748 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Nov 2022
    1. The several panels show what happens in each cycle. Each cycle consists of a denaturation step at a temperature higher than the melting temperature of the duplex DNA (e.g. 95 oC ), then an annealing step at a temperature below the melting temperature for the primer-template (e.g. 55 oC), followed by extension of the primer by DNA polymerase using dNTPs provided in the reaction. This is done at the temperature optimum for the DNA polymerase (e.g. 70 oC for a thermostable polymerase). Thermocylers are commercially available for carrying out many cycles quickly and reliably
      • Denature
      • Annealing primer
      • Synthesize new DNA with polymerase
      • High speed
      • Extreme sensitivity
  3. Oct 2022
  4. Sep 2022
    1. Many of the molecules in a cell are polymers of various smaller molecules.

      Polymers are combinations of smaller molecules. This is impressive.

    2. nucleotide has 3 basic components

      This is helpful information. Phosphate is critical.

    1. histones are positively charged molecules

      Ah ha! Histones are molecules. And proteins.

    2. Histones are positively charged proteins that wrap up DNA through interactions between their positive charges and the negative charges of DNA.

      Are histones molcules?

  5. Aug 2022
  6. Jul 2022
    1. FollowingSimondon’s social theory [37] and our previous work [10 ], social systems are themselves individualsthat harbour in them preindividual forces of transformation. Therefore we do not see in the currentorganization of personhood, inasmuch as it seems unassailable, a final unchangeable state of affairs.

      !- references : evolutionary biology * Evolutionary biologists have developed similar ideas to explain how throughout history, groups of individual organisms that clustered together and discovered better fitness as a result of symbiotic relationships began to reproduce as a whole new entity. Hence the collective became the new individual * Robin et al. paper: https://hyp.is/go?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.frontiersin.org%2Farticles%2F10.3389%2Ffevo.2021.711556%2Ffull&group=world * Robin et al. video presentation: https://hyp.is/go?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdocdrop.org%2Fvideo%2F6J-J72GoqhY%2F&group=world * Stuart West video: https://hyp.is/go?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdocdrop.org%2Fvideo%2FVUfNEHl44hc%2F&group=world

  7. Jun 2022
    1. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-complicated-legacy-of-e-o-wilson/

      I can see why there's so much backlash on this piece.

      It could and should easily have been written without any reference at all to E. O. Wilson and been broadly interesting and true. However given the editorial headline "The Complicated Legacy of E. O. Wilson", the recency of his death, and the photo at the top, it becomes clickbait for something wholly other.

      There is only passing reference to Wilson and any of his work and no citations whatsoever about who he was or why his work was supposedly controversial. Instead the author leans in on the the idea of the biology being the problem instead of the application of biology to early anthropology which dramatically mis-read the biology and misapplied it for the past century and a half to bolster racist ideas and policies.

      The author indicates that we should be better with "citational practices when using or reporting on problematic work", but wholly forgets to apply it to her own writing in this very piece.

      I'm aware that the magazine editors are most likely the ones that chose the headline and the accompanying photo, but there's a failure here in both editorial and writing for this piece to have appeared in Scientific American in a way as to make it more of a hit piece on Wilson just days after his death. Worse, the backlash of the broadly unsupported criticism of Wilson totally washed out the attention that should have been placed on the meat of the actual argument in the final paragraphs.

      Editorial failed massively on all fronts here.

      This article seems to be a clear example of the following:

      Any time one uses the word "problematic" to describe cultural issues, it can't stand alone without some significant context building and clear arguments about exactly what was problematic and precisely why. Otherwise the exercise is a lot of handwaving and puffery that does neither side of an argument or its intended audiences any good.

    2. Second, the application of the scientific method matters: what works for ants and other nonhuman species is not always relevant for health and/or human outcomes. For example, the associations of Black people with poor health outcomes, economic disadvantage and reduced life expectancy can be explained by structural racism, yet Blackness or Black culture is frequently cited as the driver of those health disparities. Ant culture is hierarchal and matriarchal, based on human understandings of gender. And the descriptions and importance of ant societies existing as colonies is a component of Wilson’s work that should have been critiqued. Context matters.

      The author is going in two opposite directions here and neither match up. A massive swath of our medicine research is wholly based on translational genetics. (That is, our basic research on organisms like flies (drosophila), worms (C. elegans), zebrafish, mice, rats, primates, etc. is contingent on moving medicines applicable to simpler genetic models in these animals will also work for humans who share large amounts of genetic material as the result of evolutionary dynamics. Sure some of it may not be relevant for humans because of both genetic and epigenetic (environmental) factors, but generally we expect that more will than won't.

      This basic fact is wholly separate from the health disparities issue. While there are some (and few of these are generally scientists in my experience) who believe that culture is the driving factor, there is enough proof to show that structural racism is the driving factor in almost all cases. I'm unaware of any translational genetic work on ant culture into human culture in any of the scientific literature and she certainly doesn't cite any to provide any sort of evidence to the contrary. As a result, she isn't providing any context at all.

  8. May 2022
    1. <details open> <summary>
      Nanotate Annotations Samples
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  9. Apr 2022
  10. Mar 2022