- Aug 2021
it undergoes first-pass hepatic metabolism, resulting in low (30%–40%) bioavailability.
I'll need to review this later. This is a more precise figure than I was familiar with. I think I read somewhere between 20% and 50%; I believe I cited that figure in one of my college papers.
- Feb 2021
Müller, J.A., Groß, R., Conzelmann, C. et al. SARS-CoV-2 infects and replicates in cells of the human endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Nat Metab (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00347-1
- Sep 2020
Effects of weight loss during a very low carbohydrate diet on specific adipose tissue depots and insulin sensitivity in older adults with obesity: a randomized clinical trial
Another ketogenic study destroying a low fat diet.
- Jun 2019
When we eat at night, our blood glucose, HbA1c and insulin levels increase more and say elevated longer than when we eat earlier in the day, which can result in an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes over time.
The way this is worded is distracting because (so far as I understand) HbA1c doesn't fluctuate anywhere near as quickly as blood glucose and insulin.
- Apr 2019
Klotho-deficient mice have accelerated aging phenotypes, whereas overexpression of Klotho in mice extends lifespan. Klotho is an anti-aging single-pass membrane protein predominantly produced in the kidney, with shedding of the amino-terminal extracellular domain into the systemic circulation. Circulating levels of soluble Klotho decrease with age, and the klotho gene is associated with increased risk of age-related diseases. The three forms of Klotho protein have distinct functions. Membrane Klotho forms a complex with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors, functions as an obligatory co-receptor for FGF23, which is involved in aging and the development of chronic diseases via regulation of Pi and vitamin D metabolism. Secreted Klotho functions as a humoral factor with pleiotropic activities including regulation of oxidative stress, growth factor signaling, and ion homeostasis. Secreted Klotho is also involved in organ protection. The intracellular form of Klotho suppresses inflammation-mediated cellular senescence and mineral metabolism. Herein we provide a brief overview of the structure and function and recent research about Klotho.
- Jan 2019
Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example). This paper reviews some of the biochemical and metabolic aspects of adipose tissue and its relationship to inflammatory disease and insulin resistance.
- Insulin Resistance
- Endocrine Organ
- Tumor Necrosis Factor α
- Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
- Acylation Stimulating Protein
- Adipose Tissue