42 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. how the computer can be made to watch for some kinds of plan-change possibilities, and to point them out to the human when they arise.

      Augmenting discoverability of adjacent possibles. A deeper level is that of discovering framing, and opportunities for re-framing & paradigm shifting.

    2. setting up objectives

      How do we augment our ability as humans to set objectives? How do we observe that process? How do we gain insight into hidden aspects and drivers of setting intention? How do we recognize our own framings? How do we re-frame? If the Anthropocene Epoch means anything, it is that our own emoto-cognitive lenses make all the difference.

  2. Jan 2019
    1. Thethrillofthinking,thepleasureofthought,comesinthismomentof“combining...twodistinctprospects”acrossthegreatexpanse,overcomingnothingnessinturn.

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    1. indexing hyp~thesis,~~ news professionals tend to “index” the range of viewpoints according to the range of views expressed in the mainstream government debate
    2. News media are often criticized for reducing important social issues to mere individual-level problems

      Reasons why news coverage of social issues tends to skew individual-level:

      1. American culture is individualistic
      2. Societal approaches/solutions seen as too radical (economically, political)
      3. News coverage tends to be episodic, focusing on the individual
    3. The discussion of responsibility involves two conflicting views.

      Two conflicting views of responsibility attributions:

      1. societal: social or structural issues are at the heart of the problem, and need to be addressed through social forces (e.g. policies, business practices, laws, etc)
      2. individual: social problems are largely caused by individual deficiencies; change efforts tend to focus on modifications of problematic behaviours
    4. Attributions of responsibility can be categorized into two types: causal and treatment responsibilities

      Causal responsibility: what/who is the source of the problem Treatment responsibility: who has the power or the responsibility to alleviate the problem

    5. internal and external factors of news organizations that may affect how journalists frame a given issue.I3 First, social norms and cultural values can affect the way an issue is framed.

      Factors that influence frame building:

      1. social norms and cultural values
      2. organizational pressurs and constraints
      3. pressures from interest groups
      4. professional routines
      5. characteristics of individual journalists
    6. rame building captures what roles are played by social and structur- al factors in the media system and by the characteristics of individual journalists in influencing the production and modification of frames
    1. Calling upon media theory, which considers how mass media frames and focusesthekind ofattention an eventreceives,e.g., [4,8], social media can do the same.

      Evokes media framing and Chouliaraki's work on distant suffering

    1. , journalists look for "pegs"-that is, topical events that provide an opportunity for broader, more long-term coverage and commentary

      Pegs: key topical events that journalists use to provide broader coverage and commentary about an ongoing issue. Aka "critical discourse moments" (Chilton, 1987)

    2. if packages and their elements are essential tools, then it makes a considerable difference that some are more readily available than others. Making sense of the world requires an effort, and those tools that are developed, spotlighted, and made readily accessible have a higher probability of being used

      i.e. the most available and accessible frames are the most likely to influence public opinion

    3. While an indi- vidual columnist is not expected to provide more than one package, a range of "liberal" and "conservative" commentators are used to observe this norm

      Balance Norm, a media practice that influences framing

    4. metaphors, catchphrases, visual images, moral appeals, and other symbolic devices that characterize this discourse

      Interpretive packages: the clusters of metaphors, catchphrases, visual images, moral appeals, and other symbolic devices that characterize the discourse around a policy issue, giving meaning to relevant events.

    5. deas and language resonate with larger cultural themes. Resonances increase the appeal of a package; they make it appear natural and familiar.

      Cultural resonances: ideas or language within an interpretive package that resonate with larger cultural themes, increasing the appeal of the package.

    6. Packages frequently have sponsors, interested in promoting their careers. Sponsorship is more than merely advocacy, in- volving such tangible activities as speech making, interviews with jour- nalists, advertising, article and pamphlet writing, and the filing of legal briefs to promote a preferred package

      Sponsor activities: speech making, interviews with journalists, article and pamphlet writing, etc to promote a specific package, usually based off of some collective agenda. Sponsors could be organizations, political parties, activists, companies, etc and often employ PR specialists.

    7. . Journalists' working norms and practices add consid- erable value to the process

      Media practices: journalists' working norms and practices that add value to the process of constructing interpretive packages

    8. Media packages.-We suggested earlier that media discourse can be conceived of as a set of interpretive packages that give meaning to an issue. A package has an internal structure. At its core is a central organiz- ing idea, orframe, for making sense of relevant events, suggesting what is at issue
    9. Each system interacts with the other: media discourse is part of the process by which individuals construct meaning, and public opinion is part of the process by which journalists and other cultural entrepreneurs develop and crystallize meaning in public discourse.

      Media discourse (framing) and public opinion are parallel processes: each informs the other, but the relationship should not be seen as causational

    10. e. Individuals bring their own life histories, social interactions, and psychological predispositions to the process of con- structing meanin

      Framing is influenced by individual predisposition or schemas

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    1. The manner in which we isolate supposedly discrete "figures" from their surrounding "ground" is also manifested in the way we come to experience ourselves. 52 It involves a form of mental differ­entiation that entails a fundamental distinction between us and the rest of the world. It is known as our sense of identity.

      Evokes Csikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton on developing a sense of self.

    2. The need to substantiate the way we segment time into discrete blocks also ac­counts for the holidays we create to commemorate critical transition points between historical epochs 112 as well as for the rituals we de­sign to articulate significant changes in our relative access to one another-greetings, first kisses, farewell parties, bedtime stories. 113

      Rituals also have temporal qualities that help to make sense of socially constructed times/events.

    3. Most of the fine lines that separate mental entities from one another are drawn only in our own head and, therefore, totally in­visible. And yet, by playing up the act of "crossing" them, we can make mental discontinuities more "tangible." Many rituals, indeed, are designed specifically to substantiate the mental segmentation of reality into discrete chunks. In articulating our "passage" through the mental partitions separating these chunks from one another, such rituals, originally identified by Arnold Van Gennep as "rites of passage,"107 certainly enhance our experience of discontinuity.

      Rituals help connect the frame to the spatial qualities of the mental models we create to understand complex ideas.

    4. Nonetheless, without some lumping, it would be impossible ever to experience any collectivity, or mental entity for that matter. The ability to ignore the uniqueness of items and regard them as typical members of categories is a prerequisite for classifying any group of phenomena. Such ability to "typify"106 our experience is therefore one of the cornerstones of social reality

      Classification is the mechanism for making sense of disparate objects through the process of lumping and making differences invisible.

    5. A mental field is basically a cluster of items that are more similar to one another than to any other item. Generating such fields, therefore, usually involves some lumping.

      Evokes Bowker and Star's boundary object work re: the mental models of lumping and splitting

    6. Such mental geography has no physical basis but we experience it as if it did

      Evokes Moser's cognitive mental models and Borditsky's spatial metaphor work on how we use the language of physical space to carve out understanding about self and the social/cultural concepts.

    7. Like them, all frames basically define parts of our percep­tual environment as irrelevant, thus separating that which we attend in a focused manner from all the out-of-frame experience44 that we leave "in the background" and ignore.

      Evokes Geertz' advice in ethnographic thick description to focus on the details in order to make sense of the situational context and place people/events in an interpretative frame.

    8. A frame is characterized not by its contents but rather by the distinctive way in which it transforms the contents' meaning.

      How does this square with the definition of "boundary objects"?

    9. Framing is the act of surrounding situations, acts, or objects with mental brackets35 that basically transform their meaning by defining them as a game, a joke, a symbol, or a fantasy

      Definition of framing.

  3. Dec 2018
    1. the word “people” (American) is firstly connected toreal news (J< .027)

      super interesting - are people seen as more trustworthy than news sources? More credible? What would that mean in a news framing context? (Druckman, 2001)

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  4. Oct 2018
    1. he anti-relativists counter that the very notion of a “faultless” disagreement is incompatible with our common understanding of what it means to disagree. It is a hallmark of disagreement, as commonly understood, that the parties involved find fault with the other sides’ views.

      Negative for relativism

    2. If well-informed, honest and intelligent people are unable to resolve conflicts of opinion, we should, some relativists argue, accept that all parties to such disputes could be right and their conflicting positions have equal claims to truth, each according to their own perspective or point of view.

      Good point to use

    3. Defenders see it as a harbinger of tolerance and the only ethical and epistemic stance worthy of the open-minded and tolerant. Detractors dismiss it for its alleged incoherence and uncritical intellectual permissiveness.

      The main points for both sides of my paper

    4. Relativism, roughly put, is the view that truth and falsity, right and wrong, standards of reasoning, and procedures of justification are products of differing conventions and frameworks of assessment and that their authority is confined to the context giving rise to them

      Definition, find a twist on this to frame the way I want, at first what seems like a beneficial definition, but one I can reframe and redefine when I need to

  5. Aug 2018
    1. hird, at this juncture, control is being equated with visibility and visibility with personal security. But how these individuals are made visible matters for both privacy and security, let alone the politics of conflating refugees, migration and terrorism. Indeed, working with specific data framing mechanisms affects how the causes and effects of disasters are identified and what elements and people are considered (Frickel 2008

      A finer point on threat surveillance that stems from how classifications and categories are framed.

      This also gets at post-colonial interpretations of people, places, and events.

      See: Winner, Do Artifacts Have Politics? See: Bowker and Star, Sorting things out: Classification and its consequences. See: Irani, Post-Colonial Computing

  6. Sep 2017
    1. “It is also important to note that what we are doing now is in some ways fulfilling a number of longstanding principles that other presidents have always talked about.”

      Neomi Rao, newly confirmed administrator of White House Information and Regulatory affairs attempts here to renounce personal ownership of deregulation efforts instead framing the current move as the continuation of an existing motion present in previous leadership. She attempts to insure the rational saliency of deregulation through this logic of a theoretical continuum.

  7. Mar 2017
    1. Banning Baby Jesus

      "Banning Baby Jesus" is an interesting way to phrase the subject of this fake news article. Certainly, using the word "banning" is meant to elicit stronger, negative feelings about what is being done. Also, phrasing the alleged action in terms of banning "baby Jesus", as opposed to say, banning "the nativity scene" is also a way to elicit stronger, negative feelings.

  8. Sep 2016
    1. Survey: Teachers dislike smartphones, interactive whiteboards in classroom

      Contrast this with the THE title:

      Research: Laptops, Chromebooks and Tablets Most Valuable Education Tools, Teachers Say

  9. Jun 2016
  10. Oct 2015
  11. Jan 2014
    1. The challenge is that while biologists best understand the questions that can be addressed using the atlas, they may not always possess the computational and mathematical skills needed to conduct sophisticated analyses of such data files. For this reason, biologists generally collaborate with computational scientists. It is not always clear, though, what is the best way to frame the analysis.

      1) The challenge 2) Literacy 3) Framing the analysis