111 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2021
    1. Before the use of computers, scientific knowledge was mainly recorded on paper, using three forms of notation: written language, images, and tables. Written text combines plain language, domain-specific vocabulary, and shorthand notation such as mathematical formulas. Images include both drawings and observations captured in photographs, radiographs, etc. Tables represent datasets, which are most often numerical.

      On the relationship between media, representation, communication and thinking, this part remembers me of Bret's Victor Media for Thinking the Unthinkable

      In some talk, I don't remember if this one, Victor says that using printing media as the main medium for communication is kind of an historical accident. It could be sound, or other media as main representation/communication vehicle.

      On my own memories, I remember thinking the relationship between representation and processing/cognition in my early undergrad years as a freshmen, when I saw the two notations for derivates (Leibnitz's and Newton's) and how both make some kind of operations easier (or not). The example I came with, to explain such insight to my postgrad education sciences students later, without appealing to calculus was multiplying in roman numbers versus in arabic ones (and example I would find years later is also employed by Victor)

  2. Sep 2021
    1. Those who are attuned to such cues can use them to make more-informed decisions. A study led by a team of economists and neuroscientists in Britain, for instance, reported that financial traders who were better at detecting their heartbeats — a standard test of what is known as interoception, or the ability to perceive internal signals — made more profitable investments and lasted longer in that notoriously volatile profession.

      Improved interoception may be a usefu skill for functioning in the world.

      How might one improve this ability? Can it be trained?

    2. The burgeoning field of embodied cognition has demonstrated that the body — its sensations, gestures and movements — plays an integral role in the thought processes that we usually locate above the neck.

      Worth delving into this area of research for memory related effects.

  3. Jul 2021
  4. Jun 2021
    1. t hadn’t learned sort of the concept of a paddle or the concept of a ball. It only learned about patterns of pixels.

      Cognition and perception are closely related in humans, as the theory of embodied cognition has shown. But until the concept of embodied cognition gained traction, we had developed a pretty intellectual concept of cognition: as something located in our brains, drained of emotions, utterly rational, deterministic, logical, and so on. This is still the concept of intelligence that rules research in AI.

    2. the original goal at least, was to have a machine that could be like a human, in that the machine could do many tasks and could learn something in one domain, like if I learned how to play checkers maybe that would help me learn better how to play chess or other similar games, or even that I could use things that I’d learned in chess in other areas of life, that we sort of have this ability to generalize the things that we know or the things that we’ve learned and apply it to many different kinds of situations. But this is something that’s eluded AI systems for its entire history.

      The truth is we do not need to have computers to excel in the things we do best, but to complement us. We shall bet on cognitive extension instead of trying to re-create human intelligence --which is a legitimate area of research, but computer scientists should leave this to cognitive science and neuroscience.

  5. May 2021
  6. Apr 2021
  7. Mar 2021
    1. The way to improve this is to make a further abstract picture of our first picture of the problem, which eradicates 7 7

      Further abstraction of the mental processes -> [[meta cognition]]?

      • 1:18:05 Vote démocratique et émotion "et on a notamment nous fini une étude qui est intéressante parce que l'on parlait du vote qui était de se dire de se poser la question finalement comment on fait pour affiner un peu les modèles pour déterminer quelle est la le la probabilité que les gens aillent voter à un moment donné et on a simplement posé comme question d'habitude on pose comme question l'intention de vote s p à quel point vous avez l'intention d'aller voter dimanche et on a juste rajouté nous une petite question qui est l'anticipation du regret on a dit aux gens à quel point vous aurez des regrettés si vous n'allez pas voter dimanche et bien le fait de poser juste cette petite question ça affine grandement les modèles sur l'abstention le jour de l'élection et donc on pourrait se dire ça ceux qui anticipent plus de regrets ils vont ceux qui anticipent plus de regrets ils vont donc nous on n'a pas le faire parce que tu sais qu'il y a une il y a toujours des commissions électorales
  8. Feb 2021
    1. Maryanne Garry 🐑🇳🇿. (2020, December 12). A person with the virus who, say, has lunch with friends is a witness to an event in which the virus was possibly transmitted, and a suspect who might have transmitted it to others. Our new paper in PoPS @lorraine_hope @rachelz @drayeshaverrall and Jamie Robertson https://t.co/FoOlx78HB2 [Tweet]. @drlambchop. https://twitter.com/drlambchop/status/1337676716936896512

    1. The modern sense of "an X about X" has given rise to concepts like "meta-cognition" (cognition about cognition), "meta-emotion" (emotion about emotion), "meta-discussion" (discussion about discussion), "meta-joke" (joke about jokes), and "metaprogramming" (writing programs that manipulate programs).
  9. Jan 2021
  10. Dec 2020
    1. It’s no coincidence that we walk when we need to think: evidence shows that movement enhances thinking and learning, and both are activated in the same centre of motor control in the brain. In the influential subfield of cognitive science concerned with ‘embodied’ cognition, one prominent claim is that actions themselves are constitutive of cognitive processes. That is, activities such as playing a musical instrument, writing, speaking or dancing don’t start in the brain and then emanate out to the body as actions; rather, they entail the mind and body working in concert as a creative, integrated whole, unfolding and influencing each other in turn. It’s therefore a significant problem that many of us are trapped in work and study environments that don’t allow us to activate these intuitive cognitive muscles, and indeed often even encourage us to avoid them.

      I'm curious if Lynne Kelly or others have looked into these areas of research with their Memory work? She's definitely posited that singing and dancing as well as creating art helps indigenous cultures in their memory work.

  11. Oct 2020
    1. Technology integration has also been shown to help create more authentic learning environments where the students are more motivated to attend, have a greater chance of communication and collaboration and have more opportunities to use higher order thinking and problem solving skills connected to real world applications (Fouts, 2000) This has led some to believe that new theories in learning needed to be developed that would help to support the creation of such learning environments. The three emerging theories discussed in this paper all possess the ability to support the creation of such learning environments.  They all support the idea that learning is through action.  They all support that cognition happens through communication and collaboration with others.  They all support the use of technology to help in the creation of such learning environments. It is through these new theories that learning environments, which support the development of these higher-level learning skills, can be created.  

      This appears to be a paper written by an upper-level undergraduate (based on the writing), describing the importance of technology in 21st century education and describing three cognitive theories, all requiring collaborative learning, The author highlights the importance of student engagement through technology, which students like, and assumes its importance in the workplace. 5/10

  12. Sep 2020
    1. à 29.58 respect d'autrui, empathie,

    2. des chercheurs ont conçu dans ce sens des applications pour tablette. Un test est mené depuis septembre 2016 auprès de 1 200 élèves de CP de l’académie de Poitiers.

      43.28 app de lecture avec tablette elan et graphogame https://youtu.be/_pBbKrCz7WM?t=2608

    3. L’apprentissage nécessite aussi un processus de consolidation qui passe par la répétition

      à 30.53 Consolidation, répétition https://youtu.be/_pBbKrCz7WM?t=1853

    4. Les neurosciences mettent aussi en évidence le rôle majeur de l'erreur, qui aide à la mémorisation en reconfigurant les réseaux neuronaux, dès lors que l’enfant réalise qu’il s’est trompé.

      à 21.28 de l'intérêt de l'erreur https://youtu.be/_pBbKrCz7WM?t=1288

    5. la capacité de concentration des élèves de maternelle variait selon leur milieu social. Ces recherches ont débouché sur un programme d'exercices spécifiques, destiné aux écoles de l'État accueillant des enfants défavorisés.

      à 7.56 expérience américaine "créer des connexions"


    6. Du bon usage du cerveau | Demain, l'école (1/2) | ARTE
  13. Jul 2020
  14. Jun 2020
  15. May 2020
  16. Apr 2020
  17. Nov 2019
    1. In essence, “the knowledgeproduction itself may become the form of mobilization” that induces indi-viduals to make the cognitive shift (Gaventa and Cornwall, 2001, p. 76) thatleads to change from within the self outward to the institution

      Wow, this is kind of profound. It is not necessarily what people are thinking and looking at but how they form that knowledge that can influence where they look and what they see, thereby influencing further behavior.



  18. Oct 2019
    1. Liberal and Conservative Representations of the Good Society: A (Social) Structural Topic Modeling Approach

      I chose this article, because it is timely, relevant, easy-to-follow (because it is intuitive), and innovative (using data sources, Twitter, and an innovative method, textual analysis). I hope you enjoy the reading. Please follow my annotations (comments + questions) and respond to the questions I pose. Try to answer them in your own words.

  19. www-oxfordscholarship-com.vu-nl.idm.oclc.org www-oxfordscholarship-com.vu-nl.idm.oclc.org
    1. although there have been many speculations about the role of compensation in adult development (e.g., see Dixon & Backman, 1995), there is still very little empirical evidence documenting the existence of age-related compensation in cognitive activities.

      here it may be useful to look towards current research on aging of ASD individuals for compensating development in adulthood.

  20. Jun 2019
  21. Mar 2019
    1. This link is to a three-page PDF that describes Gagne's nine events of instruction, largely in in the form of a graphic. Text is minimized and descriptive text is color coded so it is easy to find underneath the graphic at the top. The layout is simple and easy to follow. A general description of Gagne's work is not part of this page. While this particular presentation does not have personal appeal to me, it is included here due to the quality of the page and because the presentation is more user friendly than most. Rating 4/5

  22. Jan 2019
    1. “What, precisely, is thegoal of the game that we’re playing now?” In

      Humans are goal-driven beings. Goals are essentially cognitive processes that shape our behavior.

    1. priori. Such is the situation with disaster.We easily dismisshow uncertainsituations of disaster areor can become, and how a goalin safety-critical work is to avert situations beforethey become problems. Much of the work in safety-and time-critical matters in CSCW appreciates the implications of this goalon vigilance, mutual awareness, and, of course, error, especially propagated error. It is all too easy to blame “pilot error” when a sequence of preceding systemic conditions took place to set a pilot up for perceiving the problem as he or she did [34,48], including one that warns of hazard. Indeed, disaster can magnifyproblems, not necessarily out of proportion, though that can happen, but rather too so that wefocusonspecific detailswhen many things are happening.

      Evokes distributed cognition (Hutchins) as well as the uncertain nature of safety- and time-critical work and how to classify risk/need.

    2. Mendonça, et al.[26] and Kendra and Wachtendorf [20] have characterized this as improvisation, whichhas strong parallels to the conversations in CSCW about the nature of situated cognition or situated work [14,44], as well as the relationship between informal as well as formal aspects of work [30,44]

      Evokes situated action (Suchman) and distributed cognition (Hutchins)

    3. Threaded throughout thesearguments is the idea of distributed cognition particularly as it materializes in the on-the-ground work, but also through prior online preparation.Through this lens, we see how ideation ofsolutions sprung from uncertainexpressions ofproblem statementswhich were quickly forwardedto the local (or local enough) domain experts—horsepeople in Colora

      Evokes distributed cognition

    1. n particular, we note how recent extensions to Activity Theory have addressed theoretical shortcomings similar to our five challenges and suggest directions for bridging the gap between everyday practice and systems support

      theoretical base for the case study.

      Tie this back to HCC readings/critiques by Halverson and Hutchins on distributed cognition.

    2. These extensions increase the complexity of the Activity Theory model but also help to explain tensions present in real-world systems such as when one agent plays different roles in two systems that have divergent goals. Furthermore, this approach provides Activity Theory with a similar degree of agility in representing complex, distributed cognition as competing theoretical approaches, such as Distributed Cognition (Hutchins, 1995).

      flexibility of Activity Theory over DCog

  23. Dec 2018
    1. Visibility of communication exchanges and of information enableslearning and greater efficiencies

      Evokes the distributed cognition literature as well peer production, crowdsourcing, and collective intelligence practices.

  24. Jul 2018
    1. Drawing on the theory of distributed cognition [5], we utilizerepresentational physical artifacts to provide a tangible interface for task planning, aural cues for time passage, and an ambient, glanceable display to convey status

      Is there a way to integrate dCog and a more sociotemporal theory, like Zimbardo & Boyd's Time Perspective Theory or some of Adam's work on timescapes?

  25. Jan 2018
  26. Dec 2017
    1. There’s this thing that happened which is that there’s more diversity of ethnicity and background perhaps, but less diversity of cognitive style. If you have a certain kind of nerdy, quantitative problem-solving oriented cognitive style, that will get you more friends, and that will get you along better than if you have a more contemplative, aesthetic center. 
  27. Sep 2017
    1. This is equivalent to what Montessori was saying: If you want to live in the 21st century, you’d better embody it. You can’t teach it in a classroom. And so, Papert was saying, “Hey, this is math. It’s not just learning math. It’s an environment. It has all these things.”
  28. Jul 2017
    1. We do not help everyone equally—some people just seem to be more worthy of help than others. Our cognitions about people in need matter as do our emotions toward them.

      *Social experiment*: Our cognitive perception of others ha s an effect on whether we decide to help or not.

  29. May 2017
    1. Spiders appear to offload cognitive tasks to their webs, making them one of a number of species with a mind that isn’t fully confined within the head.
  30. Mar 2017
    1. die Denker schon mit ihrer Hirnaktivität ausgelastet sind und sie darum weniger das Bedürfnis nach Bewegung haben

      Alternativ-Erklärung: Schlicht begrenzte zeitliche Ressourcen. Es gibt sicherlich Studien aus dem Bereich Gesundheitspsychologie, die zeigen, dass Menschen in akademischen Berufen sich durchaus - z.B. wegen eines höheren Gesundheitsbewusstseins - bewegen.

    1. One implication of the naturalness with which we divide cognitive labor,” they write, is that there’s “no sharp boundary between one person’s ideas and knowledge” and “those of other members” of the group.
  31. Feb 2017
  32. Jan 2017
    1. Many people implicitly or explicitly use this cognitive outsourcing model to think about augmentation. It's commonly used in press accounts, for instance. It is also, I believe, a common way for programmers to think about augmentation. In this essay, we've seen a different way of thinking about augmentation. Rather than just solving problems expressed in terms we already understand, the goal is to change the thoughts we can think:

      Good distinctions here. Cf. also what happens when one begins to master the heptapod language in "Story of Your Life." It's Whorf-Sapir, but a "soft" Whorf-Sapir. So I'd say, anyhow. Relevant too that Engelbart discusses Whorf-Sapir.

    1. Hard work makes you feel bad in the moment. The Marine Corps has a motto that embodies this principle: “Pain is weakness leaving the body.” That is, the discomfort of exertion means you’re building muscle and discipline. Superagers are like Marines: They excel at pushing past the temporary unpleasantness of intense effort. Studies suggest that the result is a more youthful brain that helps maintain a sharper memory and a greater ability to pay attention.
    2. Of course, the big question is: How do you become a superager? Which activities, if any, will increase your chances of remaining mentally sharp into old age? We’re still studying this question, but our best answer at the moment is: work hard at something. Many labs have observed that these critical brain regions increase in activity when people perform difficult tasks, whether the effort is physical or mental. You can therefore help keep these regions thick and healthy through vigorous exercise and bouts of strenuous mental effort. My father-in-law, for example, swims every day and plays tournament bridge.
  33. Jul 2016
    1. The body matters to learning.

      PhysEd teachers have a lot to teach us. We may mention this, paying lipservice to the notion of embodied learning. But it’s remarkable how “heady” we all remain in pedagogical spheres.

  34. Apr 2016
    1. The danger in favoring the development of 21st century skills over content knowledge (or vice versa) in school

      I would say the danger between separating skills and content is there is no separation.

      Content is comprehension. Yet at the same time those who thrive in digital spaces can become self-programmable learners and back fill content knowledge.

      But this ability is still directly ties to background knowledge. Less knowledge requires greater skill and more knowledge requires less skill.

  35. Feb 2016
    1. Everyday interactions replay the Turing Test over and over. Is there a person behind this machine, and if so, how much? In time, the answer will matter less, and the postulation of human (or even carbon-based life) as the threshold measure of intelligence and as the qualifying gauge of a political ethics may seem like tasteless vestigial racism, replaced by less anthropocentric frames of reference.

      That's beautiful. I only hope the transition isn't jarring and the rate of expansion for compassion matches or exceeds that of cognition.

  36. Sep 2015
    1. It is a matter of how personsand their social and cultural worlds are inseparable, thoroughly

      Continued on next page. This is the definition of distributed cognition. "their thinking is irreducible to individual properties, intelligence, or traits."

    2. The classroom is physically organized to facilitate the distributionof activities and the use of multiple resources, especially books, aspart of the activities

      There is a materialism to distributed cognition. The artifacts matter, as a part of the fabric of the socially shared learning/thinking process.

    3. These mundane exchanges takea variety of forms, such as labor services, access to information, in-cluding help in finding jobs or housing and knowledge about dealingwith government agencies, and various forms of material assistancebesides money such as sheltering visitors.

      Examples of Funds of knowledge. In the classrooms that I study, these could be shared norms of interaction, historical views of schooling and classrooms, etc.

    4. thinking as distributed dynamically in inter-personal relationships among people, their artifacts, and their envi-ronments

      Thinking as distributed. When I think about what that means for a classroom I immediately go to the understanding that learning happens through dialogue and interaction (between people, artifacts and the environment). This means a focus on those interactions is necessary to see/develop classroom thinking. How does that fit into a theory of communities of practice and LPP?

  37. Jan 2015
    1. knowledge-building discourse more knowledgeable others do not stand outside the learning process (as teachers often do), but rather participate actively.


    2. Negotiating the terrain around ideas is marked by complex interactions with others, using purposeful and constructive ways (a) to engage busy people, (b) to distribute work among members, (c) to sustain increasingly advanced inquiry, (d) to monitor advances of distant groups working in related areas, and (e) to ensure the local group is indeed working at the forefront of their collective understanding. There is also a great deal of opportunistic work, often in small groups (as opposed to legislated schoolwork of the conventional kind in which students are working individually but all doing the same thing or are subdivided in some arbitrary fashion).

      Sounds like connected courses to me.

    3. focus is on problems rather than on categories of knowledge or on topics.

      Again I think short burst of direct instruction is not bad nor do I believe in the total rejection of ontology.

    4. knowledge-building discourse into three categories: (a) focus on problems and depth of understanding; (b) decentralized, open knowledge environments for collective understanding; and (c) productive interaction within broadly conceived knowledge-building communities.

      depth of understanding as background knowledge. I think knowledge building communities have a library of direct instruction content. Experts just help to curate this material.

    5. plenty of discourse in schools, but it bears little resemblance to the kind that goes on in knowledge-building communities.

      A contrast of in-school and out of school spaces?

    6. knowledge-building communities, we mean schools in which people are engaged in producing knowledge objects that, though much more modest than Newton's theory, also lend themselves to being discussed, tested, and so forth without particular reference to the mental states of those involved and in which the students see their main job as producing and improving such objects

      Definition of #makered?

    7. scientific practice is more like politics - an effort to marshal support for one's position.

      What are the implication for disciplinary literacies and argumentative writing?

    8. We strongly prefer our own term, knowledge-building community. It suggests continuity with the other knowledge-building communities that exist beyond the schools, and the term building implies that the classroom community works to produce knowledge - a collective product and not merely a summary report of what is in individual minds or a collection of outputs from group work.

      This fits with the open/closed scale for judging learning environments.

    9. focusing on the individual student's abilities and dispositions, educators have failed to grasp the social structures and dynamics that are required for progressive knowledge building of the kind Whitehead referred to. In effect, they have remained fixed on a pre-19th century model of science, dependent on "the occasional genius, or the occasional lucky thought."

      I think the scaffolds in most direct instruction do not fit Whitehead's definition.

    1. Conventional wisdom has it that practice makes perfect and that expertise is the natural outcome of years of practice. But few people become good writers, no matter how much they write.

      Tough reality.

    2. But as a society, we are not concerned with novices. Eventually they will quit being novices, without our having to do anything about it. The important question is what they will become. Will they become experts in their lines of work or will they swell the ranks of incompetent or mediocre functionaries?

      A common thread with Gee in the Ant--Education Era, an open disdain for incompetence.

    1. Sobel, D. M. & Kirkham, N.Z. (2012). The influence of social information on children’s statistical and causal inferences. In F.Xu (Ed.). Rational constructivism in cognitive development.
    2. Kirkham, N. Z. (2009). Altogether now: Learning through multiple sources. In S. P. Johnson (Ed.), Neoconstructivism: The new science of cognitive development. New York: Oxford University Press