403 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2021
    1. Recently, redox-responsive biomolecules such as phenazines have been used in several electrochemical strategies to interrogate a range of biological activities30,31 and to control gene expression in living cells32,33, where the redox status of the biomolecules could be measured or manipulated by application of electronic potentials
    1. Johnson: Earlier I interviewed you about patrilocal residence patterns and how that alters women’s sexual choices. In contrast, matrilocal societies are more likely to be egalitarian. What are the factors that lead to the differences between these two systems?Hrdy: I think in societies where women have more say, and that does tend to be in societies that are matrilocal and with matrilineal descent or where, as it is among many small scale hunter-gatherers, you have porous social boundaries and flexible residence patterns. If I had to say what kind of residence patterns our ancestors had it would have been very flexible, what Frank Marlowe calls multilocal.

      Matrilocality, matrilinearity and egailitarianism.

  2. Nov 2020
    1. “Half of what you learned in college is wrong,” my biology professor, David Lange, once said. “Problem is, we don’t know which half.”

      Very interesting that a biology professor believes that 50% of what we learn can be wrong.

    1. Manolis Kellis: Origin of Life, Humans, Ideas, Suffering, and Happiness | Lex Fridman Podcast #123

      My summary:


      • Life = energy + self preservation
      • Neanderthals could be the reason why wolves/dogs are living closely with humans. Maybe in the past generations, dogs had no choice but to live with humans as they were scared of our power?
      • People evolved from the deep ocean (we're made in 70% of water). We're like transporting the sea with us now
      • Dolphins as mammals came back into the water
      • RNA invented proteins. Later RNA and proteins created DNA
      • Life is like any kind of self-reinforcement such as self-reinforcement of RNA molecules which lead to the evolution process
      • Europa (moon of Jupiter) already evolves some non-DNA life there. Life could exist in its under-ice ocean, perhaps in an environment similar to Earth's deep-ocean hydrothermal vents. It will be fascinating to get to know it


      • Don't focus on goals but have a path to prevent the "rat race" sort of feeling
      • Almost every Hollywood movie has a happy ending. It prepares us, humans, really poorly for the bad times in life We need to read/watch more stories with a bad ending
      • Life is about accomplishing things, not about being happy all the time
      • As a parent, don't ask your kid if he's happy but what he's struggling to achieve
      • Most likely, we live on the best planet during the best time as the most beautiful mammals
      • If you understand yourself, you won't seek self-assurance in what other people think of you
      • It's hard to get to know your true self if you live all the time in the same location/environment and have the same friends who would like to have a stable image of you
  3. Oct 2020
    1. Ideas on how to analyze and predict network behavior have been informed by concepts arising from the computational and social sciences, which are themselves increasingly concerned with understanding networks. The interesting thing about these ideas is that they work at scales ranging from the molecular to the population level.

      scale free networks perhaps?

    2. I had bookmarked this article in the form of tearing out and keeping a paper copy of it in my to read pile back in 2008. Finally getting around to reading it today. It's still an interesting introduction to the broader area which has moved forward, but not significantly enough to date the entire area.

  4. Sep 2020
    1. HARs are short stretches of DNA that while conserved in other species, underwent rapid evolution in humans following our split with chimpanzees, presumably since they provided some benefit specific to our species. Rather than encoding for proteins themselves, HARs often help regulate neighboring genes. Since both schizophrenia and HARs appear to be for the most part human-specific, the researchers wondered if there might be a connection between the two.dfp.loadAds("right2","MPU2","dfp-right2-article-1")Advertisement

      Schizophrenia is unique to humans. There are also regions that human and other species have, but have undergone more rapid evolution in humans called Human Accelerated regions (HAR).

      Maybe these HARs and Schizophrenia are linked.

      Also HARs are regions whose purpose is to regulate the expression of other genes, not so much directly code for a protein.

  5. Aug 2020
  6. Jul 2020
  7. Jun 2020
  8. May 2020
    1. Definition: Unit that can be assigned to a group of living beings according to certain criteria. Most of the time, this expresses itself through a separate name for this group.
    1. In 1970 Michener et al. defined "systematic biology" and "taxonomy" (terms that are often confused and used interchangeably) in relationship to one another as follows:
  9. Apr 2020
    1. Small-scale biological theories, such as those describing membrane and protein interactions, can be predictive because the relevant processes are dominated by physical constraints, such as diffusion, hydrophobicity and entropy. The problem is that these types of theories do not scale, and become far less predictive as we increase the complexity of the system.
  10. Mar 2020
    1. The molecular analysis also show that the SARS-Cov2 virus is active and replicates already in the nasopharynx, unlike other respiratory viruses that dwell in deeper regions of the lung.
    2. Surprisingly, ACE2 expression in the lung is very low: it is limited to a few molecules per cell in the alveolar cells (AT2 cells) deep in the lung. But a just published paper by the Human Cell Atlas (HCA) consortium reports that ACE2 is highly expressed in some type of (secretory) cells of the inner nose!

      Major route of viral entry is likely via large droplets that land in the nose — where expression of the viral entry receptor, ACE2 is highest. This is the transmission route that could be effectively blocked already by simple masks that provide a physical barrier.

    3. SARS-Cov-2 virus, like any virus, must dock onto human cells using a key-lock principle, in which the virus presents the key and the cell the lock that is complementary to the key to enter the cell and replicate. For the SARS-Cov-2 virus, the viral surface protein “Spike protein S” is the “key” and it must fit snugly into the “lock” protein that is expressed (=molecularly presented) on the surface of the host cells. The cellular lock protein that the SARS-Cov-2 virus uses is the ACE2 protein

      SARS-Cov-2 enters the host cell by docking with its Spike protein to the ACE2 (blue) protein in cell surfaces: