45 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2019
  2. Mar 2019
    1. This link is to a three-page PDF that describes Gagne's nine events of instruction, largely in in the form of a graphic. Text is minimized and descriptive text is color coded so it is easy to find underneath the graphic at the top. The layout is simple and easy to follow. A general description of Gagne's work is not part of this page. While this particular presentation does not have personal appeal to me, it is included here due to the quality of the page and because the presentation is more user friendly than most. Rating 4/5

  3. Jan 2019
    1. “What, precisely, is thegoal of the game that we’re playing now?” In

      Humans are goal-driven beings. Goals are essentially cognitive processes that shape our behavior.

    1. priori. Such is the situation with disaster.We easily dismisshow uncertainsituations of disaster areor can become, and how a goalin safety-critical work is to avert situations beforethey become problems. Much of the work in safety-and time-critical matters in CSCW appreciates the implications of this goalon vigilance, mutual awareness, and, of course, error, especially propagated error. It is all too easy to blame “pilot error” when a sequence of preceding systemic conditions took place to set a pilot up for perceiving the problem as he or she did [34,48], including one that warns of hazard. Indeed, disaster can magnifyproblems, not necessarily out of proportion, though that can happen, but rather too so that wefocusonspecific detailswhen many things are happening.

      Evokes distributed cognition (Hutchins) as well as the uncertain nature of safety- and time-critical work and how to classify risk/need.

    2. Mendonça, et al.[26] and Kendra and Wachtendorf [20] have characterized this as improvisation, whichhas strong parallels to the conversations in CSCW about the nature of situated cognition or situated work [14,44], as well as the relationship between informal as well as formal aspects of work [30,44]

      Evokes situated action (Suchman) and distributed cognition (Hutchins)

    3. Threaded throughout thesearguments is the idea of distributed cognition particularly as it materializes in the on-the-ground work, but also through prior online preparation.Through this lens, we see how ideation ofsolutions sprung from uncertainexpressions ofproblem statementswhich were quickly forwardedto the local (or local enough) domain experts—horsepeople in Colora

      Evokes distributed cognition

    1. n particular, we note how recent extensions to Activity Theory have addressed theoretical shortcomings similar to our five challenges and suggest directions for bridging the gap between everyday practice and systems support

      theoretical base for the case study.

      Tie this back to HCC readings/critiques by Halverson and Hutchins on distributed cognition.

    2. These extensions increase the complexity of the Activity Theory model but also help to explain tensions present in real-world systems such as when one agent plays different roles in two systems that have divergent goals. Furthermore, this approach provides Activity Theory with a similar degree of agility in representing complex, distributed cognition as competing theoretical approaches, such as Distributed Cognition (Hutchins, 1995).

      flexibility of Activity Theory over DCog

  4. Dec 2018
    1. Visibility of communication exchanges and of information enableslearning and greater efficiencies

      Evokes the distributed cognition literature as well peer production, crowdsourcing, and collective intelligence practices.

  5. Jul 2018
    1. Drawing on the theory of distributed cognition [5], we utilizerepresentational physical artifacts to provide a tangible interface for task planning, aural cues for time passage, and an ambient, glanceable display to convey status

      Is there a way to integrate dCog and a more sociotemporal theory, like Zimbardo & Boyd's Time Perspective Theory or some of Adam's work on timescapes?

  6. Jan 2018
  7. Dec 2017
    1. There’s this thing that happened which is that there’s more diversity of ethnicity and background perhaps, but less diversity of cognitive style. If you have a certain kind of nerdy, quantitative problem-solving oriented cognitive style, that will get you more friends, and that will get you along better than if you have a more contemplative, aesthetic center. 
  8. Sep 2017
    1. This is equivalent to what Montessori was saying: If you want to live in the 21st century, you’d better embody it. You can’t teach it in a classroom. And so, Papert was saying, “Hey, this is math. It’s not just learning math. It’s an environment. It has all these things.”
  9. Jul 2017
    1. We do not help everyone equally—some people just seem to be more worthy of help than others. Our cognitions about people in need matter as do our emotions toward them.

      *Social experiment*: Our cognitive perception of others ha s an effect on whether we decide to help or not.

  10. May 2017
    1. Spiders appear to offload cognitive tasks to their webs, making them one of a number of species with a mind that isn’t fully confined within the head.
  11. Mar 2017
    1. die Denker schon mit ihrer Hirnaktivität ausgelastet sind und sie darum weniger das Bedürfnis nach Bewegung haben

      Alternativ-Erklärung: Schlicht begrenzte zeitliche Ressourcen. Es gibt sicherlich Studien aus dem Bereich Gesundheitspsychologie, die zeigen, dass Menschen in akademischen Berufen sich durchaus - z.B. wegen eines höheren Gesundheitsbewusstseins - bewegen.

    1. One implication of the naturalness with which we divide cognitive labor,” they write, is that there’s “no sharp boundary between one person’s ideas and knowledge” and “those of other members” of the group.
  12. Feb 2017
  13. Jan 2017
    1. Many people implicitly or explicitly use this cognitive outsourcing model to think about augmentation. It's commonly used in press accounts, for instance. It is also, I believe, a common way for programmers to think about augmentation. In this essay, we've seen a different way of thinking about augmentation. Rather than just solving problems expressed in terms we already understand, the goal is to change the thoughts we can think:

      Good distinctions here. Cf. also what happens when one begins to master the heptapod language in "Story of Your Life." It's Whorf-Sapir, but a "soft" Whorf-Sapir. So I'd say, anyhow. Relevant too that Engelbart discusses Whorf-Sapir.

    1. Hard work makes you feel bad in the moment. The Marine Corps has a motto that embodies this principle: “Pain is weakness leaving the body.” That is, the discomfort of exertion means you’re building muscle and discipline. Superagers are like Marines: They excel at pushing past the temporary unpleasantness of intense effort. Studies suggest that the result is a more youthful brain that helps maintain a sharper memory and a greater ability to pay attention.
    2. Of course, the big question is: How do you become a superager? Which activities, if any, will increase your chances of remaining mentally sharp into old age? We’re still studying this question, but our best answer at the moment is: work hard at something. Many labs have observed that these critical brain regions increase in activity when people perform difficult tasks, whether the effort is physical or mental. You can therefore help keep these regions thick and healthy through vigorous exercise and bouts of strenuous mental effort. My father-in-law, for example, swims every day and plays tournament bridge.
  14. Jul 2016
    1. The body matters to learning.

      PhysEd teachers have a lot to teach us. We may mention this, paying lipservice to the notion of embodied learning. But it’s remarkable how “heady” we all remain in pedagogical spheres.

  15. Apr 2016
    1. The danger in favoring the development of 21st century skills over content knowledge (or vice versa) in school

      I would say the danger between separating skills and content is there is no separation.

      Content is comprehension. Yet at the same time those who thrive in digital spaces can become self-programmable learners and back fill content knowledge.

      But this ability is still directly ties to background knowledge. Less knowledge requires greater skill and more knowledge requires less skill.

  16. Feb 2016
    1. Everyday interactions replay the Turing Test over and over. Is there a person behind this machine, and if so, how much? In time, the answer will matter less, and the postulation of human (or even carbon-based life) as the threshold measure of intelligence and as the qualifying gauge of a political ethics may seem like tasteless vestigial racism, replaced by less anthropocentric frames of reference.

      That's beautiful. I only hope the transition isn't jarring and the rate of expansion for compassion matches or exceeds that of cognition.

  17. Sep 2015
    1. It is a matter of how personsand their social and cultural worlds are inseparable, thoroughly

      Continued on next page. This is the definition of distributed cognition. "their thinking is irreducible to individual properties, intelligence, or traits."

    2. The classroom is physically organized to facilitate the distributionof activities and the use of multiple resources, especially books, aspart of the activities

      There is a materialism to distributed cognition. The artifacts matter, as a part of the fabric of the socially shared learning/thinking process.

    3. These mundane exchanges takea variety of forms, such as labor services, access to information, in-cluding help in finding jobs or housing and knowledge about dealingwith government agencies, and various forms of material assistancebesides money such as sheltering visitors.

      Examples of Funds of knowledge. In the classrooms that I study, these could be shared norms of interaction, historical views of schooling and classrooms, etc.

    4. thinking as distributed dynamically in inter-personal relationships among people, their artifacts, and their envi-ronments

      Thinking as distributed. When I think about what that means for a classroom I immediately go to the understanding that learning happens through dialogue and interaction (between people, artifacts and the environment). This means a focus on those interactions is necessary to see/develop classroom thinking. How does that fit into a theory of communities of practice and LPP?

  18. Jan 2015
    1. knowledge-building discourse more knowledgeable others do not stand outside the learning process (as teachers often do), but rather participate actively.

      co-learning

    2. Negotiating the terrain around ideas is marked by complex interactions with others, using purposeful and constructive ways (a) to engage busy people, (b) to distribute work among members, (c) to sustain increasingly advanced inquiry, (d) to monitor advances of distant groups working in related areas, and (e) to ensure the local group is indeed working at the forefront of their collective understanding. There is also a great deal of opportunistic work, often in small groups (as opposed to legislated schoolwork of the conventional kind in which students are working individually but all doing the same thing or are subdivided in some arbitrary fashion).

      Sounds like connected courses to me.

    3. focus is on problems rather than on categories of knowledge or on topics.

      Again I think short burst of direct instruction is not bad nor do I believe in the total rejection of ontology.

    4. knowledge-building discourse into three categories: (a) focus on problems and depth of understanding; (b) decentralized, open knowledge environments for collective understanding; and (c) productive interaction within broadly conceived knowledge-building communities.

      depth of understanding as background knowledge. I think knowledge building communities have a library of direct instruction content. Experts just help to curate this material.

    5. plenty of discourse in schools, but it bears little resemblance to the kind that goes on in knowledge-building communities.

      A contrast of in-school and out of school spaces?

    6. knowledge-building communities, we mean schools in which people are engaged in producing knowledge objects that, though much more modest than Newton's theory, also lend themselves to being discussed, tested, and so forth without particular reference to the mental states of those involved and in which the students see their main job as producing and improving such objects

      Definition of #makered?

    7. scientific practice is more like politics - an effort to marshal support for one's position.

      What are the implication for disciplinary literacies and argumentative writing?

    8. We strongly prefer our own term, knowledge-building community. It suggests continuity with the other knowledge-building communities that exist beyond the schools, and the term building implies that the classroom community works to produce knowledge - a collective product and not merely a summary report of what is in individual minds or a collection of outputs from group work.

      This fits with the open/closed scale for judging learning environments.

    9. focusing on the individual student's abilities and dispositions, educators have failed to grasp the social structures and dynamics that are required for progressive knowledge building of the kind Whitehead referred to. In effect, they have remained fixed on a pre-19th century model of science, dependent on "the occasional genius, or the occasional lucky thought."

      I think the scaffolds in most direct instruction do not fit Whitehead's definition.

    1. Conventional wisdom has it that practice makes perfect and that expertise is the natural outcome of years of practice. But few people become good writers, no matter how much they write.

      Tough reality.

    2. But as a society, we are not concerned with novices. Eventually they will quit being novices, without our having to do anything about it. The important question is what they will become. Will they become experts in their lines of work or will they swell the ranks of incompetent or mediocre functionaries?

      A common thread with Gee in the Ant--Education Era, an open disdain for incompetence.

    1. Sobel, D. M. & Kirkham, N.Z. (2012). The influence of social information on children’s statistical and causal inferences. In F.Xu (Ed.). Rational constructivism in cognitive development.
    2. Kirkham, N. Z. (2009). Altogether now: Learning through multiple sources. In S. P. Johnson (Ed.), Neoconstructivism: The new science of cognitive development. New York: Oxford University Press