified voter or group of voters may commence initiative or referendum proceedings by filing with the City Clerk an affidavit stating that he, she, or they will be responsible for circulating the petition and filing it in proper form, stating the name and address of the voter who will serve as petitioner to which all notices are to be sent, and setting out in full the proposed initiative ordinance or citing the ordinance sought to be reconsidered. (b) Promptly after the affidavit of the petitioner is filed, the Clerk shall issue the appropriate petition forms to the petitioner. (Added 2015, No. M-19 (Adj. Sess.), § 2, eff. May 17, 2016.) § 19-412. Petitions (a) Number of signatures. Initiative and referendum petitions must be signed by at least five percent of the legal voters of the City. (b) Form and content. All papers of a petition shall be uniform in size and style and shall be assembled as one instrument for filing. Each signature shall be executed in ink or indelible pencil and shall be followed by the address of the person signing. Petitions shall contain or have attached thereto throughout their circulation the full text of the ordinance proposed or sought to be reconsidered. (c) Affidavit of circulator. Each paper of a petition shall have attached to it when filed an affidavit executed by the circulator thereof stating that he or she personally circulated the paper, the number of signatures thereon, that all the signatures were affixed in his or her presence, that they are believed to be the genuine signatures of the persons whose names they purport to be, and that each signer had an opportunity before signing to read the full text of the ordinance proposed or sought to be reconsidered. (d) Time for filing referendum petitions. Referendum petitions must be filed within 30 days after adoption by the Council of the ordinance sought to be reconsidered. (Added 2015, No. M-19 (Adj. Sess.), § 2, eff. May 17, 2016.) § 19-413. Procedure after filing (a) Certificate of Clerk; amendment. Within 20 days after the petition is filed, the City Clerk shall complete a certificate as to its sufficiency, specifying, if it is insufficient, the particulars wherein it is defective and shall promptly send a copy of the certificate to the petitioner by registered mail. A petition certified insufficient for lack of the required number of valid signatures may be amended once if the petitioner files a notice of intention to amend it with the Clerk within two days after receiving the copy of such certificate. Such supplementary petition shall comply with the requirements of subsections 412(b) and (c) of this charter, and within five days after it is filed, the Clerk shall complete a certificate as to the sufficiency of the petition as amended and promptly send a copy of such certificate to the petitioner by registered mail as in the case of an original petition. If a petition or amended petition is certified sufficient, or if a petition or amended petition is certified insufficient and the petitioner does not elect to amend or request Council review under subsection (b) of this section within the time required, the Clerk shall promptly present the certificates to the Council and the certificates shall then be a final determination as to the sufficiency of the petition. (b) Council review. If a petition has been certified insufficient and the petitioner does not file notice of intention to amend it or if an amended petition has been certified insufficient, the petitioner may, within two days after receiving the copy of such certificate, file a request that it be reviewed by the Council. The Council shall review the certificate within five days following the filing of such request and approve or disapprove it, and the Council's determination shall then be a final determination as to the sufficiency of the petition. (c) Court review; new petition. A final determination as to the sufficiency of a petition shall be subject to court review. A final determination of insufficiency, even if sustained upon court review, shall not prejudice the filing of a new petition for the same purpose. (Added 2015, No. M-19 (Adj. Sess.), § 2, eff. May 17, 2016.) § 19-414. Referendum petitions; suspension of effect of ordinance When a referendum petition is filed with the City Clerk, the ordinance sought to be reconsidered shall be suspended from taking effect. Such suspension shall terminate when: (1) there is a final determination of insufficiency of the petition; (2) the petitioner withdraws the petition; (3) the Council repeals the ordinance; or (4) 30 days have elapsed after a vote of the City on the ordinance. (Added 2015, No. M-19 (Adj. Sess.), § 2, eff. May 17, 2016.) § 19-415. Action on petitions (a) Action by Council. When an initiative or referendum petition has been finally determined sufficient, the Council shall promptly consider the proposed initiative ordinance in the manner provided in this Article or reconsider the referred ordinance by voting its repeal. If the Council fails to adopt a proposed initiative ordinance without any change in substance within 60 days or fails to repeal the referred ordinance within 30 days after the date the petition was finally determined sufficient, it shall submit the proposed or referred ordinance to the voters of the City. (b) Submission to voters. The vote of the City on a proposed or referred ordinance shall be held not less than 30 days from the date of the final Council vote thereon. If no regular City election is to be held within the period prescribed in this subsection, the Council shall provide for a special election; otherwise, the vote shall be held at the same time as such regular election, except that the Council may in its discretion provide for a special election at an earlier date within the prescribed period. Copies of the proposed or referred ordinance shall be made available at the polls. (c) Withdrawal of petitions. An initiative or referendum petition may be withdrawn at any time prior to the 15th day preceding the day scheduled for a vote of the City by filing with the City Clerk a request for withdrawal signed by the petitioners. Upon the filing of such request, the petition shall have no further force or effect and all proceedings thereon shall be terminated. (Added 2015, No. M-19 (Adj. Sess.), § 2, eff. May 17, 2016.) § 19-416. Results of election (a) Initiative. If a majority of the qualified voters voting on a proposed initiative ordinance vote in its favor, it shall be considered adopted upon certification of the election results and shall be treated in all respects in the same manner as ordinances of the same kind adopted by the Council. If conflicting ordinances are approved at the same election, the one receiving the greatest number of affirmative votes shall prevail to the extent of such conflict. (b) Referendum. If a majority of the qualified voters voting on a referred ordinance vote against it, it shall be considered repealed upon certification of the election results. (Added 2015, No. M-19 (Adj. Sess.), § 2, eff. May 17, 2016.)

      Voters Initiatives and Popular Referendums - Winooski, VT

    1. (f) Referendum. (1) A Town ordinance may be repealed by vote of the Town as follows: A petition requesting a vote on the question of repealing the ordinance shall be signed by not less than five percent of the registered voters and shall be filed with the Town Clerk within 40 days following the date of adoption of the ordinance by the Selectboard. The Selectboard shall call a special Town meeting to be held within 60 days of the date of filing the petition to vote by Australian ballot on whether or not the ordinance shall be repealed. The warning shall include the text of the proposed ordinance and shall provide for a "yes" or "no" vote.

      Voter Referendums - Milton VT

    2. (c) Initiative. Any lawful ordinance may be enacted by vote of the Town as follows:  A petition signed by not less than five percent of the registered voters shall be filed with the Town Clerk requesting enactment of the ordinance and accompanied by the text thereof. The warning for the next annual Town meeting shall include the text of the proposed ordinance and shall provide for a "yes" or "no" vote.

      Voter Initiatives - Milton VT

    1. The Clerk of the City shall at any time when directed by the City Council, or when petitioned in writing by at least five percent of the registered voters of the City and filed with the City Clerk no less than 40 days before the day of such meeting, call a special meeting of the legal voters of the City, for any legal purpose, in the same manner as is provided for the annual meeting, except as is hereinafter provided: (1) Whenever a petition is brought for a meeting to rescind or reconsider the action taken at a previously held City meeting, the number of names required shall be 10 percent of the legal voters, and the petition shall be filed with the City Clerk within 30 days following the date of that meeting.

      Voters Initiatives and Popular Referendums - St. Albans VT

    1. The warning shall also contain any article or articles requested by a petition signed by at least five percent of the legal voters of the municipality and filed with the legislative branch not less than 40 days before the day of such meeting.
    1. The warning also shall contain any legally binding article or articles requested by 10 percent of the registered voters of the City. The warning shall also include any nonlegally binding articles, including matters of State, national, or international importance requested by five percent of the voters.

      Initiatives and Referendums - Montpelier City Charter

  6. Aug 2019
    1. We shall not cease from exploration, and the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started, and know the place for the first time
  7. Oct 2018
    1. Token binding makes session hijacking harder by creating an identifier that is based on a private key. The client generates a public/private key pair for every site that it wants to use token binding on. When it connects to the server it signs something and sends this signature along with the public key to the server. The server verifies the signature against the public key. This way, the server knows that this client is in possession of the private key. After this verification step, the public key is passed to the application. This public key uniquely identifies the client, just as a session cookie would. However, it is no longer possible to simply steal the identifier and impersonate someone. The private key is kept secret and the identifier is checked against it. Without access to the private key it is not possible to reproduce a valid identifier. Even if an attacker intercepts the signature, he can’t use this in another connection. The signature is over the public key and the keying material of the current TLS connection. When a new TLS connection is created, a new signature is needed. This means that if the attacker intercepts the signature, he can’t reuse it in a new connection to the server.
    1. This NGINX module provides mechanism to cryptographically bind HTTP cookies to client's HTTPS channel using Token Binding, as defined by following IETF drafts:
    1. This document specifies version 1.0 of the Token Binding protocol. The Token Binding protocol allows client/server applications to create long-lived, uniquely identifiable TLS bindings spanning multiple TLS sessions and connections. Applications are then enabled to cryptographically bind security tokens to the TLS layer, preventing token export and replay attacks. To protect privacy, the Token Binding identifiers are only conveyed over TLS and can be reset by the user at any time.
  8. Sep 2018
  9. Feb 2018
  10. Dec 2017
  11. Oct 2017
    1. Blinatumomab is a murine BiTE® antibody construct combining dual specificities for the human pan-B-cell antigen CD19 and the human CD3ε chain of the TCR complex on a single polypeptide chain, with binding affinities of approximately 10−9 M and 10−7 M, respectively

      binding affinity