6 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2021
    1. correlated with disease progression

      Indeed this distinction between the immune systems of males and females is to be considered when developing vaccines against SARS-Co-V2. (DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.1c00291)

  2. May 2021
    1. women

      Vahidy et al: Men are more likely to test positive, have complications, require ICU admission and mechanical ventilation and have higher mortality than females, independent of age.

      Peckham et al: Meta-analysis of 3,111,714 reported global cases - males are 3x more likely to require ICU admission and have higher odds of death.


      Vahidy FS, Pan AP, Ahnstedt H, Munshi Y, Choi HA, et al. (2021) Sex differences in susceptibility, severity, and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019: Cross-sectional analysis from a diverse US metropolitan area. PLOS ONE 16(1): e0245556. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245556

      Peckham, H., de Gruijter, N.M., Raine, C. et al. Male sex identified by global COVID-19 meta-analysis as a risk factor for death and ITU admission. Nat Commun 11, 6317 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19

  3. Oct 2020
    1. t’s not clear why the sequence of the vaccines only mattered in girls, partly because there has been very little research into how male and female immune systems are different. “Somehow immunology has been blind to sex,” says Aaby. “If you read research about mortality in low income countries, there is no such thing as boys and girls – there are children. So we perceive that they have to be the same, and they are definitely not the same.”

      Take away: "Immune training" or bystander effects from other vaccinations may help to fight off Covid-19 or other infections, in spite of not being specific to that pathogen. Some of these effects are sex-specific.

      Claim: "Somehow immunology has been blind to sex"

      The evidence: This is not entirely true- there is actually a LOT of research into sex differences in the immune response, and it is well-known that women can generally mount stronger Th1-type immune responses against viral infections than men. This is thought to be partially linked to estrogen cycling, and partly due to the fact that women have 2 active copies of genes associated with immunity because those are encoded on the X chromosomes. Men only have 1 copy, and thus they don't generally mount as strong an inflammatory response. However, women are also more prone to autoimmune diseases as a consequence of having stronger inflammatory responses than men, which is seen in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus.

      Sources: (https://www.nature.com/articles/nri.2016.90).

  4. Mar 2018
    1. Also, the existence of differences between men and women doesn’t necessarily mean they can’t be changed in the future, even some biological ones. How much of what we’ve inherited – biologically, psychologically or socially – is outdated and malleable?  

      Expand... posthumanism?

    2. There are factors other than sexism or discrimination that could in part explain why Google does not have 50 percent female representation. There are differences between men and women on average, based on population level statistics. (He qualifies this by noting a number of these differences are small and there is significant overlap between the genders.) These differences may in part explain the gender gap in tech. Women and men may differ partly because of biological reasons.

      Summary of Damore's claims.