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  1. Last 7 days
    1. the Guardian. “Under-30s in UK Should Be Offered Alternative Covid Vaccine to AstraZeneca Jab, Says Advisory Body,” April 7, 2021. http://www.theguardian.com/society/2021/apr/07/under-30s-in-uk-should-be-offered-alternative-covid-vaccine-to-astrazeneca-jab-says-regulator.

    2. 2021-04-07

    3. Adults under 30 should be offered an alternative vaccine instead of the AstraZeneca jab if there is one available in their area and they are healthy and not at high risk of Covid, the UK government’s vaccination advisory body has said.The recommendation from the joint committee on vaccines and immunisation (JCVI) is broadly in line with the thinking in Europe, where some countries have already opted to restrict the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine to older groups following concerns about rare events of blood clots allied to low platelets.Overall, the risks from Covid for older people are far higher and they will be encouraged to have the vaccine, which has been proven to be safe and effective in millions of people. In the UK, up to 31 March, there were 79 reports of these rare blood clots with low platelets – some but not all of them in the brain – and 19 deaths, among more than 20m AstraZeneca jabs.
    4. Under-30s in UK should be offered alternative Covid vaccine to AstraZeneca jab, says advisory body
  2. Mar 2021
    1. 2021-03-19

    2. Edara, Venkata Viswanadh, William H. Hudson, Xuping Xie, Rafi Ahmed, and Mehul S. Suthar. “Neutralizing Antibodies Against SARS-CoV-2 Variants After Infection and Vaccination.” JAMA, March 19, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.4388.

    3. 10.1001/jama.2021.4388
    4. Serum neutralizing antibodies rapidly appear after SARS-CoV-2 infection1 and vaccination2 and are maintained for several months.3,4 The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has raised concerns about the breadth of neutralizing-antibody responses. We compared the neutralizing-antibody response to 4 variants in infected and vaccinated individuals to determine how mutations within the spike protein are associated with virus neutralization.
    5. Neutralizing Antibodies Against SARS-CoV-2 Variants After Infection and Vaccination
    1. 2021-03-01

    2. Simone, Costanza De, Antonella Battisti, and Azzurra Ruggeri. “Differential Impact of Web Habits and Active Navigation on Adolescents’ Online Learning.” PsyArXiv, March 1, 2021. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/hsvc4.

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/hsvc4
    4. In this study we investigated how 14- to 17-year-olds (n = 48) search the web for information about unsettled scientific dilemmas. In particular, we addressed to what extent adolescents' capability to appraise accurate web sources, learn, and mold informed opinions is influenced by the quality of their online search strategies, the control they exert over the online search experience, and the experience they have while searching the web for relevant factual information. Our results show that adolescents' learning resulting from independent online search was not influenced by their search strategies and was generally quite poor, although they did identify and consult the most relevant and informative web sources. Interestingly, we found that having active control over the search process enhanced participants' learning and retention of factual information, but following the search process more passively increased their capability to reflect on, process, and elaborate on the information found on the web. This latter aspect was also positively influenced by having greater experience searching the web to perform school assignments. Taken together, these findings can inform educational practices, supporting the development and implementation of more effective interventions to empower the conscientious use and successful mastery of the pseudo-infinite information available on the web, and highlighting the crucial role of schools in equipping students with the necessary training, strategies, tools and guidance.
    5. Differential impact of web habits and active navigation on adolescents' online learning
    1. 2021-01-16

    2. Bi, Qifang, Justin Lessler, Isabella Eckerle, Stephen A. Lauer, Laurent Kaiser, Nicolas Vuilleumier, Derek AT Cummings, et al. “Household Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Insights from a Population-Based Serological Survey.” MedRxiv, January 16, 2021, 2020.11.04.20225573. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.04.20225573.

    3. 10.1101/2020.11.04.20225573
    4. Background Knowing the transmissibility of asymptomatic infections and risk of infection from household- and community-exposures is critical to SARS-CoV-2 control. Limited previous evidence is based primarily on virologic testing, which disproportionately misses mild and asymptomatic infections. Serologic measures are more likely to capture all previously infected individuals.Objective Estimate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection from household and community exposures, and identify key risk factors for transmission and infection.Design Cross-sectional household serosurvey and transmission model.Setting Geneva, SwitzerlandParticipants 4,524 household members ≥5 years from 2,267 households enrolled April-June 2020.Measurements Past SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed through IgG ELISA. Chain-binomial models based on the number of infections within households used to estimate the cumulative extra-household infection risk and infection risk from exposure to an infected household member by demographics and infector’s symptoms.Results The chance of being infected by a SARS-CoV-2 infected household member was 17.3% (95%CrI,13.7-21.7%) compared to a cumulative extra-household infection risk of 5.1% (95%CrI,4.5-5.8%). Infection risk from an infected household member increased with age, with 5-9 year olds having 0.4 times (95%CrI, 0.07-1.4) the odds of infection, and ≥65 years olds having 2.7 (95%CrI,0.88-7.4) times the odds of infection of 20-49 year olds. Working-age adults had the highest extra-household infection risk. Seropositive asymptomatic household members had 69.6% lower odds (95%CrI,33.7-88.1%) of infecting another household member compared to those reporting symptoms, accounting for 14.7% (95%CrI,6.3-23.2%) of all household infections.Limitations Self-reported symptoms, small number of seropositive kids and imperfect serologic tests.Conclusion The risk of infection from exposure to a single infected household member was more than three-times that of extra-household exposures over the first pandemic wave. Young children had a lower risk of infection from household members. Asymptomatic infections are far less likely to transmit than symptomatic ones but do cause infections.
    5. Household Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Insights from a Population-based Serological Survey
    1. 2020-12-11

    2. “Network Hubs :: TMRP Webinar Series.” Accessed March 1, 2021. https://www.methodologyhubs.mrc.ac.uk/about/webinar/.

    3. The Trials Methodology Research Partnership are delighted to announce a new TMRP webinar series managed and hosted by the UK Trial Managers' Network. Colleagues from TMRP Partner organisations will present each webinar on a different theme.   Future webinars are listed below. If registration is full please do sign up to the waiting list in case places become available.  Links to all webinar recordings and slides will be available below soon after the event. 
    4. MRC-NIHR TMRP Webinar series
  3. Feb 2021
    1. 2020-11-30

    2. Peyton, Kyle, Gregory A. Huber, and Alexander Coppock. “The Generalizability of Online Experiments Conducted During The COVID-19 Pandemic.” SocArXiv, November 28, 2020. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/s45yg.

    3. The disruptions of the COVID-19 pandemic led many social scientists toward online survey experimentation for empirical research. Generalizing from the experiments conducted during a period of persistent crisis may be challenging due to changes in who participates in online survey research and how the participants respond to treatments. We investigate the generalizability of COVID-era survey experiments with 33 replications of 12 pre-pandemic designs fielded across 13 surveys on American survey respondents obtained from Lucid between March and July of 2020. We find strong evidence that these experiments replicate in terms of sign and significance, but at somewhat reduced magnitudes that are possibly explained by increased inattentiveness. These findings mitigate concerns about the generalizability of online research during this period. The pandemic does not appear to have fundamentally changed how subjects respond to treatments, provided they pay attention to treatments and outcome questions. In this light, we offer some suggestions for renewed care in the design, analysis, and interpretation of experiments conducted during the pandemic.
    4. 10.31235/osf.io/s45yg
    5. The Generalizability of Online Experiments Conducted During The COVID-19 Pandemic
    1. 2021-01-19

    2. Werner, Anika, Maren-Jo Kater, Angelika A. Schlarb, and Arnold Lohaus. “COVID-19-Pandemie-Stress-Skala (CPSS).” PsyArXiv, January 14, 2021. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/4gduz.

    3. Besonders in Zeiten einer Pandemie wie der von COVID-19 nimmt das allgemeine Stressniveau der Betroffenen stark zu. Verschiedene Faktoren tragen besonders in einer so außergewöhnlichen Situation vermehrt zu Stress bei. So können mit der Pandemie verbundene Einschränkungen wie eine Kontaktreduzierung, das Tragen von Mund-Nasen-Masken oder auch die Schließung öffentlicher Einrichtungen auch psychisch eine starke Beeinträchtigung bedeuten.
    4. 10.31234/osf.io/4gduz
    5. COVID-19-Pandemie-Stress-Skala (CPSS)
    1. 2021-01-21

    2. “The Eight Biggest Covid-Sceptic Myths – and Why They’re Wrong.” Accessed February 24, 2021. https://www.newstatesman.com/science-tech/coronavirus/2021/01/eight-biggest-covid-sceptic-myths-and-why-they-re-wrong.

    3. There has been a huge amount of misinformation during the pandemic. Much of it was unavoidable, especially at the start as we dealt with a new virus, but some myths are persisting a year into the pandemic. The myths range from the ridiculous to the merely implausible, but together they are misleading the public about the danger of Covid-19 and other variants. These false claims could also have serious consequences, such as fuelling premature calls to end social distancing measures before the vaccination rollout has reached a safe level.  To combat some of this misinformation, a group of scientists, journalists, economists and other researchers have created Anti-Virus, a website that tries to address the biggest myths surrounding the pandemic, and highlight claims or points of view that have been expressed by figures in academia or the media that are no longer credible. 
    4. The eight biggest Covid-sceptic myths – and why they’re wrong
    1. 2021-01-19

    2. Hauck, Katharina. “Agonising Choices in ICUs Should Be Made by Society, Not Individuals,” January 19, 2021. https://www.ft.com/content/d976a31e-90fa-4768-a680-0fcdda33cc2b.

    3. London’s intensive care units are overwhelmed, and those elsewhere in the UK may soon be too. The number of Covid-19 patients arriving in ICUs far exceeds the first wave in April, and those needing life-saving treatment such as mechanical ventilation have exhausted resources. Ambulances are queueing at hospital gates, patients are being transferred hundreds of miles and oxygen supplies are running low. The most severe shortage is not in beds, but in staff. NHS England has lowered ICU nurse staffing ratios from one nurse per patient to one for every two, and hospitals in the Midlands are being told to dilute their ratios further.Clinicians are now being forced to make agonising choices about who does and who does not receive care, with consequences for the survival of patients. Research on the first wave last spring found that when ICUs reach full capacity, the chance of a patient dying is 19 per cent higher. Is this decided by a random roll of the dice, or is it based on an assessment of who is at greater risk of dying? How should clinicians decide who gets the limited resources in an overstretched ICU? These are ethical questions that should be addressed by societies through expert committees, not individual clinicians.
    4. Agonising choices in ICUs should be made by society, not individuals
    1. 2021-01-20

    2. Imperial News. “Staff ‘need Clearer Guidance’ as COVID Overwhelms ICUs | Imperial News | Imperial College London.” Accessed February 19, 2021. https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/212833/staff-need-clearer-guidance-covid-overwhelms/.

    3. Hospital staff are receiving insufficient support as they make agonising choices about who does and does not receive care, writes Dr Katharina Hauck. In an opinion piece for the Financial Times, Dr Hauck warns that existing guidelines in an overstretched NHS are “only partly helpful”. They avoid “the tough question of how to prioritise care with severely curtailed resources, leaving heartbreaking life-or-death decision-making to clinicians.” 
    4. Staff 'need clearer guidance' as COVID overwhelms ICUs
    1. The effects of the covid-19 pandemic on mental health, especially amongst children, are receiving increasing attention. What is less clear are the channels through which these effects are operating. This paper helps fill this gap by isolating the impact of school closures on children’s mental health. We exploit the way in which primary school children were invited to return to school in England in the summer term of 2020, with government advice being that all children in reception, Year 1 and Year 6 should be invited to return from 1 June, while only vulnerable children and children of key workers could attend in Years 2, 3, 4 and 5. We adopt a difference-in-differences approach with child fixed effects, comparing changes over time (before the pandemic to July 2020) between children who were and were not invited to return to school using parent reports from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using reports from September 2020 – when all children had been invited to return school – we can also explore the extent to which these effects persist.
    2. 2021-02-25

    3. Zoom Video. “Welcome! You Are Invited to Join a Webinar: CEPEO (UCL)’s Research Seminar: Dr. Claire Crawford, University of Birmingham. After Registering, You Will Receive a Confirmation Email about Joining the Webinar.” Accessed February 19, 2021. https://ucl.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_RLY7x51NTSm-QGl4a-gCKw.

    4. Impact of school closures on parent and child wellbeing (to published shortly)
    1. 2020-02-17

    2. “Myths about COVID-19 vaccination - HackMD.” Accessed February 19, 2021. https://hackmd.io/ovEzSQWcRp2bctQn8MYElQ#Myths-about-COVID-19-vaccination.

    3. YouTube has been a significant source of misleading information during previous public health crises, including the Ebola and Zika outbreaks (Li et al., 2020). In March of 2020, a search of YouTube revealed that more than one quarter of the most-viewed videos contained misinformation, whereas videos from reputable sources remained underrepresented (Li et al., 2020). An in-depth scholarly analysis of how misinformation and other attributes of the online environment, and how it challenges citizens in a democracy can be found in Kozyreva et al. (2020). A detailed report on the overarching relationship between technology and democracy that was prepared for the European Commission can be found here. A quantitative analysis of the COVID-19 “infodemic” has shown that unreliable information predominated online before infections started rising in February and March 2020, but was then replaced by reliable information and content shifted towards more reliable sources (Gallotti et al., 2020).Unfortunately, misinformation about COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccinations is sometimes also spread for political reasons. We explore this aspect in a separate page on the politics of COVID-19 vaccination.
    4. Myths about COVID-19 vaccination
    1. Fukuyama, Barak Richman and Francis. “How to Quiet the Megaphones of Facebook, Google and Twitter.” Wall Street Journal, February 12, 2021, sec. Life. https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-to-quiet-the-megaphones-of-facebook-google-and-twitter-11613068856.

    2. 2021-02-12

    3. How to Quiet the Megaphones of Facebook, Google and Twitter
    4. The prevailing approach to protecting political speech on the major digital platforms has been to pressure the companies to self-regulate by creating, for instance, oversight boards of outside experts. But leaving these momentous decisions in the hands of private companies is not a long-term solution; they have neither the legitimacy nor the capacity to make such decisions in the public interest. The core issue is the oversize power of Twitter, Facebook and Google in controlling political discourse. One measure with some congressional support is to repeal or change Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, which limits the liability of platforms for the content they carry. But reform could hurt small companies more than the established giants, who can more easily develop algorithms and hire personnel to filter out problematic content.
    1. 2021-02-13

    2. ReconfigBehSci. “RT @STWorg: Very Important Issue. Some Background Literature &(Tentative) Recommendations Available on the Wiki Page Https://T.Co/Qx5prsemW….” Tweet. @SciBeh (blog), February 13, 2021. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1360540937869524994.

    3. Very important issue. Some background literature &(tentative) recommendations available on the wiki page https://hackmd.io/@scibehC19vax/vaxculture… accompanying the C19 vax handbook https://sks.to/c19vax @SciBeh @ProfDFreeman @andrew_chadwick @ipanalysis @SineadPLambe @SJVanders @mariejuanchich
    4. I am doing a clinic ringing my patients who have chosen not to have their Covid vaccine. I wanted to give them the opportunity to talk to a clinician about their concerns. 95% are from varied BAME communities. Lots of fear. It’s an added but very important piece of work for GPs
    1. 2021-02-08

    2. ReconfigBehSci. “Launching a New SciBeh Tool- the Video-Viewer: Https://T.Co/LhfABNTBJM Over the Pandemic, @SciBeh Has Suggested Many a Great Webinar, Video, Lecture or Interview. but on Twitter Material Is Gone in a Flash. So We’ve Collected It in One Place, to Search, and View. Enjoy!” Tweet. @SciBeh (blog), February 8, 2021. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1358798007341363203.

    3. built by many hands, but chief among these Samuel Dupret (@Karakaai) and Stefan Herzog @stefanmherzog @UCLSoM @EP_UCL @STWorg @ceptional
    4. Launching a new SciBeh tool- the video-viewer: https://scibeh.org/viewer/ Over the pandemic, @SciBeh has suggested many a great webinar, video, lecture or interview. but on Twitter material is gone in a flash. So we've collected it in one place, to search, and view. Enjoy!
    1. 2020-07-27

    2. Gupta, Ravi, Sandeep Grover, Aniruddha Basu, Vijay Krishnan, Adarsh Tripathi, Alka Subramanyam, Anil Nischal, et al. “Changes in Sleep Pattern and Sleep Quality during COVID-19 Lockdown.” Indian Journal of Psychiatry 62, no. 4 (2020): 370–78. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_523_20.

    3. Introduction:To mitigate the spread of the pandemic coronavirus infection (COVID-19), governments across the world have adopted “lockdowns” which have confined many individuals to their homes. This disrupts normal life routines, elements of which are important circadian cues. The pandemic is also associated with new stressors, altered roles, and uncertainties about health and economic security, which are also likely to affect sleep. The current study is an online survey of sleep experience, routines, physical activity, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, to study the alterations associated with the lockdown.Materials and Methods:The survey was conducted in early May 2020 using a questionnaire circulated through social media platforms. Questions related to demographic characteristics, current and previous sleep schedules, routine, and working patterns. Insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index - 4), Stress (Perceived Stress Scale - 4), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire - 4) and physical activity (International Physical Activities Questionnaire) were assessed using standardized instruments.Results:A total of 958 valid responses were received. Compared to the prelockdown period, there was a shift to a later bedtime and waking time, with a reduction in night-time sleep and an increase in day-time napping. These effects were visible across occupational groups, but mostly affected working individuals except health professionals. Sleep quality deteriorated across groups. Reductions in sleep duration were associated with depressive symptoms.Conclusions:The COVID-19 lockdown is associated with changes in sleep schedule and in the quantity and quality of night-time sleep. Although these changes are associated with elevated rates of emotional symptoms, it is unclear from these cross-sectional results, whether sleep deterioration produces psychological distress, or vice versa.
    4. 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_523_20
    5. Changes in sleep pattern and sleep quality during COVID-19 lockdown
    1. 2020-07-20

    2. Wright, Kenneth P., Sabrina K. Linton, Dana Withrow, Leandro Casiraghi, Shannon M. Lanza, Horacio de la Iglesia, Celine Vetter, and Christopher M. Depner. “Sleep in University Students Prior to and during COVID-19 Stay-at-Home Orders.” Current Biology 30, no. 14 (July 20, 2020): R797–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.022.

    3. Sleep health has multiple dimensions including duration, regularity, timing, and quality [1, 2, 3, 4]. The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak led to Stay-at-Home orders and Social Distancing Requirements in countries throughout the world to limit the spread of COVID-19. We investigated sleep behaviors prior to and during Stay-at-Home orders in 139 university students (aged 22.2 ± 1.7 years old [±SD]) while respectively taking the same classes in-person and remotely. During Stay-at-Home, nightly time in bed devoted to sleep (TIB, a proxy for sleep duration with regard to public health recommendations [5]) increased by ∼30 min during weekdays and by ∼24 mins on weekends and regularity of sleep timing improved by ∼12 min. Sleep timing became later by ∼50 min during weekdays and ∼25 min on weekends, and thus the difference between weekend and weekday sleep timing decreased — hence reducing the amount of social jetlag [6,7]. Further, we find individual differences in the change of TIB devoted to sleep such that students with shorter TIB at baseline before the first COVID-19 cases emerged locally had larger increases in weekday and weekend TIB during Stay-at-Home. The percentage of participants that reported 7 h or more sleep per night, the minimum recommended sleep duration for adults to maintain health [5] — including immune health — increased from 84% to 92% for weekdays during Stay-at-Home versus baseline. Understanding the factors underlying such changes in sleep health behaviors could help inform public health recommendations with the goal of improving sleep health during and following the Stay-at-Home orders of the COVID-19 pandemic.
    4. 10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.022
    5. Sleep in university students prior to and during COVID-19 Stay-at-Home orders
    1. 2021-02-10

    2. Rogers, Andrew H., Lorra Garey, and Michael J. Zvolensky. “COVID-19 Psychological Factors Associated with Pain Status, Pain Intensity, and Pain-Related Interference.” Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, February 10, 2021, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2021.1874504.

    3. The 2019 novel SARS-CoV2 disease causing COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on the world, and those with pain conditions may be at heightened risk for these negative consequences. Given COVID-19 limitations, including social distancing and stay-at-home orders, pain is likely largely going untreated, leading to greater pain and associated consequences. Mental health symptoms, which have been found to be elevated due to COVID-19, may contribute to elevated pain experience, but little work has examined how COVID-19-specific mental health factors may be associated with pain. Therefore, the current study examined (1) how COVID-19-specific psychological factors and general mental health symptoms differ between those with pain and without, and (2) among those with pain, which psychological factors were most strongly associated with pain experience. Results from a national (U.S. based) online sample of 174 adults (42.5% female, M age = 37.80 years, SD = 11.30, 88 with pain) collected between April and May 2020 indicated that, compared to those individuals reporting no pain, those with pain reported significantly higher values on all variables. Additionally, COVID-19 fear and sleep problems were associated with pain intensity, and for pain-related interference, fear, sleep problems, and depression were significantly associated. These results highlight the potential importance of COVID-19-specific psychological factors in pain experience.
    4. 10.1080/16506073.2021.1874504
    5. COVID-19 psychological factors associated with pain status, pain intensity, and pain-related interference
    1. 2021-02-09

    2. H, Yu, Yang J, Marziano V, Deng X, Guzzetta G, Zhang J, Trentini F, et al. “Can a COVID-19 Vaccination Program Guarantee the Return to a Pre-Pandemic Lifestyle?,” February 9, 2021. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-200069/v1.

    3. COVID-19 vaccination programs have been initiated in several countries to control SARS-CoV-2 transmission and return to a pre-pandemic lifestyle. However, understanding when non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) can be lifted as vaccination builds up and how to update priority groups for vaccination in real-time remain key questions for policy makers. To address these questions, we built a data-driven model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission for China. We estimated that, to prevent local outbreaks to escalate to major widespread epidemics, stringent NPIs need to remain in place at least one year after the start of vaccination. Should NPIs be capable to keep the reproduction number (Rt) around 1.3, a vaccination program could reduce up to 99% of COVID-19 burden and bring Rt below the epidemic threshold in about 9 months. Maintaining strict NPIs throughout 2021 is of paramount importance to reduce COVID-19 burden while vaccines are distributed to the population, especially in large populations with little natural immunity.
    4. 10.21203/rs.3.rs-200069/v1 
    5. Can a COVID-19 vaccination program guarantee the return to a pre-pandemic lifestyle?