293 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2024
  2. Oct 2023
    1. C

      bottom-horizontal fMRI images of someone wo experienced anoxic lesions to their posterior corpus callosum, resulting in permanent coma following head trauma.

    2. F

      Sagittal fMRI image of an individual who displayed content-specific changes in experience (feeling of intention to move) following electrical stimulation of the temporoparietal cortex.

    3. D

      Mid-sagittal fMRI image of an individual who displayed content-specific changes in experience (intrusive thoughts) following electrical stimulation of the ACC.

    4. E

      Bottom-horizontal fMRI image of an individual who displayed content-specific changes in experience (inability to perceive faces) following electrical stimulation of the fusiform gyrus.

    5. Together, stimulation studies support the idea that some pos-terior cortical regions may contribute directly to specific contentsof experience, but the evidence for prefrontal regions is scarceand indirect.
    6. .

      Many studies have demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the posterior cortex induces discrete changes in the content-specific NCC more reliably than electrical stimulation of the anterior cortex. Hence, most evidence suggests that posterior regions of the brain contribute more to the content-specific NCC than do anterior regions of the brain.

    7. .

      For the most part, electrical and TMS stimulation of the frontal cortex does not elicit content-specific changes in experience. Stimulation of the ACC and MCC (posterior areas), however, does elicit some content-specific changes in experience, suggesting that posterior area stimulation is more likely to excite content-specific NCC than frontal area stimulation.

    8. .

      Several studies have shown that electrical stimulation and EEG activation of posterior cortical areas is effective at restoring consciousness in subjects where it is impaired, demonstrating that the excitability of the full NCC can be modulated through arousal systems.

    9. Electrical stimulation during neurosurgery is an important source ofevidence for a direct contribution of different brain areas to con-sciousness (Penfield, 1959; Desmurget et al., 2013), as indicatedby its superior value in predicting postoperative deficits com-pared with fMRI or diffusion tensor imaging (Borchers et al.,2011).
    10. diffusion tensor imaging

      A technique that detects how water travels along the white matter tracts in the brain.

    11. Figure 2.

      anatomical images depicting clinical evidence for the full (A, B, C) and content-specific (D, E, F) NCC.

    12. Although frontal injuries can slightlyincrease the threshold for perceiving some brief (16 ms) andmasked visual stimuli, patients still experience them (Del Cul etal., 2009), suggesting that these frontal regions may modulate theNCC (i.e., act as background conditions) rather than contribut-ing directly to consciousness (Kozuch, 2014).
    13. By contrast, there is little evidence for loss of specific con-scious contents after frontal damage (Penfield and Jasper, 1954).
    14. prosody

      Patterns of rhythm and sound used in poetry.

    15. With regards to content-specific NCC, there is abundant neu-rological evidence that lesions in the posterior cortex can cause aloss of specific contents of experience (Farah, 2004).
    16. B

      mid-sagittal fMRI image of someone who experienced anoxic lesions to their posterior corpus callosum, resulting in permanent VS following head trauma.

    17. .

      traumatic lesions to the posterior corpus callosum appear to permanently cause states of VS (coma, or impeded consciousness), whereas traumatic lesions to the frontal lobe do not seem to do this.

    18. VS

      Behavioral state similar to coma.

    19. A,

      Bilateral view of the left and right frontal lobes of someone who experienced extensive prefrontal lobe damage without a noticeable change in consciousness, with certain anatomical regions labeled (top). Lateral view of the left and right hemispheres of that same individual, with certain anatomical regions labeled (bottom).

    20. .

      There are many examples of people who have experienced bilateral lesions to the frontal lobe and still retained most, if not all aspects of consciousness. These instances lend credence to the idea that the anterior cortex may not account for the full NCC. Even when such damage causes deficits in cognition, perception, or executive function, consciousness does not appear to be significantly altered and effected individuals still seem capable of living normal lives.

  3. May 2023
    1. The clinical application of the work of these disciplines is performed to improve and maintain an individual's functional capacities for physical labor, exercise, and sports. Sports medicine also includes the prevention and treatment of diseases and injuries related to exercise and sports.

      Ask a question in class

  4. Apr 2023
  5. Nov 2022
    1. Monitoring of Physiological Parameters to PredictExacerbations of Chronic Obstructive PulmonaryDisease (COPD): A Systematic Review

      Monitoring of Physiological Parameters to Predict Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A Systematic Review

  6. Aug 2022
    1. Lauring, A. S., Tenforde, M. W., Chappell, J. D., Gaglani, M., Ginde, A. A., McNeal, T., Ghamande, S., Douin, D. J., Talbot, H. K., Casey, J. D., Mohr, N. M., Zepeski, A., Shapiro, N. I., Gibbs, K. W., Files, D. C., Hager, D. N., Shehu, A., Prekker, M. E., Erickson, H. L., … Self, W. H. (2022). Clinical severity of, and effectiveness of mRNA vaccines against, covid-19 from omicron, delta, and alpha SARS-CoV-2 variants in the United States: Prospective observational study. BMJ, 376, e069761. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj-2021-069761

  7. Apr 2022
    1. The Lancet. (2021, April 16). Quantity > quality? The magnitude of #COVID19 research of questionable methodological quality reveals an urgent need to optimise clinical trial research—But how? A new @LancetGH Series discusses challenges and solutions. Read https://t.co/z4SluR3yuh 1/5 https://t.co/94RRVT0qhF [Tweet]. @TheLancet. https://twitter.com/TheLancet/status/1383027527233515520

  8. Mar 2022
  9. Feb 2022
    1. Heesakkers, H., van der Hoeven, J. G., Corsten, S., Janssen, I., Ewalds, E., Simons, K. S., Westerhof, B., Rettig, T. C. D., Jacobs, C., van Santen, S., Slooter, A. J. C., van der Woude, M. C. E., van den Boogaard, M., & Zegers, M. (2022). Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With 1-Year Survival Following Intensive Care Unit Treatment for COVID-19. JAMA, 327(6), 559–565. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2022.0040

    1. Deepti Gurdasani. (2022, January 29). Going to say this again because it’s important. Case-control studies to determine prevalence of long COVID are completely flawed science, but are often presented as being scientifically robust. This is not how we can define clinical syndromes or their prevalence! A thread. [Tweet]. @dgurdasani1. https://twitter.com/dgurdasani1/status/1487366920508694529

  10. Jan 2022
    1. A Prospective Trial with Long Term Follow-up of Patients With Severe, Steroid-Resistant Ulcerative Colitis Who Received Induction Therapy With Cyclosporine and Were Maintained With Vedolizumab.

      17 patients only

      At week 52 of follow-up, 10 (71%) of 14 of these patients continued to be in endoscopic remission and 11 (79%) of 14 were in clinical remission

  11. Dec 2021
    1. Heitmann, J. S., Bilich, T., Tandler, C., Nelde, A., Maringer, Y., Marconato, M., Reusch, J., Jäger, S., Denk, M., Richter, M., Anton, L., Weber, L. M., Roerden, M., Bauer, J., Rieth, J., Wacker, M., Hörber, S., Peter, A., Meisner, C., … Walz, J. S. (2021). A COVID-19 peptide vaccine for the induction of SARS-CoV-2 T cell immunity. Nature, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04232-5

  12. Nov 2021
    1. Walter, E. B., Talaat, K. R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G. C., Barnett, E. D., Muñoz, F. M., Maldonado, Y., Pahud, B. A., Domachowske, J. B., Simões, E. A. F., Sarwar, U. N., Kitchin, N., Cunliffe, L., Rojo, P., Kuchar, E., Rämet, M., Munjal, I., … Gruber, W. C. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. New England Journal of Medicine, NEJMoa2116298. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298

  13. Oct 2021
  14. Sep 2021
    1. Lee, J. W., Su, Y., Baloni, P., Chen, D., Pavlovitch-Bedzyk, A. J., Yuan, D., Duvvuri, V. R., Ng, R. H., Choi, J., Xie, J., Zhang, R., Murray, K., Kornilov, S., Smith, B., Magis, A. T., Hoon, D. S. B., Hadlock, J. J., Goldman, J. D., Price, N. D., … Heath, J. R. (2021). Integrated analysis of plasma and single immune cells uncovers metabolic changes in individuals with COVID-19. Nature Biotechnology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-021-01020-4

  15. Aug 2021
  16. Jul 2021
    1. Short interview that covers the findings of a systematic review that aimed to identify the number of studies trying to replicate the outcomes of clinical decision support systems.

      Article being discussed in this piece: Coiera, E., & Tong, H. L. (2021). Replication studies in the clinical decision support literature-frequency, fidelity, and impact. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA, ocab049. https://doi.org/10/gmb35n

  17. Jun 2021
    1. Borobia, A. M., Carcas, A. J., Pérez-Olmeda, M., Castaño, L., Bertran, M. J., García-Pérez, J., Campins, M., Portolés, A., González-Pérez, M., García Morales, M. T., Arana-Arri, E., Aldea, M., Díez-Fuertes, F., Fuentes, I., Ascaso, A., Lora, D., Imaz-Ayo, N., Barón-Mira, L. E., Agustí, A., … Torvisco, J. M. (2021). Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of BNT162b2 booster in ChAdOx1-S-primed participants (CombiVacS): A multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial. The Lancet, S0140673621014203. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01420-3

    1. Thompson, M. G., Burgess, J. L., Naleway, A. L., Tyner, H. L., Yoon, S. K., Meece, J., Olsho, L. E. W., Caban-Martinez, A. J., Fowlkes, A., Lutrick, K., Kuntz, J. L., Dunnigan, K., Odean, M. J., Hegmann, K. T., Stefanski, E., Edwards, L. J., Schaefer-Solle, N., Grant, L., Ellingson, K., … Gaglani, M. (2021). Interim Estimates of Vaccine Effectiveness of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 Vaccines in Preventing SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Health Care Personnel, First Responders, and Other Essential and Frontline Workers—Eight U.S. Locations, December 2020–March 2021. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 70(13), 495–500. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7013e3

    1. Parry, H. M., Tut, G., Faustini, S., Stephens, C., Saunders, P., Bentley, C., Hilyard, K., Brown, K., Amirthalingam, G., Charlton, S., Leung, S., Chiplin, E., Coombes, N. S., Bewley, K. R., Penn, E. J., Rowe, C., Otter, A., Watts, R., D’Arcangelo, S., … Moss, P. (2021). BNT162b2 Vaccination in People Over 80 Years of Age Induces Strong Humoral Immune Responses with Cross Neutralisation of P.1 Brazilian Variant. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3816840

  18. May 2021
    1. Taddio, A., McMurtry, C. M., Shah, V., Riddell, R. P., Chambers, C. T., Noel, M., MacDonald, N. E., Rogers, J., Bucci, L. M., Mousmanis, P., Lang, E., Halperin, S. A., Bowles, S., Halpert, C., Ipp, M., Asmundson, G. J. G., Rieder, M. J., Robson, K., Uleryk, E., … Bleeker, E. V. (2015). Reducing pain during vaccine injections: Clinical practice guideline. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal, 187(13), 975–982. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.150391