9 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2023
    1. Review coordinated by Life Science Editors Foundation

      Reviewed by: Dr. Angela Andersen, Life Science Editors Foundation

      Potential Conflicts of Interest: None

      Punch line: Activation of the yeast AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) negatively regulates MAGIC, inhibits the import of misfolded proteins into mitochondria & promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and fitness.

      Why is this interesting? Maybe all those healthy things like caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, exercise etc that activate AMPK & extend lifespan do so by inhibiting MAGIC & preventing mitochondrial damage from misfolded proteins.

      Background: Metabolic imbalance & loss of proteostasis are interconnected hallmarks of aging and age-related diseases. A mitochondria-mediated proteostasis mechanism called MAGIC (mitochondria as guardian in cytosol) concentrates cytosolic misfolded protein at the surface of mitochondria, where they are disaggregated by molecular chaperones, and then imported for degradation by mitochondrial proteases. Inhibition of this pathway prolongs protein aggregation in cytosol after proteotoxic stress, but excessive misfolded proteins in mitochondria can lead to mitochondrial damage.

      Results: • Genetic screen for MAGIC regulators uncovered 145 genes. Loss of Snf1 (AMPK homolog) led to increased mitochondrial import even without proteotoxic stress. In contrast indirect, constitutive activation of Snf1 (e.g. low glucose) prevented the import of misfolded proteins in mitochondria.

      • The data suggest that the reduced accumulation of misfolded proteins in mitochondria of Snf1-active cells is not due to enhanced intramitochondrial degradation nor to reduced levels of the misfolded protein, but rather due to blocked mitochondrial import.

      • Deletion of HAP4 counteracted Snf1 activation and overexpression of Hap4 alone recapitulated Snf1 activation. The Hap2/3/4/5 complex activates the expression of nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins. Their data suggest that high expression of mitochondrial preproteins due to an elevated Snf1-Hap4 axis compete with misfolded proteins for mitochondrial import.

      • Proteotoxic stress led to a reduced growth rate & reduced mitochondrial fitness in high glucose medium but not under glucose limitation. The data suggest that low glucose, activation of Snf1 & prevention of misfolded protein import into mitochondria prevent the growth defect.

      • Many neurodegenerative disease-associated aggregation-prone proteins (α-synuclein, FUSP525L, TDP-43, amyloid beta, C9ORF72-associated poly(GR) dipeptide) are detected in mitochondria of human patients or disease models and impair mitochondrial functions. Their data suggest that the import of α-synuclein & associated reduction in mitochondrial fitness can be counteracted by indirect AMPK/Snf1 activation (i.e. glucose limitation).

      • Show data in yeast & human cells.

      Discussion: This paper revealed an unexpected link between cellular metabolism and proteostasis through MAGIC/mitochondria.

      • Snf1/AMPK is a key regulator of MAGIC & of misfolded protein import into mitochondria.

      • Snf1/AMPK balances the mitochondrial metabolic and proteostatic functions in response to glucose availability and protects mitochondrial fitness under proteotoxic stress.

      • The authors speculate that in high glucose, cells rely on glycolysis for ATP production and mitochondria ‘moonlighting’ in cellular proteostasis through MAGIC, but when glucose is limited and cells rely on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP generation, AMPK is activated and shuts down MAGIC, prioritizing the import of essential mitochondrial preproteins to ensure mitochondrial fitness and energy production.

      • Acknowledge limitations: Snf1/Hap4 activation elevates the expression of hundreds of mitochondrial preproteins, not clear whether specific preproteins or cytosolic factors directly involved in inhibiting mitochondrial import, & that more details on mechanisms will be of interest.

      • Caloric restriction & AMPK activation might contribute to lifespan extension by inhibiting MAGIC. In human, AMPK activity is elevated during health-benefitting activities such as exercise. Their data suggest that elevating AMPK activity may be beneficial in alleviating proteotoxicity associated with degenerative diseases - but hyperactivated AMPK has also been reported in several neurodegenerative diseases with proteostasis decline (Ang wonders- maybe AMPK is overwhelmed?).

      THIS IS A GORGEOUS PAPER!

      Future work - I can't wait to see the characterization of the ribosome biogenesis genes that they also pulled out as MAGIC regulators. Anticipating a translation, misfolded protein, mitochondria, aging axis :)

  2. Feb 2022
  3. Aug 2021
    1. it undergoes first-pass hepatic metabolism, resulting in low (30%–40%) bioavailability.

      I'll need to review this later. This is a more precise figure than I was familiar with. I think I read somewhere between 20% and 50%; I believe I cited that figure in one of my college papers.

  4. Feb 2021
  5. Sep 2020
  6. Jun 2019
    1. When we eat at night, our blood glucose, HbA1c and insulin levels increase more and say elevated longer than when we eat earlier in the day, which can result in an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes over time.

      The way this is worded is distracting because (so far as I understand) HbA1c doesn't fluctuate anywhere near as quickly as blood glucose and insulin.

  7. Apr 2019
    1. Klotho-deficient mice have accelerated aging phenotypes, whereas overexpression of Klotho in mice extends lifespan. Klotho is an anti-aging single-pass membrane protein predominantly produced in the kidney, with shedding of the amino-terminal extracellular domain into the systemic circulation. Circulating levels of soluble Klotho decrease with age, and the klotho gene is associated with increased risk of age-related diseases. The three forms of Klotho protein have distinct functions. Membrane Klotho forms a complex with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors, functions as an obligatory co-receptor for FGF23, which is involved in aging and the development of chronic diseases via regulation of Pi and vitamin D metabolism. Secreted Klotho functions as a humoral factor with pleiotropic activities including regulation of oxidative stress, growth factor signaling, and ion homeostasis. Secreted Klotho is also involved in organ protection. The intracellular form of Klotho suppresses inflammation-mediated cellular senescence and mineral metabolism. Herein we provide a brief overview of the structure and function and recent research about Klotho.
  8. Jan 2019
    1. Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example). This paper reviews some of the biochemical and metabolic aspects of adipose tissue and its relationship to inflammatory disease and insulin resistance.