49 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2023
    1. Kropotkin’s actual argument is far more interesting. Much of it, for instance, is concerned with how animal cooperation often has nothing to do with survival or reproduction, but is a form of pleasure in itself. “To take flight in flocks merely for pleasure is quite common among all sorts of birds,” he writes. Kropotkin multiplies examples of social play: pairs of vultures wheeling about for their own entertainment, hares so keen to box with other species that they occasionally (and unwisely) approach foxes, flocks of birds performing military-style maneuvers, bands of squirrels coming together for wrestling and similar games

      Perhaps play helps to provide social lubrication, communication, and bonding between animals which may help in creating cooperation which improves survival or reproduction?

    2. Spencer, in turn, was struck by how much the forces driving natural selection in On the Origin of Species jibed with his own laissez-faire economic theories. Competition over resources, rational calculation of advantage, and the gradual extinction of the weak were taken to be the prime directives of the universe.
    1. We appreciate this is a long span of time, and were concerned why any specific artificial memory system should last for so long.

      I suspect that artificial memory systems, particularly those that make some sort of logical sense, will indeed be long lasting ones.

      Given the long, unchanging history of the Acheulean hand axe, as an example, these sorts of ideas and practices were handed down from generation to generation.

      Given their ties to human survival, they're even more likely to persist.

      Indigenous memory systems in Aboriginal settings date to 65,000 years and also provide an example of long-lived systems.

  2. Nov 2022
    1. the phrase “survival of the fittest” — usually considered central to the theory and often attributed to Darwin — instead came from British philosopher Herbert Spencer, and didn't appear until the fifth edition of the text.
  3. Jul 2022
    1. Historical Context and Path Dependence

      … of the so-called path dependence and historical context in contextual political analysis. It analyzes the different meanings and uses of the concept of path dependence in contemporary …

    1. Path Dependence in Historical Sociology

      … This article does not seek to reorient all such modes of analysis toward the study of path dependence. Nevertheless, the article does seek to establish that path-dependent analysis …

    1. … This article does not seek to reorient all such modes of analysis toward the study of path dependence. Nevertheless, the article does seek to establish that path-dependent analysis …
    2. … of the so-called path dependence and historical context in contextual political analysis. It analyzes the different meanings and uses of the concept of path dependence in contemporary …
    3. J Mahoney, D Schensul - … of contextual political analysis, 2006 - scholars.northwestern.edu
  4. Mar 2022
  5. survivedandpunished.org survivedandpunished.org
    1. Survived & Punished (S&P) is a national coalition that  includes survivors, organizers, victim advocates, legal advocates and attorneys, policy experts, scholars, and currently and formerly incarcerated people. S&P organizes to de-criminalize efforts to survive domestic and sexual violence, support and free criminalized survivors, and abolish gender violence, policing, prisons, and deportations
  6. Jan 2022
  7. Oct 2021
  8. Sep 2021
    1. Lee, J. W., Su, Y., Baloni, P., Chen, D., Pavlovitch-Bedzyk, A. J., Yuan, D., Duvvuri, V. R., Ng, R. H., Choi, J., Xie, J., Zhang, R., Murray, K., Kornilov, S., Smith, B., Magis, A. T., Hoon, D. S. B., Hadlock, J. J., Goldman, J. D., Price, N. D., … Heath, J. R. (2021). Integrated analysis of plasma and single immune cells uncovers metabolic changes in individuals with COVID-19. Nature Biotechnology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-021-01020-4

  9. Jul 2021
  10. Jun 2021
    1. Mike: And a lot of thing is survival too. A lot of people have to survive. A lot of people don't have the luxury of being able to get up, go to work every day. A lot of people wish that they had a job. Would kill to just get up early and just get that paycheck. I know a lot of families that they have to go through the most, but they still do it, because they have to. They have no choice. And it's way better than here. And I didn't understand that until now.

      Reflections, The United States, Worst Parts

  11. May 2021
  12. Oct 2020
  13. Sep 2020
  14. Aug 2020
  15. Jul 2020
  16. Jun 2020
    1. Snyder-Mackler, N., Burger, J. R., Gaydosh, L., Belsky, D. W., Noppert, G. A., Campos, F. A., Bartolomucci, A., Yang, Y. C., Aiello, A. E., O’Rand, A., Harris, K. M., Shively, C. A., Alberts, S. C., & Tung, J. (2020). Social determinants of health and survival in humans and other animals. Science, 368(6493). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aax9553

  17. Apr 2020
  18. Aug 2019
    1. so that instead of predicting the time of event, we are predicting the probability that an event happens at a particular time .
  19. Jul 2019
    1. In practice, we found that it is not appropriate to use Aalen’s additive hazardsmodel for all datasets, because when we estimate cumulativeregression functionsB(t),they are restricted to the time interval where X (X has been defined in Chapter 3) is offull rank, that meansX0Xis invertible. Sometimes we found that X is not of full rank,which was not a problem with the Cox model.
    2. An overall conclusion is that the two models give different pieces of informationand should not be viewed as alternatives to each other, but ascomplementary methodsthat may be used together to give a fuller and more comprehensive understanding ofdata
    3. The effect ofthe covariates on survival is to act multiplicatively on some unknown baseline hazardrate, which makes it difficult to model covariate effects that change over time. Secondly,if covariates are deleted from a model or measured with a different level of precision, theproportional hazards assumption is no longer valid. These weaknesses in the Cox modelhave generated interest in alternative models. One such alternative model is Aalen’s(1989) additive model. This model assumes that covariates act in an additive manneron an unknown baseline hazard rate. The unknown risk coefficients are allowed to befunctions of time, so that the effect of a covariate may vary over time.
    1. Note that, three often used transformations can be specified using the argument fun: “log”: log transformation of the survivor function, “event”: plots cumulative events (f(y) = 1-y). It’s also known as the cumulative incidence, “cumhaz” plots the cumulative hazard function (f(y) = -log(y))
    2. Note that, the confidence limits are wide at the tail of the curves, making meaningful interpretations difficult. This can be explained by the fact that, in practice, there are usually patients who are lost to follow-up or alive at the end of follow-up. Thus, it may be sensible to shorten plots before the end of follow-up on the x-axis (Pocock et al, 2002).
    1. RF is now a standard to effectively analyze a large number of variables, of many different types, with no previous variable selection process. It is not parametric, and in particular for survival target it does not assume the proportional risks assumption.
    1. Thesurvival function gives,for every time,the probability of surviving(or not experiencing the event) up to that time.The hazard function gives the potential that the event will occur, per time unit, given that an individual has survived up to the specified time.
  20. Oct 2016
    1. dried tubers.

      Merely surviving on the little bits of life that still exist during the winter. Feeding on mainly potatoes and whatever else can be found.

  21. Jul 2016
    1. what is the English-speaking world missing out on by not reading the content written in other languages

      Though he’s been associated with a very strange idea he never had, Edward Sapir was quite explicit about this loss over a hundred years ago. Thinking specifically about a later passage warning people about the glossocide English language. But it’s been clear in his work from long before that excerpt that we’re missing out when we focus on a single language.

  22. Oct 2015
    1. Over time, they have created massive communi-ties with millions of inhabitants, complex lifeworlds, economic arrange-ments, cultural practices and life-styles

      The people will find a way to survive.. they always do.. but we should be able to find easier ways to make that happen that will provide better situations for them.

    2. Here in the city-escapes, under bridges, ingraveyards and side streets, street children have formed “flourishing”outdoor communities, some with elaborate order, discipline, and an
    3. heyhave spread among educated young people with higher status, aspirationsand social skills—government employees, teachers, and professionals

      Changes in the environment are reflected by the characteristics of society.

  23. Feb 2015
  24. Oct 2013
    1. anyone is under the impression that people who rob others or falsify accounts or do any evil thing get the advantage, he is wrong in his thinking; for none are at a greater disadvantage throughout their lives than such men; none are found in more difficult straits, none live in greater ignominy; and, in a word, none are more miserable than they.

      This is a really good point. They are all at a very low point doing what they have to do (even though it is wrong) to survive.

  25. Sep 2013
    1. preservation of the species

      consider in context of Darwinian "survival", and interesting to consider the contrast with Berlant's "Slow Death" concept--hunger to the point of obesity, love striving after objects to the point of depression