88 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2024
  2. Apr 2024
    1. Der Bericht des Copernikus Climate Change Service über 2023 ist lact Direktor Carlo Buontempo "ein dramatisches Zeugnis dafür, wie weit weil wir uns von dem Klima entfernt haben, in dem sich die menschliche Zivilisation entwickelt hat". Viele Kimaforschende waren davon überrascht, wie deutlich die Temperaturrekorde des Jahres 2023 über denen der vorangegangenen Jahre lagen.Auch Zahl und Ausmaß von Extremwetterereignissen übertrafen die Erwartungen. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/jan/09/2023-record-world-hottest-climate-fossil-fuel

      Mehr zu den Copernicus-Daten für 2023: https://hypothes.is/search?q=tag%3A%22Global%20Climate%20Highlights%202023%22

    1. Bei einer Hitzewelle in der Antarktis lag die Temperatur 38,5° über dem Durchschnittswert. Dieser enorm hohe Wert schockiert Forschende und ist bisher nicht erklärbar. Der Guardian stellt den Kontext ausführlich dar und hat dazu mehrere Fachleute befragt. Eine neue Publikation spricht von einem regime shift beim antarktischen Sommer-Meereis. Er gefährdet u.a. den Krill und die Kolonien der Kaiserpinguine. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/apr/06/simply-mind-boggling-world-record-temperature-jump-in-antarctic-raises-fears-of-catastrophe

      Studie: https://journals.ametsoc.org/configurable/content/journals$002fclim$002f37$002f7$002fJCLI-D-23-0479.1.xml?t:ac=journals%24002fclim%24002f37%24002f7%24002fJCLI-D-23-0479.1.xml

    1. Das Europäische Klima-Bebachtungsprogramm Copernicus hat die wichtigsten Daten zum Jahr 2023 zusammengefasst. Im heissesten Jahr seit Beginn der Aufzeichnungen war es im Durchschnitt 1,48° wärmer als in der vorindustriellen Zeit. Jeder einzelne Tag war mindestens 1° wärmer. Eine Vielzahl von Extremwetterereignissen sind auf die Rekordtemperaturen zurückzuführen. https://www.derstandard.at/story/3000000202321/2023-war-es-waermer-als-in-den-vergangenen-100000-jahren

    1. Eine extreme Hitzewelle hat in der Sahelzone Hunderte, wahrscheinlich Tausende Menschenleben gefordert. World Weather Attribution zufolge ist die Höhe der Temperaturen eindeutig auf die globale Erhitzung durch Treibhausgase zurückzuführen. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/apr/18/lethal-heatwave-in-sahel-worsened-by-fossil-fuel-burning-study-finds

      Zur Studie: https://www.worldweatherattribution.org/extreme-sahel-heatwave-that-hit-highly-vulnerable-population-at-the-end-of-ramadan-would-not-have-occurred-without-climate-change/

  3. Mar 2024
    1. Die weltwetterorganisation WMO fast in ihrem Bericht über 2023 die Daten verschiedener Services zusammen und kommt zu dramatischen Aussagen über die Entwicklung der Temperatur auf der Erdoberfläche insbesondere insgesamt und besonders an der Oberfläche der Meere. Gleichzeitig ergibt eine Studie der BU Wien dass die Prognosen vieler, darunter großer starken über die Entwicklung der Emissionen deutlich zu optimistisch sind. https://www.derstandard.de/story/3000000212370/weltwetterorganisation-zeichnet-duesteres-bild-vom-klima-des-letzten-jahres

    1. Das Tempo der Temperaturerhöhung an der Oberfläche der Ozeane ist auch für erfahrene Forschende schockierend. Besonders hoch ist es im Nordatlantik, dessen Erwärmung zu schwereren Hurricans führen könnte. Aber auch der Südatlantik und damit das antarktische Meereis sind betroffen. Die Ursachen sind nicht geklärt; das El Niño-Phänomen reicht zur Erklärung nicht aus. Es könnten Feedback-Mechanismen eine Rolle spielen. Die New York Times hat mehrere Wissenschaftler befragt.

      https://www.nytimes.com/2024/02/27/climate/scientists-are-freaking-out-about-ocean-temperatures.html

      Infografik: https://static01.nyt.com/images/2024/02/07/multimedia/27cli-newsletter-02/2024-02-07-sst-hottest-january-index-superJumbo-v2.png?quality=75&auto=webp

  4. Feb 2024
    1. We set a default temperature value of 0, which nudges the response to be more predictable and less random. Throughout this chapter, you’ll see different temperature values being used in different situations. Increasing the temperature value tells the model to generate less predictable responses and instead be more “creative.”
    1. Die Daten des europäischen Klimaservice Copernicus ergeben, dass die Temperaturen erstmals über 12 Monate mehr als 1,5° über dem vorindustriellen Durchschnitt lagen. Jeder Monat seit dem vergangenen Juni war im globalen Durchschnitt der wärmste Monat seit Beginn der Aufzeichnungen. Johan Rockström, der Direktor des Potsdam Instituts für Klimafolgen-Forschung, sprach von einer Warnung für die Menschheit, dass wir uns schneller als erwartet auf die 1,5° Grenze zubewegen. https://taz.de/EU-Klimadienst-Copernicus/!5991185/

      Copernicus-Meldung: https://climate.copernicus.eu/surface-air-temperature-january-2024

  5. Jan 2024
    1. Die obersten 2000 m der Ozeane haben 2023 15 Zettajoule Wärme mehr absorbiert als 2022. Die Erwärmung dieser Schichten verringert den Austausch mit den kälteren unteren Schichten und belastet die marinen Ökosysteme dadurch zusätzlich. Bisher sind keine Zeichen für eine Beschleunigung der Zunahme des Wärmehinhalts im Verhältnis zu den Vorjahren zu erkennen. Die Oberflächentemperatur der Ozeane lag im ersten Halbjahr 0,1°, im zweiten Halbjahr aber für die Wissenschaft überraschende 0,3 Grad über der des Jahres 2022. Schwere Zyklone, darunter der längste bisher beobachtete überhaupt, trafen vor allem besonders vulnerable Gebiete.

      https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/jan/11/ocean-warming-temperatures-2023-extreme-weather-data

      Study: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00376-024-3378-5

      Report: https://www.globalwater.online/#content

    1. David Letterman kept the Ed Sullivan Theater around 55 degrees F because the temperature keeps the audience alert.

      Apparently back in the 80s, Dave experimented with different temperatures on different shows. He tried 75 one day. 65 another day. The day he went with 55, jokes really hit and from then on that was the temperature. http://www.sandpapersuit.com/2011/07/why-letterman-keeps-his-studio-so-cool.html


      Some folks say David Letterman doesn’t want to break into a sweat during intense interviews under hot studio lights. But, according to George Clarke, Theater and Building Engineer for CBS, the cool air makes the sound crisper and keeps the audience more alert. “Crowd reaction is very important in this business, and the comedy stays fresh in the cold, too” says Clarke...

      At about 5 o’clock each week night, Clarke and his boss, Joe Soldano, Building Manager, must make sure that the temperature of the Ed Sullivan Theater is pulled down to 50° F before the audience arrives. The MULTISTACK chiller has never failed to cool things down. “The stagehands call this place ‘the refrigerator’.” In the filming rooms everyone sits around in winter coats, hats and gloves. They, too, are kept crisp and alert by the cool temperature. via http://www.multistack.com/casestudies/david_letterman.aspx

  6. Nov 2023
  7. Oct 2023
  8. Sep 2023
  9. Jul 2023
  10. Jun 2023
    1. Die Erdatmosphäre erwärmt sich inzwischen um mehr als 0,2 Grad pro Jahrzehnt und damit schneller, als bisher von der Klimawissenschaft festgestellt. Ende 2022 lag die formale Durchschnittstemperatur um 1,26° über dem vorindustriellen Wert. Das CO2 Budget, dass noch zur Verfügung steht, wenn mit 50% Wahrscheinlichkeit dass ein Komma fünf Grad Ziel erreicht werden soll, hat sich gegenüber den Angaben des Weltklimarats 2021 inzwischen halbiert.

  11. Apr 2023
  12. Mar 2023
  13. Jan 2023
    1. Die Rekordtemperaturen in UK in diesen Sommer wurden durch die globale Erhitzung 160 Mal so wahrscheinlich gemacht wir vor der Industrialisierung. Mit ähnlichen Temperaturen ist jetzt alle drei bis vier Jahre zu rechnen, am Ende des Jahrhunderts bei einem mittleren Emissions-Szenario jährlich.

  14. Sep 2022
    1. Maria Kozhevnikov, a neuroscientist at the National University of Singapore and Massachusetts General Hospital

      !- reference : Maria Kozhevnikov - neuroscientist at National University of Singapore, Massachusetts General Hospital - Nangchen tow, Amdo region of Tibet - testing if g-tummo vase breathing technique could raise core body temperature. One monk raised body temp to that normally associated with a fever - published results in PLOS One

  15. Jul 2021
  16. May 2021
  17. Apr 2021
  18. Mar 2021
    1. Damialis, A., Gilles, S., Sofiev, M., Sofieva, V., Kolek, F., Bayr, D., Plaza, M. P., Leier-Wirtz, V., Kaschuba, S., Ziska, L. H., Bielory, L., Makra, L., Trigo, M. del M., Group, C.-19/POLLEN study, & Traidl-Hoffmann, C. (2021). Higher airborne pollen concentrations correlated with increased SARS-CoV-2 infection rates, as evidenced from 31 countries across the globe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(12). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2019034118

  19. Feb 2021
  20. Jan 2021
  21. Dec 2020
    1. Strive for a Tm between 50 and 65°C. One way to calculate Tm values is by using the nearest-neighbor method. Use the Tm calculator at http://www.basic.northwestern.edu/biotools/oligocalc.html, with values of 50 mM for salt concentration and 300 nM for oligonucleotide concentration
  22. Oct 2020
  23. Sep 2020
  24. Aug 2020
  25. Jul 2020
  26. journals.sagepub.com journals.sagepub.com
    1. Sorokowska, A., Sorokowski, P., Hilpert, P., Cantarero, K., Frackowiak, T., Ahmadi, K., Alghraibeh, A. M., Aryeetey, R., Bertoni, A., Bettache, K., Blumen, S., Błażejewska, M., Bortolini, T., Butovskaya, M., Castro, F. N., Cetinkaya, H., Cunha, D., David, D., David, O. A., … Pierce, J. D. (2017). Preferred Interpersonal Distances: A Global Comparison. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(4), 577–592. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022117698039

  27. Jun 2020
    1. Figure 6.1.46.1.4\PageIndex{4}: Temperature versus heat. The system is constructed so that no vapor evaporates while ice warms to become liquid water, and so that, when vaporization occurs, the vapor remains in the system. The long stretches of constant temperatures at 0oC0oC0^oC and 100oC100oC100^oC reflect the large amounts of heat needed to cause melting and vaporization, respectively.

      Figure 6.1.4 : Temperature versus heat. The system is constructed so that no vapor evaporates while ice warms to become liquid water, and so that, when vaporization occurs, the vapor remains in the system. The long stretches of constant temperatures at 0oC and 100oC reflect the large amounts of heat needed to cause melting and vaporization, respectively.

  28. journals.sagepub.com journals.sagepub.com
    1. Sorokowska, A., Sorokowski, P., Hilpert, P., Cantarero, K., Frackowiak, T., Ahmadi, K., Alghraibeh, A. M., Aryeetey, R., Bertoni, A., Bettache, K., Blumen, S., Błażejewska, M., Bortolini, T., Butovskaya, M., Castro, F. N., Cetinkaya, H., Cunha, D., David, D., David, O. A., … Pierce, J. D. (2017). Preferred Interpersonal Distances: A Global Comparison. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(4), 577–592. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022117698039

  29. May 2020
  30. Apr 2020
  31. Sep 2019
    1. Si rien n’est fait pour limiter les émissions de gaz à effet de serre, le réchauffement climatique pourrait atteindre 7 °C d’ici à la fin du siècle, entraînant des conséquences désastreuses pour les espèces et les écosystèmes.

      Situation aggravée

  32. Jul 2018
    1. repeat expansion at IIL1 leads to increased accumulation of 24-nt siRNAs in a temperature-dependent manner that correlates with the iil phenotype. We show that DCL3 and other components of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway are essential for this siRNA-directed epigenetic gene silencing
  33. Jun 2018
  34. Oct 2017
  35. Jan 2017
    1. If the rule is relaxed to embrace pattern alone, as explicitly advocated by Rensch and Mayr, exceptions can still be found both intra- and interspecifically. Within species, Rensch (1938) reported that 10–30% of the warm-blooded species examined by him were exceptions to Bergmann's rule. Ray (1960) reviewed the literature on body size variation in relation to climate for poikilotherms, and concluded that the rule was supported by 75% of species studied. Nevertheless, these percentages (see also James, 1970; Yom-Tov & Nix, 1986) support Mayr's (1956) contention that the rule would be proved if upheld by the majority of species, although his subsequent definition of a majority as more than 50%(Mayr, 1963) is rather generous in respect of a ‘rule’. Some studies, however, do find that the percentage of species in agreement with the intraspecific rule fails even this criterion (McNab, 1971).

      Historical evaluations of the validity of the intra-specific Bergman's Rule as a pattern.

    2. It is the definition of Bergmann's rule, and specifically the taxonomic level at which the rule is considered to act, that has done most to cloud the degree of generality of the effect it describes. Bergmann himself (quoted in James, 1970) stated that ‘(i)f we could find two species of [homeothermic] animals which would only differ from each other with respect to size, . . . (t)he geographical distribution of the two species would have to be determined by their size . . . if there are genera in which the species differ only in size, the smaller species would demand a warmer climate, to the exact extent of the size difference.’ Also: ‘(a)lthough it is not as clear as we would like, it is obvious that on the whole the larger species live farther north and the smaller ones farther south.’Bergmann's formulation was later altered by Rensch (1938), whose revised definition was that ‘within a Rassenkreis [complex of races] of warm-blooded animals the races living in colder climates are generally larger than the races living in warmer regions.’ Rensch considered that the new definition better fitted the rule as then understood, but was quite clear that the revision was his own (‘I myself reduced it to the geographical races of a species’; Rensch, 1938). It was this revision that subsequently became the accepted formulation of Bergmann's rule; later definitions included ‘Races of warm blooded vertebrates from cooler climates tend to be larger than races of the same species from warmer climates’(Mayr, 1956), and ‘The smaller-sized geographic races of a species are found in the warmer parts of the range, the larger-sized races in the cooler districts’(Ray, 1960; see also definitions in Gittleman, 1985; Goudie & Ankney, 1986; Paterson, 1990; McDowall, 1994; Steudel, Porter & Sher, 1994; Smith, Betancourt & Brown, 1995; Atkinson & Sibly, 1997).The notion that the application of Bergmann's rule at the intraspecific level is a derived state was emphasized by James (1970), who noted that it was a considerable modification of Bergmann's original message, although one that fitted well with knowledge of intraspecific body size variation. Quotations from Bergmann (1847; given in translation by James, 1970) imply that he considered the effect to be interspecific, but between closely related species. Whether he intended the example he gave of ‘species within a genus’ to be literal is unclear. Whichever, it is clear that his formulation was not intraspecific, as he thought it ‘paradoxical that the effects of the same rule in races of animals are not very apparent’(Bergmann, 1847, quoted in James, 1970). In this context, it is interesting that Mayr (1956; see also Rensch, 1938) noted that many of the species considered by Bergmann were, when Mayr was writing, afforded only sub-specific status! Nevertheless, since James's paper, Bergmann's rule has been examined at a variety of taxonomic levels, for example within species (Barnett, 1977; Ralls & Harvey, 1985; Yom-Tov & Nix, 1986; Geist, 1987; Graves, 1991; Smith et al., 1995, 1998; Van Voorhies, 1996, 1997; Mousseau, 1997; Partridge & Coyne, 1997), between species within genera (Gittleman, 1985; Taylor & Gotelli, 1994), between functionally related species (Geist, 1987; Cotgreave & Stockley, 1994), and between species within a range of higher taxa (Zeveloff & Boyce, 1988; Cushman et al., 1993; Barlow, 1994; McDowall, 1994; Hawkins, 1995; Hawkins & Lawton, 1995; Poulin, 1995; Poulin & Hamilton, 1995; Blackburn & Gaston, 1996a).

      Excellent history of the use of different taxonomic levels for Bergman's Rule.

  36. Oct 2016
    1. In the mountains, there you feel free.

      Interesting, because a snowy mountain is also a fairly desolate place (dead trees/plants, deadly stillness or harsh wind, untouched landscape, etc), but it is seen as beautiful instead of distasteful like the wasteland that Eliot describes.