38 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2019
    1. Klotho-deficient mice have accelerated aging phenotypes, whereas overexpression of Klotho in mice extends lifespan. Klotho is an anti-aging single-pass membrane protein predominantly produced in the kidney, with shedding of the amino-terminal extracellular domain into the systemic circulation. Circulating levels of soluble Klotho decrease with age, and the klotho gene is associated with increased risk of age-related diseases. The three forms of Klotho protein have distinct functions. Membrane Klotho forms a complex with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors, functions as an obligatory co-receptor for FGF23, which is involved in aging and the development of chronic diseases via regulation of Pi and vitamin D metabolism. Secreted Klotho functions as a humoral factor with pleiotropic activities including regulation of oxidative stress, growth factor signaling, and ion homeostasis. Secreted Klotho is also involved in organ protection. The intracellular form of Klotho suppresses inflammation-mediated cellular senescence and mineral metabolism. Herein we provide a brief overview of the structure and function and recent research about Klotho.
  2. Feb 2019
    1. Escobar casts wide the net of his critique, his objective is not merely to tackle neoliberal capitalism, rampant individualism, patriarchy or colonialism — although each of those topics are explored in detail. He is writing against nothing less than all of modernity, a “particular modelo civilizatorio, or civilizational model… an entire way of life and a whole style of world making.” Our toxic, modern lifestyle in the Global North and the way it understands (or fails to understand) the relationality between humanity and other forms of life plays the dominant role in creating the contemporary crises. To preserve the future we need a different way of life and way to relate to all of life, “no less than a new notion of the human.” The crises are inseparable from our social lives. We need to step outside of our established worldviews to bring about significant transformations. Is this possible? How can we achieve such a transition?

      Designs for the Pluriverse book review

    1. The Two Sides of the H-LAM/T System

      When I view this diagram, I am reminded of Robert Rosen's Modeling Relation, an image of which is here The Modeling Relation grew out of research in Relational Biology which was the first mathematical biology to recognize that relations among organism components and between those components and the environment are key to understanding complex adaptive systems.

    2. It is the augmentation means that serve to break down a large problem in such a way that the human being can walk through it with his little steps, and it is the structure or organization of these little steps or actions that we discuss as process hierarchies.

      As I begin to read this (as I did back in 2000 when I was introduced to Doug) I begin to think in terms of reductionism as a practice in the face of problems which are highly complex, nonlinear, and which do not submit to chunking.

    3. We refer to a way of life

      I view that through the lens of mindsets; I get there by learning that, when confronted with a life-threatening diagnosis, taking full ownership of the dx can save lives. I map that to strategies for preventing life-threatening diagnoses (think: all the complex, urgent issues about which Douglas Engelbart spoke).

  3. Jan 2019
    1. Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example). This paper reviews some of the biochemical and metabolic aspects of adipose tissue and its relationship to inflammatory disease and insulin resistance.
    1. This kind of system approach to human intellectual effectiveness does not find a ready-made conceptual framework such as exists for established disciplines. Before a research program can be designed to pursue such an approach intelligently, so that practical benefits might be derived within a reasonable time while also producing results of longrange significance, a conceptual framework must be searched out—a framework that provides orientation as to the important factors of the system, the relationships among these factors, the types of change among the system factors that offer likely improvements in performance, and the sort of research goals and methodology that seem promising.
  4. Dec 2018
    1. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not normally diagnosed until later in life, although evidence suggests that the disease starts at a much earlier age. Risk factors for AD, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, are known to have their affects during mid-life, though events very early in life, including maternal over-nutrition, can predispose offspring to develop these conditions. This study tested whether over-nutrition during pregnancy and lactation affected the development of AD in offspring, using a transgenic AD mouse model. Female triple-transgenic AD dam mice (3xTgAD) were exposed to a high-fat (60% energy from fat) or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks of age), female offspring were placed on a control diet and monitored up until 12 months of age during which time behavioural tests were performed. A transient increase in body weight was observed in 4-week-old offspring 3xTgAD mice from dams fed a high-fat diet. However, by 5 weeks of age the body weight of 3xTgAD mice from the maternal high-fat fed group was no different when compared to control-fed mice. A maternal high-fat diet led to a significant impairment in memory in 2- and 12-month-old 3xTgAD offspring mice when compared to offspring from control fed dams. These effects of a maternal high-fat diet on memory were accompanied by a significant increase (50%) in the number of tau positive neurones in the hippocampus. These data demonstrate that a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation increases memory impairments in female 3xTgAD mice and suggest that early life events during development might influence the onset and progression of AD later in life.
    1. Beginning to develop with this using a Java client; need to know how to monitor a particular group. Would that be a query parameter, e.g. ?group=<id> ?

  5. Nov 2018
    1. Objective To determine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate to fat ratio on total energy expenditure.Design Randomized trial.Setting Multicenter collaboration at US two sites, August 2014 to May 2017.Participants 164 adults aged 18-65 years with a body mass index of 25 or more.Interventions After 12% (within 2%) weight loss on a run-in diet, participants were randomly assigned to one of three test diets according to carbohydrate content (high, 60%, n=54; moderate, 40%, n=53; or low, 20%, n=57) for 20 weeks. Test diets were controlled for protein and were energy adjusted to maintain weight loss within 2 kg. To test for effect modification predicted by the carbohydrate-insulin model, the sample was divided into thirds of pre-weight loss insulin secretion (insulin concentration 30 minutes after oral glucose).Main outcome measures The primary outcome was total energy expenditure, measured with doubly labeled water, by intention-to-treat analysis. Per protocol analysis included participants who maintained target weight loss, potentially providing a more precise effect estimate. Secondary outcomes were resting energy expenditure, measures of physical activity, and levels of the metabolic hormones leptin and ghrelin.Results Total energy expenditure differed by diet in the intention-to-treat analysis (n=162, P=0.002), with a linear trend of 52 kcal/d (95% confidence interval 23 to 82) for every 10% decrease in the contribution of carbohydrate to total energy intake (1 kcal=4.18 kJ=0.00418 MJ). Change in total energy expenditure was 91 kcal/d (95% confidence interval −29 to 210) greater in participants assigned to the moderate carbohydrate diet and 209 kcal/d (91 to 326) greater in those assigned to the low carbohydrate diet compared with the high carbohydrate diet. In the per protocol analysis (n=120, P<0.001), the respective differences were 131 kcal/d (−6 to 267) and 278 kcal/d (144 to 411). Among participants in the highest third of pre-weight loss insulin secretion, the difference between the low and high carbohydrate diet was 308 kcal/d in the intention-to-treat analysis and 478 kcal/d in the per protocol analysis (P<0.004). Ghrelin was significantly lower in participants assigned to the low carbohydrate diet compared with those assigned to the high carbohydrate diet (both analyses). Leptin was also significantly lower in participants assigned to the low carbohydrate diet (per protocol).Conclusions Consistent with the carbohydrate-insulin model, lowering dietary carbohydrate increased energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance. This metabolic effect may improve the success of obesity treatment, especially among those with high insulin secretion
  6. Jul 2018
    1. We want to even go even further and add reproducible elements to JATS documents. We are working together with Stencila on extending Texture to allow both textual narrative and executable code to coexist in one document.
  7. Jul 2017
    1. This third research question led to the formulation of agile text mining, a new methodologyagile textminingto support the development of efficient TMAs. Agile text mining copes with the unpredictablerealities of creating text-mining applications.
  8. May 2017
    1. Using data from a large Danish health study, researchers have found an association between chocolate consumption and a lowered risk for atrial fibrillation, the irregular heartbeat that can lead to stroke, heart failure and other serious problems.
    1. Epicatechin is known to prompt cells that line blood vessels to release extra nitric oxide, a substance that has multiple effects in the body. Nitric oxide slightly increases vasodilation, or a widening of the veins and arteries, improving blood flow and cardiac function. It also gooses muscle cells to take in more blood sugar, providing them with more energy, and it enhances the passage of oxygen into cells.
    1. Inside Facebook's plan to eat another $350 billion IT market

      Three months later the group had a working prototype. Six months later, on November 1, the company announced it to the world as a real product called Voyager.

    1. The IDEAT project launched by the Partit Nazzjonalista a few days ago offers a glimpse into how Maltese politics can be transformed through a digital platform which bridges the divide between the citizen and the Party that represents it. IDEAT is built around an eDemocracy framework in which ICT serves as a tool of choice in order to, not only engage and communicate with the population, but empower it to be better equipped to participate in the democratic process. Crowdsourcing is less a new idea than a new concept. It covers a wide array of tools that use the power and knowledge of crowds brought together through the Internet, especially by means of social media and other applications which primarily focus on bottom-up information flow. Citizens can take part in brainstorming, discussing, developing, and formulating ideas that used to be the limited domain of political elites. This IDEAT project seeks to explore methods to obtain active citizen input in the policymaking processes - an input which has been severely curtailed by this government. It serves to empower each and every one of us, enabling our voice and ideas to be heard. Politics for the people can be more than just casting your vote when a general election comes by.
    1. The Triple Feedback Loop offers a compass by aligning the information flows in a framework for operating a network of disparate players with different goals who work together on an overarching goal.

    1. Spiders appear to offload cognitive tasks to their webs, making them one of a number of species with a mind that isn’t fully confined within the head.
    1. “An individual building, the style in which it is going to be designed and built, is not that important. The important thing, really, is the community. How does it affect life?” I.M. Pei
    1. A series of energy revolutions—some natural, some technological—built upon one another to give us our rich, diverse biosphere.
    1. Apple, CTA and Big Car are working in secret to kill New York's Right to Repair legislation

      Didn't IBM enter a monster consent decree years ago for behaving like this?

    1. Though current medical and surgical treatments manage coronary artery disease, they do little to prevent or stop it. Nutritional intervention, as shown in our study and others, has halted and even reversed CAD
    1. Filmmaker Jamie Scott made his name in the timelapse space with Fall, a Central Park timelapse of epic proportions that took 6 months of dedication to capture. And yet his followup timelapse, titled Spring, somehow puts his first creation to shame.
    1. Can Mastodon keep its anti-harassment, pro-furry, pro-LGBTQ+, anti-Nazi focus as it grows? What to do about content that’s acceptable by some instances but illegal elsewhere? Is the influx of new people who don’t understand the network’s culture the start of an “Eternal April”, like Usenet’s Eternal September?
    1. What is interesting is that the sense of early 90s cyberoptimism has started to reappear. It is possible to do things again, to change things, to build things that will make a difference. Suddenly, it is possible to discuss what things are and what they should be. What is an interface, what does it mean in its current form, how should we change it? What can and ought we do to establish sustainable social norms? How do we go about surfing together on the information superhighway without colliding with each other?
    2. Interesting things are happening over at Mastodon. If you have had your ears tuned to the hacker grapevines, you will most likely have heard that Mastodon is an open source federated social network that works very much like Twitter but is, in fact, not Twitter, and thus poses a challenge to the venerable bird site.
    1. Sanskrit is the only human spoken language which has a context free grammar which means while you cannot write a compiler which can read and understand (parse) english sentences bcoz of the ambiguous nature in English sentences, you can definitely write a compiler for Sanskrit which can understand sanskrit and compile the instructions into binary.

      Using Sanskrit as a language for computing has been proposed, but seems to go nowhere.

    1. How to print a house ‘Everybody's dream is you hit the button and boom, your house pops out’

      A new opportunity in construction: using 3-D printers to build dwellings

    1. The prevailing hypothesis has been that volcanoes like these two in Hawaii are chemical fingerprints of the Earth’s composition at the deep mantle, just at the border of its core.
    2. Mauna Loa, the biggest volcano on Earth — and one of the most active — covers half the Island of Hawaii. Just 35 miles to the northeast, Mauna Kea, known to native Hawaiians as Mauna a Wakea, rises nearly 14,000 feet above sea level. To them it represents a spiritual connection between our planet and the heavens above.These volcanoes, which have beguiled millions of tourists visiting the Hawaiian islands, have also plagued scientists with a long-running mystery: If they are so close together, how did they develop in two parallel tracks along the Hawaiian-Emperor chain formed over the same hot spot in the Pacific Ocean — and why are their chemical compositions so different?

      Comparing two volcanos on the same island

    1. In a 2005 study, Ruth Ludwin, then a seismologist at the University of Washington, together with nine colleagues, collected and analyzed Native American reports of earthquakes and saltwater floods.

      See here and here for information on those reports.

    1. A cognitive signature™ encodes the exact structure of a graph.●It is a lossless encoding, similar to a Gödel numbering. *●For unlabeled graphs, integers are sufficient for a cognitive signature.●For example, 0 maps to and from an empty graph with no nodes or arcs.●1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 can be mapped to and from the following graphs:●To encode the structure of conceptual graphs in Cognitive Memory, the cognitive signatures are based on generalized combinatorial maps. **By contrast, a word vector encodes labels, but not structure.●A word vector is a “bag of labels” that ignores the graph connections.●Word vectors are often used for measuring the similarity of documents.●But they discard the structural information necessary for reasoning, question answering, and language understanding.

      Comparing Kyndi's Cognitive Signature to word vectors. Word vectors as bags of labels whereas a cognitive signature captures structure as well as ontology

    1. Multi-party Conversational Systems are systems with natural language interactionbetween one or more people or systems. From the moment that an utterance is sent toa group, to the moment that it is replied in the group by a member, several activitiesmust be done by the system: utterance understanding, information search, reasoning,among others. In this paper we present the challenges of designing and building multi-party conversational systems, the state of the art, our proposed hybrid architectureusing both norms and machine learning and some insights after implementing andevaluating one on the finance domain.

      Conversational Systems

    1. To augment collaborative human and ecosystem capacity to perceive and to wisely address complex local and global issues. In all deliberations, consider onto the 7th generation.

      The TopicQuests Mission