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  1. Last 7 days
    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, January 19). RT @SianGriffiths6: NEW On average the rate of COVID infection is 1.9 x higher amongst primary and secondary teachers than the general popu… [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1351843214446231552

    2. 2021-01-19

    3. NEW On average the rate of COVID infection is 1.9 x higher amongst primary and secondary teachers than the general population. For teaching assistants, the rate of COVID infection is three x higher in primary schools New figs @ons @MaryBoustedNEU
    1. 2021-01-19

    2. Grossmann, I., Twardus, O., Varnum, M. E. W., Jayawickreme, E., & McLevey, J. (2021). Societal Change and Wisdom: Insights from the World after Covid Project. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/yma8f

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/yma8f
    4. How will the world change as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic? What can people do to best adapt to the societal changes ahead? To answer these questions, over the course of the summer-fall 2020 we launched the World After COVID Project, interviewing more than 50 of the world’s leading scholars in the behavioral and social sciences, including fellows of national academies and presidents of major scientific societies. Experts independently shared their thoughts on what effects the COVID-19 pandemic will have on our societies and provided advice for successful response to new challenges and opportunities. Using mixed-method and natural language processing analyses, we distilled and analyzed these predictions and suggestions, observing a diversity of scenarios. Results also show that half of the experts approach their post-Covid predictions dialectically, highlighting both positive and negative features of the same prediction. Moreover, prosocial goals and meta-cognition—two chief tenants of the Common Wisdom model—were evident in their recommendations for how to cope with possible changes. The project provides a time capsule of experts’ predictions during major societal changes. We discuss implications for strengthening focus on prediction (vs. mere explanation) in psychological science as well as the value of uncertainty and dialecticism in forecasting.
    5. Societal Change and Wisdom: Insights from the World after Covid Project
    1. ReconfigBehSci on Twitter: ‘RT @NatureNews: COVID curbed carbon emissions in 2020—But not by much, and new data show global CO2 emissions have rebounded: Https://t.c…’ / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved 20 January 2021, from https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1351840770823757824

    2. 2021-01-19

    3. COVID curbed carbon emissions in 2020 — but not by much, and new data show global CO2 emissions have rebounded: https://go.nature.com/2XRpIv4
    1. 2021-01-15

    2. KupferschmidtJan. 15, K., 2021, & Pm, 4:55. (2021, January 15). New coronavirus variants could cause more reinfections, require updated vaccines. Science | AAAS. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/01/new-coronavirus-variants-could-cause-more-reinfections-require-updated-vaccines

    3. When the number of COVID-19 cases began to rise again in Manaus, Brazil, in December 2020, Nuno Faria was stunned. The virologist at Imperial College London and associate professor at the University of Oxford had just co-authored a paper in Science estimating that three-quarters of the city’s inhabitants had already been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the pandemic coronavirus—more than enough, it seemed, for herd immunity to develop. The virus should be done with Manaus. Yet hospitals were filling up again. “It was hard to reconcile these two things,” Faria says. He started to hunt for samples he could sequence to find out whether changes in the virus could explain the resurgence.
    4. New coronavirus variants could cause more reinfections, require updated vaccines
    1. 2021-01-17

    2. Science Says Sunday – COVID-19 Vaccine Must-Knows: Before, During, After. (2021, January 17). Chic in Academia. https://chicinacademia.com/2021/01/17/science-says-sunday-covid-19-vaccine-must-knows-before-during-after/

    3. Many states have launched their vaccination programs, which is both exciting and confusing. Who, where, when, how, many people are asking. There is confusion about the timing, who is eligible, where to sign up. In some cases, overwhelmed phone hotlines or websites. So, in an effort to inform and dispel myths, this week’s post is dedicating to bringing together some of the information I have read about or heard about so far.
    4. Science Says Sunday – COVID-19 Vaccine Must-Knows: Before, During, After
    1. 2021-01-17

    2. Analysis supports phase 3 trials of Johnson & Johnson’s COVID-19 vaccine. (2021, January 17). News-Medical.Net. https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210117/Analysis-supports-phase-3-trials-of-Johnson-Johnsons-COVID-19-vaccine.aspx

    3. Researchers in the Netherlands, the United States, and Belgium have presented early-stage clinical trial results demonstrating the safety and efficacy of Johnson & Johnson's vaccine candidate for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Phase 1–2a interim results show that the vaccine is safe and immunogenic in both younger and older adults after just a single dose, thereby supporting evaluation in phase 3 trials.
    4. Analysis supports phase 3 trials of Johnson & Johnson's COVID-19 vaccine
    1. Sadoff, J., Le Gars, M., Shukarev, G., Heerwegh, D., Truyers, C., de Groot, A. M., Stoop, J., Tete, S., Van Damme, W., Leroux-Roels, I., Berghmans, P.-J., Kimmel, M., Van Damme, P., de Hoon, J., Smith, W., Stephenson, K. E., De Rosa, S. C., Cohen, K. W., McElrath, M. J., … Schuitemaker, H. (2021). Interim Results of a Phase 1–2a Trial of Ad26.COV2.S Covid-19 Vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine, 0(0), null. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2034201

    2. 2021-01-13

    3. 10.1056/NEJMoa2034201
    4. BackgroundEfficacious vaccines are urgently needed to contain the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A candidate vaccine, Ad26.COV2.S, is a recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector encoding a full-length and stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. MethodsIn this multicenter, placebo-controlled, phase 1–2a trial, we randomly assigned healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 55 years (cohort 1) and those 65 years of age or older (cohort 3) to receive the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine at a dose of 5×1010 viral particles (low dose) or 1×1011 viral particles (high dose) per milliliter or placebo in a single-dose or two-dose schedule. Longer-term data comparing a single-dose regimen with a two-dose regimen are being collected in cohort 2; those results are not reported here. The primary end points were the safety and reactogenicity of each dose schedule. ResultsAfter the administration of the first vaccine dose in 805 participants in cohorts 1 and 3 and after the second dose in cohort 1, the most frequent solicited adverse events were fatigue, headache, myalgia, and injection-site pain. The most frequent systemic adverse event was fever. Systemic adverse events were less common in cohort 3 than in cohort 1 and in those who received the low vaccine dose than in those who received the high dose. Reactogenicity was lower after the second dose. Neutralizing-antibody titers against wild-type virus were detected in 90% or more of all participants on day 29 after the first vaccine dose (geometric mean titer [GMT], 224 to 354) and reached 100% by day 57 with a further increase in titers (GMT, 288 to 488), regardless of vaccine dose or age group. Titers remained stable until at least day 71. A second dose provided an increase in the titer by a factor of 2.6 to 2.9 (GMT, 827 to 1266). Spike-binding antibody responses were similar to neutralizing-antibody responses. On day 14, CD4+ T-cell responses were detected in 76 to 83% of the participants in cohort 1 and in 60 to 67% of those in cohort 3, with a clear skewing toward type 1 helper T cells. CD8+ T-cell responses were robust overall but lower in cohort 3. ConclusionsThe safety and immunogenicity profiles of Ad26.COV2.S support further development of this vaccine candidate. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services; COV1001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04436276. opens in new tab.)
    5. Interim Results of a Phase 1–2a Trial of Ad26.COV2.S Covid-19 Vaccine
    1. 2020-12-21

    2. Landoni, M., & Chiara, I. (2020). IPV and COVID-19: A systematic review of the literature. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/nqgbx

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/nqgbx
    4. Purpose: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is an urgent matter, and a global concern for several countries across the world highlighted high numbers and percentages also before the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic. Further, international states and organizations have claimed an increase in IPV numbers during the COVID-19 pandemic, raising awareness of the potential causes and providing urgent recommendations and guidelines to follow for the containment and possible interventions. Based on these priorities, this review aims to explore and analyze the existing scientific literature on the association and consequences of COVID-19 on Domestic Violence and to sum up the strategies and recommendations for clinicians and health care workers. Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus and Science of Direct were searched. Papers published between 2019 and 2020, written in English and having as main focus the domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic, were included. Results: At the final stage, 60 articles were included and analyzed. Results pointed three pre-determined categories: the course, the dynamics, the recommendations and an adjunctive category DV and disasters. Conclusions: Since COVID-19 is responsible for a spike in DV cases, it is essential to implement specific and shared assessment strategies and targeted interventions in order to prevent the adverse outcomes of IPV.
    5. IPV and COVID-19: A systematic review of the literature
    1. 2020-12-18

    2. Webb, S. S., Kontou, E., & Demeyere, N. (2020). Investigating the Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic on Assessment of Cognition: A Web-based Questionnaire Study. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/zx6va

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/zx6va
    4. We investigated the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the modality of cognitive assessments (in-person versus remote assessments). We created a web-based questionnaire with 34 items and collected data from 114 respondents from a range of health care professions and settings. We established the proportion of cognitive assessments which were face-to-face or via video or telephone conferencing, both pre- and post-March 2020. Further, we asked respondents about the assessment tools used and perceived barriers, challenges and facilitators for the remote assessment of cognition. In addition, we asked questions specifically about the use of the Oxford Cognitive Screen. We found that the frequency of assessing cognition was stable compared to pre-pandemic levels. Use of telephone and video conferencing cognitive assessments increased by 10% and 18% respectively. Remote assessment increased accessibility to participants and safety but made observing the subtleties of behaviour during test administration difficult. The respondents called for an increase in the availability of standardised, validated, and normed remote assessments. We conclude that the pandemic has not been detrimental to the frequency of cognitive assessments. In addition, a shift in clinical practice to include remote cognitive assessments is clear and wider availability of validated and standardised remote assessments is necessary.
    5. Investigating the Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic on Assessment of Cognition: a Web-based Questionnaire Study
    1. 2020-12-18

    2. Smith, R., Myrick, J. G., Lennon, R. P., Martin, M. A., Small, M. L., Scoy, L. J. V., & Group, D. R. (2020). Optimizing COVID-19 Health Campaigns: A Person-Centered Approach. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/xuefh

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/xuefh
    4. As the United States continues to be ravaged by COVID-19, it becomes increasingly important to implement effective public health campaigns to improve personal behaviors that help control the spread of the virus. To design effective campaigns, research is needed to understand the current mitigation intentions of the general public, diversity in those intentions, and theoretical predictors of them. COVID-19 campaigns will be particularly challenging because mitigation involves myriad, diverse behaviors. This study takes a person-centered approach to investigate data from a survey (N = 976) of Pennsylvania adults. Latent class analysis revealed five classes of mitigation: one marked by complete adherence with health recommendations (34% of the sample), one by complete refusal (9% of the sample), and three by a mixture of adherence and refusal. Statistically significant covariates of class membership included relatively negative injunctive norms, risk due to essential workers in the household, personal knowledge of someone who became infected with COVID-19, and belief that COVID-19 was a leaked biological weapon. Additionally, trait reactance was associated with non-adherence while health mavenism was associated with adherence. These findings may be used to good effect by local healthcare providers and institutions, and also inform broader policy-making decisions regarding public health campaigns to mitigate COVID-19.
    5. Optimizing COVID-19 Health Campaigns: A Person-Centered Approach
    1. 2020-12-18

    2. Mertens, G., Duijndam, S., Lodder, P., & Smeets, T. (2020). Pandemic panic? Results of a 6-month longitudinal study on fear of COVID-19. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/xtu3f

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/xtu3f
    4. Fear is an evolutionary adaptive emotion that serves to protect the organism from harm. Once a threat diminishes, fear should also dissipate as otherwise fear may become chronic and pathological. While threat (i.e., number of infections, hospitalizations and deaths) during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has substantially varied over time, it remains unclear whether fear has followed a similar pattern. To examine the development of fear of COVID-19 and investigate potential predictors for chronic fear, we conducted a large online longitudinal study (N = 2000) using the Prolific platform. Participants represented unselected residents of 34 different countries. The Fear of the Coronavirus Questionnaire (FCQ) and several other demographic and psychological measures were completed monthly between March and August 2020. Overall, we find that fear steadily decreased after a peak in April 2020. Additional analyses showed that elevated fear was predicted by region (i.e., North America), anxious traits, and media use.
    5. Pandemic panic? Results of a 6-month longitudinal study on fear of COVID-19
    1. 2020-09-04

    2. Suthaharan, P., Reed, E., Leptourgos, P., Kenney, J., Uddenberg, S., Mathys, C., Litman, L., Robinson, J., Moss, A., Taylor, J., Groman, S., & Corlett, P. R. (2020). Paranoia and Belief Updating During a Crisis. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/mtces

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/mtces
    4. The 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has made the world seem unpredictable. During such crises we can experience concerns that others might be against us, culminating perhaps in paranoid conspiracy theories. Here, we investigate paranoia and belief updating in an online sample (N=1,010) in the United States of America (U.S.A). We demonstrate the pandemic increased individuals’ self-rated paranoia and rendered their task-based belief updating more erratic. Local lockdown and reopening policies, as well as culture more broadly, markedly influenced participants’ belief-updating: an early and sustained lockdown rendered people’s belief updating less capricious. Masks are clearly an effective public health measure against COVID-19. However, state-mandated mask wearing increased paranoia and induced more erratic behaviour. Remarkably, this was most evident in those states where adherence to mask wearing rules was poor but where rule following is typically more common. This paranoia may explain the lack of compliance with this simple and effective countermeasure. Computational analyses of participant behaviour suggested that people with higher paranoia expected the task to be more unstable, but at the same time predicted more rewards. In a follow-up study we found people who were more paranoid endorsed conspiracies about mask-wearing and potential vaccines – again, mask attitude and conspiratorial beliefs were associated with erratic task behaviour and changed priors. Future public health responses to the pandemic might leverage these observations, mollifying paranoia and increasing adherence by tempering people’s expectations of other’s behaviour, and the environment more broadly, and reinforcing compliance.
    5. Paranoia and Belief Updating During a Crisis
    1. 2020-12-21

    2. Masuyama, A., Kubo, T., Sugawara, D., & Chishima, Y. (2020). Interest consistency can buffer the effect of COVID-19 fear on psychological distress. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ygz37

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/ygz37
    4. In the context of a recent outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the present study investigated the buffering effect of grit on the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and psychological distress. The data were collected from 224 Japanese participants (98 females; mean age = 46.56, SD = 13.41) in July 2020. The measures used in this study included the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), Short Grit Scale, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale 21 (DASS). The results of mediation analyses revealed significant indirect effects of consistency of interest, a major component of grit, on psychological distress; we also found non-significant indirect effects of perseverance of effort, another major component of grit, on psychological distress. These results suggest that consistency of interest buffers the psychological distress induced by fear of COVID-19. Based on these results, it can be concluded that individuals with higher consistency of interest are less likely to experience worsening of their mental health, even if they experience fear of COVID-19 during the pandemic.
    5. Interest consistency can buffer the effect of COVID-19 fear on psychological distress
  2. Jan 2021
    1. 2020-12-21

    2. As vaccines start rolling out, here’s what our research says about communication and coronavirus. (n.d.). Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. Retrieved 13 January 2021, from https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/risj-review/vaccines-start-rolling-out-heres-what-our-research-says-about-communication-and

    3. The coronavirus situation represents both a health crisis and a communications emergency – especially as we enter the vaccination phase. With a significant minority expressing a degree of hesitancy about receiving a coronavirus vaccine, clear and effective communication about the benefits and risks (or lack of) will undoubtedly be important for maximising uptake. At the same time, many familiar communication challenges – such as convincing people of the need to limit social contact, to wear face coverings, and to wash their hands – will be just as important for much of 2021 as they were in 2020. Perhaps more so, if the vaccine rollout is accompanied by a sense of complacency about taking basic precautions.
    4. As vaccines start rolling out, here’s what our research says about communication and coronavirus
    1. 2020-11-23

    2. US pharmacist who tried to ruin Covid vaccine doses is a conspiracy theorist, police say. (2021, January 5). The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2021/jan/04/wisconsin-pharmacist-covid-19-vaccine-doses-steven-brandenburg

    3. It’s three from three as far as positive outcomes from COVID vaccine trials are concerned but Monday’s announcement from AstraZeneca and Oxford University, at a first glance, may not seem to be as exciting as those from Pfizer and BioNTech, and Moderna. Furthermore, the figures are a bit of a head scratcher, so let’s look at them in more detail.
    4. A Dose (or more) of Positivity - Reading into AstraZeneca's Interim Analysis Results
    1. 2020-12-04

    2. Marsh, S. (2020, December 4). Vaccine expert tells ministers: ‘Stop boasting and get public onboard’. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2020/dec/04/advice-to-uk-ministers-stop-vaccine-boasting-and-get-public-onboard

    3. Government ministers should stop politicising the Covid-19 vaccine by boasting about being the first to license it, the head of a leading research group has said. Heidi Larson, the director of the London-based Vaccine Confidence Project (VCP), said the government should instead focus on building support for the jab or it will lose the confidence and trust of the British people.
    4. Vaccine expert tells ministers: 'Stop boasting and get public onboard'
  3. Dec 2020
    1. 2020-12-14

    2. Cyranoski, D. (2020). Arab nations first to approve Chinese COVID vaccine—Despite lack of public data. Nature, 588(7839), 548–548. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-03563-z

    3. Two Arab nations have become the first countries to approve a Chinese COVID-19 vaccine, a significant boost for China’s plans to roll out its vaccines worldwide. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) approved a vaccine developed by Chinese state-owned Sinopharm on 9 December, and Bahrain followed days later. But researchers say a lack of public data on the safety and efficacy of the vaccine could hinder the company’s plans to distribute the vaccine in a range of other countries.
    4. Arab nations first to approve Chinese COVID vaccine — despite lack of public data
    1. 2020-11-16

    2. Długosz, P. (2020). Factors influencing mental health among American youth in the time of the Covid-19 pandemic. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/8npyc

    3. Objective: The article aims to show the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on mental health of American youth. It also aims to identify factors that have an impact on the mental health maintenance of young Americans. The conducted analyses are an attempt at explaining the influence of high psycho-social stress on the mental health of young people. Methods: Secondary data from representative research conducted among the inhabitants of the United States of America on the sample of 10,139 respondents has been used in the analysis. Data is derived from the Pew Research Center, American Trends Panel. Results: The data analysis indicates that among all the age categories the highest levels of mental discomfort have been observed among the youngest Americans aged 18-29. The majority of respondents experienced anxiety and depression. The results of analyses of the youngest respondents (sample n=1083) have shown that there are a few factors which have impact on mental health of the young generation. Males, people living in relationships, practising religion more often, having a better financial situation, conservative beliefs and being devoid of citizenship had a better mental condition. Owned social, economic and cultural resources protect young Americans against the Covid-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The conducted research confirms the hypothesis that younger generations cope with the Covid-19 pandemic and related difficulties the worst. Due to the conducted analyses, the variables responsible for the deterioration of mental health in younger generations may be indicated.
    4. 10.31234/osf.io/8npyc
    5. Factors influencing mental health among American youth in the time of the Covid-19 pandemic
    1. 2020-11-16

    2. Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Meets its Primary Efficacy Endpoint in the First Interim Analysis of the Phase 3 COVE Study | Moderna, Inc. (n.d.). Retrieved 1 December 2020, from https://investors.modernatx.com/news-releases/news-release-details/modernas-covid-19-vaccine-candidate-meets-its-primary-efficacy/

    3. First interim analysis included 95 participants with confirmed cases of COVID-19 Phase 3 study met statistical criteria with a vaccine efficacy of 94.5% (p <0.0001) Moderna intends to submit for an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) with U.S. FDA in the coming weeks and expects the EUA to be based on the final analysis of 151 cases and a median follow-up of more than 2 months
    4. Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Meets its Primary Efficacy Endpoint in the First Interim Analysis of the Phase 3 COVE Study
    1. 2020-11-12

    2. Rocca, R., & Yarkoni, T. (2020). Putting psychology to the test: Rethinking model evaluation through benchmarking and prediction. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/e437b

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/e437b
    4. Consensus on standards for evaluating models and theories is an integral part of every science. Nonetheless, in psychology, relatively little focus has been placed on defining reliable communal metrics to assess model performance. Evaluation practices are often idiosyncratic, and are affected by a number of shortcomings (e.g., failure to assess models' ability to generalize to unseen data) that make it difficult to discriminate between good and bad models. Drawing inspiration from fields like machine learning and statistical genetics, we argue in favor of introducing common benchmarks as a means of overcoming the lack of reliable model evaluation criteria currently observed in psychology. We discuss a number of principles benchmarks should satisfy to achieve maximal utility; identify concrete steps the community could take to promote the development of such benchmarks; and address a number of potential pitfalls and concerns that may arise in the course of implementation. We argue that reaching consensus on common evaluation benchmarks will foster cumulative progress in psychology, and encourage researchers to place heavier emphasis on the practical utility of scientific models.
    5. Putting psychology to the test: Rethinking model evaluation through benchmarking and prediction
    1. 2020-11-13

    2. Corker, K. S., Arnal, J., Bonfiglio, D. B. V., Curran, P. G., Chartier, C. R., Chopik, W. J., Guadagno, R., Kimbrough, A., Schmidt, K., & Wiggins, B. J. (2020). Many Labs 5: Registered Replication of Albarracín et al. (2008), Experiment 7. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/qzspr

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/qzspr
    4. Albarracín et al. (2008, Study 7) tested whether priming action or inaction goals (vs. no goal) and then satisfying those goals (vs. not satisfying them) would be associated with subsequent cognitive responding. They hypothesized and found that priming action or inaction goals that were not satisfied resulted in greater or lesser responding, respectively, compared with not priming goals (N= 98). Sonnleitner and Voracek (2015) attempted to directly replicate Albarracín et al.’s (2008) study with German participants (N= 105). They did not find evidence for the 3x2 interaction or the expected main effect of task type. The current study attempted to directly replicate Albarracín et al. (2008), Study 7, with a larger sample of participants (N=1,690) from seven colleges and universities in the United States. We also extended the study design by using a scrambled-sentence task to prime goals instead of the original task of completing word fragments, allowing us to test whether study protocol moderated any effects of interest. We did not detect moderation by protocol in the full 3x2x2 design (pseudo-r2=0.05%). Results for both protocols were largely consistent with Sonnleitner and Voracek’s findings (pseudo-r2s = 0.14% and 0.50%). We consider these results in light of recent findings concerning priming methods and discuss the robustness of action-/inaction-goal priming to the implementation of different protocols in this particular context.
    5. Many Labs 5: Registered Replication of Albarracín et al. (2008), Experiment 7
    1. 10.31234/osf.io/geyt4
    2. 2020-11-13

    3. Wiwad, D., Mercier, B., Piff, P. K., Shariff, A., & Aknin, L. (2020). Recognizing the Impact of Covid-19 on the Poor Alters Attitudes Towards Poverty and Inequality. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/geyt4

    4. The novel Coronavirus that spread around the world in early 2020 triggered a global pandemic and economic downturn that affected nearly everyone. Yet the crisis had a disproportionate impact on the poor and revealed how easily working-class individuals’ financial security can be destabilised by factors beyond personal control. In a pre-registered longitudinal study of Americans (N = 233) spanning April 2019 to May 2020, we tested whether the pandemic altered beliefs about the extent to which poverty is caused by external forces and internal dispositions and support for economic inequality. Over this timespan, participants revealed a shift in their attributions for poverty, reporting that poverty is more strongly impacted by external-situational causes and less by internal-dispositional causes. However, we did not detect an overall mean-level change in opposition to inequality or support for government intervention. Instead, only for those who most strongly recognized the negative impact of COVID-19 did changes in poverty attributions translate to decreased support for inequality, and increased support for government intervention to help the poor.
    5. Recognizing the Impact of Covid-19 on the Poor Alters Attitudes Towards Poverty and Inequality
    1. 2020-11-15

    2. Długosz, P., & Kryvachuk, L. (2020). Neurotic generation of Covid-19 in Eastern Europe. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/mwhzk

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/mwhzk
    4. The article presents the results of research on neuroticism among students in Poland and Ukraine, which has been contributed to by the coronavirus pandemic. The research was conducted on-line, on a sample of 1,978 respondents in Poland, and 411 in Ukraine. The results of this research indicate that average and high levels of neuroticism were observed among 61% of respondents in Poland, and 47% in Ukraine. The regression analysis has shown that the main factors which have an impact on the level of neuroticism are; educational burnout, gender, financial situation, interest in the pandemic and satisfaction with life. Neuroticism indicated by the respondents increases with educational burnout, loss of economic resources and an increase in the interest in the pandemic. Moreover, female respondents score higher on the scale of neuroticism. Comparative analyses between Polish and Ukrainian students indicate that Ukrainian youth cope with quarantine and distance education better, and have better mental health. The collected observations show that in the conditions of a pandemic, neuroticism among young generations may increase.
    5. Neurotic generation of Covid-19 in Eastern Europe
    1. 2020-11-14

    2. Kanero, J., & Aktan-Erciyes, A. (2020). Family and language development during COVID-19: The case of Turkey. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/n7k8z

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/n7k8z
    4. With the suspension of daycares and kindergartens, COVID-19 caused temporary yet significant changes in young children’s learning environments around the world. In some countries such as Turkey, however, most young children had been taken care of at home even before the pandemic. Thus, Turkey provides a unique context in which one of the most notable pandemic-related changes for many was the increased presence of the father at home. The study uses language development as an example to (1) provide descriptive information about how COVID-19 affected the learning environment of young children in Turkey, and (2) understand the contributions of mothers and fathers in language learning. We administered a two-part online survey to 133 families with a child at ages 8-36 months. The survey asked the details of the child’s vocabulary level at two times, time spent with the child, and activities they were engaged in. As a proxy of the parental language input, we also asked the parents to write a story about a picture as if they are telling a bedtime story to their child. Our data suggest that the number of words used in the mother’s story, but not the father's story, predicted the vocabulary level of children.
    5. Family and language development during COVID-19: The case of Turkey
    1. 2020-11-14

    2. Ross, L. (2020). How Intellectual Communities Progress. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/k6yux

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/k6yux
    4. Recent work takes both philosophical and scientific progress to consist in acquiring factive epistemic states such as knowledge. However, much of this work leaves unclear what entity is the subject of these epistemic states. Furthermore, by focusing only on states like knowledge, we overlook progress in intermediate cases between ignorance and knowledge—for example, many now celebrated theories were initially so controversial that they were not known. This paper develops an improved framework for thinking about intellectual progress. Firstly, I argue that we should think of progress relative to the epistemic position of an intellectual community rather than individual inquirers. Secondly, I show how focusing on the extended process of inquiry (rather than the mere presence or absence of states like knowledge) provides a better evaluation of different types of progress. This includes progress through formulating worthwhile questions, acquiring new evidence, and increasing credence on the right answers to these questions. I close by considering the ramifications for philosophical progress, suggesting that my account supports rejecting the most negative views while allowing us to articulate different varieties of optimism and pessimism.
    5. How Intellectual Communities Progress
  4. Nov 2020
    1. 2020-11-19

    2. Marmet, S., Wicki, M., Gmel, G., Gachoud, C., Daeppen, J.-B., Bertholet, N., & Studer, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young Swiss men participating in a cohort study. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/kwxhd

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/kwxhd
    4. Aims The COVID-19 pandemic caused many disturbances to daily life worldwide and may also have significantly affected people’s psychological well-being. The present study aimed to describe the psychological impact of the crisis on our sample of young Swiss men and to examine differences due to their linguistic region, experiencing COVID-19 symptoms and living arrangements. Method Based on an ongoing cohort study, we assessed a general-population sample of young Swiss men (n = 2345; average 29 years old) shortly before (from April 2019) and early on during the COVID-19 crisis (between 13 May and 8 June 2020). This was a unique opportunity to estimate the crisis’ psychological impact in form of depression, perceived stress and sleep quality (assessed before and during COVID-19), and any crisis-induced fears, isolation or psychological trauma. Associations of psychological impact with living arrangements, experiencing COVID-19 symptoms and linguistic region (German-speaking vs French-speaking) were investigated using linear regression models. Findings By the time participants responded to our questionnaire, less than 1% had been tested positive for COVID-19, 2.6% had been tested negative, and 14.7% had had some COVID-19 symptoms but had not been tested. About 8.2% of the sample reported at least some symptoms of psychological trauma (≥ 24 points on the Impact of Event Scale). On average, participants reported higher levels of fear for others (43.6% at least moderate) and economical fear (12.7% at least moderate) than fear for themselves (5.8% at least moderate). Those living alone and those who reported having COVID-19 symptoms themselves, or knowing someone with symptoms, reported higher overall psychological impact in the form of depression, perceived stress, sleep quality, psychological trauma, fear and isolation. Associations with linguistic region varied by outcome, with higher levels of depression and fear in French-speaking regions and higher levels of perceived stress and isolation in German-speaking regions. Interpretation The crisis had a considerable impact on the psychological well-being of our sample of young Swiss men, and some groups were more affected than others: those living alone and those who had shown COVID-19 symptoms themselves; or had known someone with symptoms, may have felt a greater psychological impact from the crisis. Supporting those at a higher risk of psychological consequences in such crises, whether through structural measures or via individual support, should be an important aspect of crisis management and could help reduce the overall impact of the current pandemic on Switzerland’s population.