862 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2020
    1. 2020-11-16

    2. Długosz, P. (2020). Factors influencing mental health among American youth in the time of the Covid-19 pandemic. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/8npyc

    3. Objective: The article aims to show the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on mental health of American youth. It also aims to identify factors that have an impact on the mental health maintenance of young Americans. The conducted analyses are an attempt at explaining the influence of high psycho-social stress on the mental health of young people. Methods: Secondary data from representative research conducted among the inhabitants of the United States of America on the sample of 10,139 respondents has been used in the analysis. Data is derived from the Pew Research Center, American Trends Panel. Results: The data analysis indicates that among all the age categories the highest levels of mental discomfort have been observed among the youngest Americans aged 18-29. The majority of respondents experienced anxiety and depression. The results of analyses of the youngest respondents (sample n=1083) have shown that there are a few factors which have impact on mental health of the young generation. Males, people living in relationships, practising religion more often, having a better financial situation, conservative beliefs and being devoid of citizenship had a better mental condition. Owned social, economic and cultural resources protect young Americans against the Covid-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The conducted research confirms the hypothesis that younger generations cope with the Covid-19 pandemic and related difficulties the worst. Due to the conducted analyses, the variables responsible for the deterioration of mental health in younger generations may be indicated.
    4. 10.31234/osf.io/8npyc
    5. Factors influencing mental health among American youth in the time of the Covid-19 pandemic
    1. 2020-11-16

    2. Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Meets its Primary Efficacy Endpoint in the First Interim Analysis of the Phase 3 COVE Study | Moderna, Inc. (n.d.). Retrieved 1 December 2020, from https://investors.modernatx.com/news-releases/news-release-details/modernas-covid-19-vaccine-candidate-meets-its-primary-efficacy/

    3. First interim analysis included 95 participants with confirmed cases of COVID-19 Phase 3 study met statistical criteria with a vaccine efficacy of 94.5% (p <0.0001) Moderna intends to submit for an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) with U.S. FDA in the coming weeks and expects the EUA to be based on the final analysis of 151 cases and a median follow-up of more than 2 months
    4. Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Meets its Primary Efficacy Endpoint in the First Interim Analysis of the Phase 3 COVE Study
    1. 2020-11-12

    2. Rocca, R., & Yarkoni, T. (2020). Putting psychology to the test: Rethinking model evaluation through benchmarking and prediction. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/e437b

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/e437b
    4. Consensus on standards for evaluating models and theories is an integral part of every science. Nonetheless, in psychology, relatively little focus has been placed on defining reliable communal metrics to assess model performance. Evaluation practices are often idiosyncratic, and are affected by a number of shortcomings (e.g., failure to assess models' ability to generalize to unseen data) that make it difficult to discriminate between good and bad models. Drawing inspiration from fields like machine learning and statistical genetics, we argue in favor of introducing common benchmarks as a means of overcoming the lack of reliable model evaluation criteria currently observed in psychology. We discuss a number of principles benchmarks should satisfy to achieve maximal utility; identify concrete steps the community could take to promote the development of such benchmarks; and address a number of potential pitfalls and concerns that may arise in the course of implementation. We argue that reaching consensus on common evaluation benchmarks will foster cumulative progress in psychology, and encourage researchers to place heavier emphasis on the practical utility of scientific models.
    5. Putting psychology to the test: Rethinking model evaluation through benchmarking and prediction
    1. 2020-11-13

    2. Corker, K. S., Arnal, J., Bonfiglio, D. B. V., Curran, P. G., Chartier, C. R., Chopik, W. J., Guadagno, R., Kimbrough, A., Schmidt, K., & Wiggins, B. J. (2020). Many Labs 5: Registered Replication of Albarracín et al. (2008), Experiment 7. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/qzspr

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/qzspr
    4. Albarracín et al. (2008, Study 7) tested whether priming action or inaction goals (vs. no goal) and then satisfying those goals (vs. not satisfying them) would be associated with subsequent cognitive responding. They hypothesized and found that priming action or inaction goals that were not satisfied resulted in greater or lesser responding, respectively, compared with not priming goals (N= 98). Sonnleitner and Voracek (2015) attempted to directly replicate Albarracín et al.’s (2008) study with German participants (N= 105). They did not find evidence for the 3x2 interaction or the expected main effect of task type. The current study attempted to directly replicate Albarracín et al. (2008), Study 7, with a larger sample of participants (N=1,690) from seven colleges and universities in the United States. We also extended the study design by using a scrambled-sentence task to prime goals instead of the original task of completing word fragments, allowing us to test whether study protocol moderated any effects of interest. We did not detect moderation by protocol in the full 3x2x2 design (pseudo-r2=0.05%). Results for both protocols were largely consistent with Sonnleitner and Voracek’s findings (pseudo-r2s = 0.14% and 0.50%). We consider these results in light of recent findings concerning priming methods and discuss the robustness of action-/inaction-goal priming to the implementation of different protocols in this particular context.
    5. Many Labs 5: Registered Replication of Albarracín et al. (2008), Experiment 7
    1. 10.31234/osf.io/geyt4
    2. 2020-11-13

    3. Wiwad, D., Mercier, B., Piff, P. K., Shariff, A., & Aknin, L. (2020). Recognizing the Impact of Covid-19 on the Poor Alters Attitudes Towards Poverty and Inequality. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/geyt4

    4. The novel Coronavirus that spread around the world in early 2020 triggered a global pandemic and economic downturn that affected nearly everyone. Yet the crisis had a disproportionate impact on the poor and revealed how easily working-class individuals’ financial security can be destabilised by factors beyond personal control. In a pre-registered longitudinal study of Americans (N = 233) spanning April 2019 to May 2020, we tested whether the pandemic altered beliefs about the extent to which poverty is caused by external forces and internal dispositions and support for economic inequality. Over this timespan, participants revealed a shift in their attributions for poverty, reporting that poverty is more strongly impacted by external-situational causes and less by internal-dispositional causes. However, we did not detect an overall mean-level change in opposition to inequality or support for government intervention. Instead, only for those who most strongly recognized the negative impact of COVID-19 did changes in poverty attributions translate to decreased support for inequality, and increased support for government intervention to help the poor.
    5. Recognizing the Impact of Covid-19 on the Poor Alters Attitudes Towards Poverty and Inequality
    1. 2020-11-15

    2. Długosz, P., & Kryvachuk, L. (2020). Neurotic generation of Covid-19 in Eastern Europe. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/mwhzk

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/mwhzk
    4. The article presents the results of research on neuroticism among students in Poland and Ukraine, which has been contributed to by the coronavirus pandemic. The research was conducted on-line, on a sample of 1,978 respondents in Poland, and 411 in Ukraine. The results of this research indicate that average and high levels of neuroticism were observed among 61% of respondents in Poland, and 47% in Ukraine. The regression analysis has shown that the main factors which have an impact on the level of neuroticism are; educational burnout, gender, financial situation, interest in the pandemic and satisfaction with life. Neuroticism indicated by the respondents increases with educational burnout, loss of economic resources and an increase in the interest in the pandemic. Moreover, female respondents score higher on the scale of neuroticism. Comparative analyses between Polish and Ukrainian students indicate that Ukrainian youth cope with quarantine and distance education better, and have better mental health. The collected observations show that in the conditions of a pandemic, neuroticism among young generations may increase.
    5. Neurotic generation of Covid-19 in Eastern Europe
    1. 2020-11-14

    2. Kanero, J., & Aktan-Erciyes, A. (2020). Family and language development during COVID-19: The case of Turkey. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/n7k8z

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/n7k8z
    4. With the suspension of daycares and kindergartens, COVID-19 caused temporary yet significant changes in young children’s learning environments around the world. In some countries such as Turkey, however, most young children had been taken care of at home even before the pandemic. Thus, Turkey provides a unique context in which one of the most notable pandemic-related changes for many was the increased presence of the father at home. The study uses language development as an example to (1) provide descriptive information about how COVID-19 affected the learning environment of young children in Turkey, and (2) understand the contributions of mothers and fathers in language learning. We administered a two-part online survey to 133 families with a child at ages 8-36 months. The survey asked the details of the child’s vocabulary level at two times, time spent with the child, and activities they were engaged in. As a proxy of the parental language input, we also asked the parents to write a story about a picture as if they are telling a bedtime story to their child. Our data suggest that the number of words used in the mother’s story, but not the father's story, predicted the vocabulary level of children.
    5. Family and language development during COVID-19: The case of Turkey
    1. 2020-11-14

    2. Ross, L. (2020). How Intellectual Communities Progress. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/k6yux

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/k6yux
    4. Recent work takes both philosophical and scientific progress to consist in acquiring factive epistemic states such as knowledge. However, much of this work leaves unclear what entity is the subject of these epistemic states. Furthermore, by focusing only on states like knowledge, we overlook progress in intermediate cases between ignorance and knowledge—for example, many now celebrated theories were initially so controversial that they were not known. This paper develops an improved framework for thinking about intellectual progress. Firstly, I argue that we should think of progress relative to the epistemic position of an intellectual community rather than individual inquirers. Secondly, I show how focusing on the extended process of inquiry (rather than the mere presence or absence of states like knowledge) provides a better evaluation of different types of progress. This includes progress through formulating worthwhile questions, acquiring new evidence, and increasing credence on the right answers to these questions. I close by considering the ramifications for philosophical progress, suggesting that my account supports rejecting the most negative views while allowing us to articulate different varieties of optimism and pessimism.
    5. How Intellectual Communities Progress
  2. Nov 2020
    1. 2020-11-19

    2. Marmet, S., Wicki, M., Gmel, G., Gachoud, C., Daeppen, J.-B., Bertholet, N., & Studer, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young Swiss men participating in a cohort study. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/kwxhd

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/kwxhd
    4. Aims The COVID-19 pandemic caused many disturbances to daily life worldwide and may also have significantly affected people’s psychological well-being. The present study aimed to describe the psychological impact of the crisis on our sample of young Swiss men and to examine differences due to their linguistic region, experiencing COVID-19 symptoms and living arrangements. Method Based on an ongoing cohort study, we assessed a general-population sample of young Swiss men (n = 2345; average 29 years old) shortly before (from April 2019) and early on during the COVID-19 crisis (between 13 May and 8 June 2020). This was a unique opportunity to estimate the crisis’ psychological impact in form of depression, perceived stress and sleep quality (assessed before and during COVID-19), and any crisis-induced fears, isolation or psychological trauma. Associations of psychological impact with living arrangements, experiencing COVID-19 symptoms and linguistic region (German-speaking vs French-speaking) were investigated using linear regression models. Findings By the time participants responded to our questionnaire, less than 1% had been tested positive for COVID-19, 2.6% had been tested negative, and 14.7% had had some COVID-19 symptoms but had not been tested. About 8.2% of the sample reported at least some symptoms of psychological trauma (≥ 24 points on the Impact of Event Scale). On average, participants reported higher levels of fear for others (43.6% at least moderate) and economical fear (12.7% at least moderate) than fear for themselves (5.8% at least moderate). Those living alone and those who reported having COVID-19 symptoms themselves, or knowing someone with symptoms, reported higher overall psychological impact in the form of depression, perceived stress, sleep quality, psychological trauma, fear and isolation. Associations with linguistic region varied by outcome, with higher levels of depression and fear in French-speaking regions and higher levels of perceived stress and isolation in German-speaking regions. Interpretation The crisis had a considerable impact on the psychological well-being of our sample of young Swiss men, and some groups were more affected than others: those living alone and those who had shown COVID-19 symptoms themselves; or had known someone with symptoms, may have felt a greater psychological impact from the crisis. Supporting those at a higher risk of psychological consequences in such crises, whether through structural measures or via individual support, should be an important aspect of crisis management and could help reduce the overall impact of the current pandemic on Switzerland’s population.
    5. The psychological impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young Swiss men participating in a cohort study
    1. 2020-11-18

    2. Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. (2020). The Cognitive Science of Fake News. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ar96c

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/ar96c
    4. We synthesize a burgeoning literature investigating why people believe and share “fake news” and other misinformation online. Surprisingly, the evidence contradicts a common narrative whereby partisanship and politically motivated reasoning explain failures to discern truth from falsehood. Instead, poor truth discernment is linked to a lack of careful reasoning and relevant knowledge, and to the use of familiarity and other heuristics. Furthermore, there is a substantial disconnect between what people believe and what they will share on social media. This dissociation is largely driven by inattention, rather than purposeful sharing of misinformation. As a result, effective interventions can nudge social media users to think about accuracy, and can leverage crowdsourced veracity ratings to improve social media ranking algorithms.
    5. The Cognitive Science of Fake News
    1. 2020-11-18

    2. Charoenwong, B., Kwan, A., & Pursiainen, V. (2020). Social connections with COVID-19–affected areas increase compliance with mobility restrictions. Science Advances, 6(47), eabc3054. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc3054

    3. 10.1126/sciadv.abc3054
    4. We study the role of social connections in compliance of U.S. households with mobility restrictions imposed in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, using aggregated and anonymized Facebook data on social connections and mobile phone data for measuring social distancing at the county level. Relative to the average restriction efficacy, a county with one-SD more social connections with China and Italy—the first countries with major COVID-19 outbreaks—has a nearly 50% higher compliance with mobility restrictions. By contrast, social connections of counties with less-educated populations, a higher Trump vote share, and a higher fraction of climate change deniers show decreased compliance with mobility restrictions. Our analysis suggests that social connections are conduits of information about the pandemic and an economically important factor affecting compliance with, and impact of, mobility restrictions
    5. Social connections with COVID-19–affected areas increase compliance with mobility restrictions
    1. 2020-11-18

    2. Edward J. Alessi, P. D., Courtney Hutchison, L. M., & Sarilee Kahn, P. D. (2020). Understanding COVID-19 through a complex trauma lens: Implications for effective psychosocial responses. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/8kmqb

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/8kmqb
    4. DO NOT CITE WITHOUT AUTHOR PERMISSION. The psychosocial impact of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) on individuals, families, and communities will likely persist for years to come. While briefing notes informed by disaster psychology and crisis management have been released to guide social workers and other mental health professionals in their work during the pandemic, the far-reaching impacts of COVID-19 may require inclusion of additional theories of trauma and resilience. Thus, we first examine the application of complex trauma theory as an effective framework for assessing the psychosocial impacts of the pandemic, especially among individuals with prior trauma exposure, those with pre-existing mental illness, and communities affected by marginalization and historical trauma. We then discuss the importance of using trauma-informed practice to address the effects of the pandemic on both the individual and community levels during this unprecedented moment in history.
    5. Understanding COVID-19 through a complex trauma lens: Implications for effective psychosocial responses
    1. 2020-11-19

    2. Grant, S., Wendt, K., Leadbeater, B. J., Supplee, L. H., Mayo-Wilson, E., Gardner, F., & Bradshaw, C. (2020). Transparent, Open, and Reproducible Prevention Science. MetaArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31222/osf.io/d2y43

    3. 10.31222/osf.io/d2y43
    4. The field of prevention science aims to understand societal problems, identify effective interventions, and translate scientific evidence into policy and practice. There is growing interest among prevention scientists in transparency, openness, and reproducibility. Open science provides opportunities to align scientific practice with scientific ideals, accelerate scientific discovery, and broaden access to scientific knowledge. Open science also addresses key challenges to the credibility of prevention science, such as irreproducibility of results, selective non-reporting (publication bias, outcome reporting bias), and other detrimental research practices. The overarching goal of this paper is to provide an overview of open science practices for prevention science researchers, and to identify key stakeholders and resources to support implementation of these practices. We consider various aspects of applying open science practices in prevention science, such as identifying evidence-based interventions. In addition, we call for the adoption of prevention science practices in the open science movement, such as the use of program planning principles to develop, implement, and evaluate open science efforts. We also identify some challenges that need to be considered in the transition to a transparent, open, and reproducible prevention science. Throughout, we identify activities that will strengthen the reliability and efficiency of prevention science, facilitate access to its products and outputs, and promote collaborative and inclusive participation in research activities. We conclude with the notion that prevention scientists are well-positioned to engage with the open science movement, especially given their expertise in examining and addressing complex social and behavioral issues. By embracing transparency, openness, and reproducibility, prevention science can better achieve its mission to advance evidence-based solutions to promote well-being.
    5. Transparent, Open, and Reproducible Prevention Science
    1. 2020-11-23

    2. Schindler, S., Reinhardt, N., & Reinhard, M.-A. (2020). Defending one’s worldviews under mortality salience – Testing the validity of an established idea. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/7bxcs

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/7bxcs
    4. Terror management theory (TMT) posits that mortality salience (MS) leads to more negative perceptions of persons who oppose one’s worldview and to more positive perceptions of persons who confirm one’s worldview. Recent failed replications of classic findings have thrown into question empirical validity for this established idea. We believe, that there are crucial methodological and theoretical aspects that have been neglected in these studies which limit their explanatory power; thus, the studies of this registered report aimed to address these issues and to directly test the worldview defense hypothesis. First, we conducted two preregistered lab studies applying the classic worldview defense paradigm. The stimulus material (worldview-confirming and -opposing essays) was previously validated for students at a German university. In both studies, the MS manipulation (between-subjects) was followed by a distraction phase. Then, in Study 1 (N = 131), each participant read both essays (within-subjects). In Study 2 (N = 276), the essays were manipulated between-subjects. Credibility attribution towards the author was assessed as the dependent variable. In both studies, the expected interaction effects were not significant. In a third highly powered (registered) study (N = 1356), we used a previously validated worldview-opposing essay. The five classic worldview defense items served as the main dependent measure. The MS effect was not significant. Bayesian analyses favored the null hypothesis. An internal meta-analysis revealed a very small (Hedges’ g = .09) but nonsignificant (p = .058) effect of MS. Altogether, the presented studies reveal challenges in providing strong evidence for this established idea.
    5. Defending one’s worldviews under mortality salience – Testing the validity of an established idea
    1. 2020-11-23

    2. Bulbulia, J. A., Piven, S., Greaves, L., Osborne, D., Troughton, G., Yogeeswaran, K., & Sibley, C. G. (2020). Longitudinal Study of Pandemic and Natural Disaster Distress. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/erfhp

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/erfhp
    4. Recent research in New Zealand, Australia, China, and the United States finds that COVID-19 increased psychological distress as measured by the Kessler-6 inventory. It is theorised that health risks, loss of employment, and economic downturn precipitated by COVID-19 produced distress, and that confidence in government, social belonging, and sense of community may mitigate against pandemic distress. However, theories of pandemic distress mitigation remain untested. Here, we compare longitudinal responses from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS), March 26th to April 12th, 2020 (lockdown), with participants’ pre-COVID-19 baselines from the previous year (N=940) to investigate pandemic distress mechanisms during New Zealand's first stringent national lockdown.
    5. Longitudinal Study of Pandemic and Natural Disaster Distress
    1. 2020-11-14

    2. Mulukom, V. van, Pummerer, L., Alper, S., Bai, (Max) Hui, Cavojova, V., Farias, J. E. M., Kay, C. S., Lazarevic, L., Lobato, E. J. C., Marinthe, G., Banai, I. P., Šrol, J., & Zezelj, I. (2020). Antecedents and consequences of COVID-19 conspiracy theories: A rapid review of the evidence. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/u8yah

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/u8yah
    4. COVID-19 conspiracy theories emerged almost immediately after the beginning of the pandemic, and the number of believers does not appear to decline. Believing in these theories can negatively affect adherence to safety guidelines and vaccination intentions, potentially endangering the lives of many. Thus, one part in successfully fighting the pandemic is to understand the antecedents and consequences of COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs, which are here presented in a rapid review summarizing research from more than 28 countries. We evaluate the contribution of individual difference variables (demographic variables, personality traits, coping with threat and uncertainty), beliefs, biases, and attitudes (epistemically suspect beliefs, thinking styles and cognitive biases, attitudes towards science), and social factors (group identities, trust in authorities, social media) to COVID-19 conspiracy theories. We discuss the consequences of COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs in regard to safeguarding behaviours (hygiene, distancing, and mask-wearing), self-centred (hoarding) and misguided behaviours (pseudoscientific practices), vaccination intentions, mental health and negative social consequences (e.g., discrimination and violence). Differences between countries as well as various conspiracy theories are considered. Summarising, we suggest that belief in COVID-19 conspiracy theories is boosted by low levels of trust in a context of threat and low levels of comprehensive, accessible information in a context of uncertainty and unknowns. We conclude that research is urgently needed to address potential interventions to (re-)establish trust and provide accessible information about COVID-19.
    5. Antecedents and consequences of COVID-19 conspiracy theories: a rapid review of the evidence
    1. 2020-11-14

    2. Bauer, B., Larsen, K. L., Caulfield, N., Elder, D., Jordan, S., & Capron, D. (2020). Review of Best Practice Recommendations for Ensuring High Quality Data with Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/m78sf

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/m78sf
    4. Our ability to make scientific progress is dependent upon our interpretation of data. Thus, analyzing only those data that are an honest representation of a sample is imperative for drawing accurate conclusions that allow for robust, generalizable, and replicable scientific findings. Unfortunately, a consistent line of evidence indicates the presence of inattentive/careless responders who provide low-quality data in surveys, especially on popular online crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Yet, the majority of psychological studies using surveys only conduct outlier detection analyses to remove problematic data. Without carefully examining the possibility of low-quality data in a sample, researchers risk promoting inaccurate conclusions that interfere with scientific progress. Given that knowledge about data screening methods and optimal online data collection procedures are scattered across disparate disciplines, the dearth of psychological studies using more rigorous methodologies to prevent and detect low-quality data is likely due to inconvenience, not maleficence. Thus, this review provides up-to-date recommendations for best practices in collecting online data and data screening methods. In addition, this article includes resources for worked examples for each screening method, a collection of recommended measures, and a preregistration template for implementing these recommendations.
    5. Review of Best Practice Recommendations for Ensuring High Quality Data with Amazon’s Mechanical Turk
    1. 2020-11-17

    2. Fischer, R., & Karl, J. (2020). Predicting behavioral intentions to prevent or mitigate COVID-19: A meta-analysis. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ek69g

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/ek69g
    4. We examined the effectiveness of attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioral control on behavioral intentions and behaviors that prevent and mitigate COVID-19 infections and collateral negative consequences. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis with 29 effect sizes from 19 studies involving data from 11 countries (N = 15,328). We found strongest effects for perceived behavioral control, but also moderately strong effects of social norms. This is practically important in a pandemic environment because social norms in other health contexts typically show negligible effects and advice based on non-pandemic contexts may be misguided. Examining moderator effects, we are the first to demonstrate that in contexts with strong endorsement of social norms, norm-behavior effects were strengthened. Focusing on societal level differences, both wealth and individualism increased the strength of association between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intentions. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of the findings for behavior change and public health interventions.
    5. Predicting behavioral intentions to prevent or mitigate COVID-19: A meta-analysis
    1. 2020-11-16

    2. Soderberg, C. K., Errington, T., Schiavone, S. R., Bottesini, J. G., Thorn, F. S., Vazire, S., Esterling, K. M., & Nosek, B. A. (2020). Research Quality of Registered Reports Compared to the Traditional Publishing Model. MetaArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31222/osf.io/7x9vy

    3. 10.31222/osf.io/7x9vy
    4. Registered Reports (RRs) is a publishing model in which initial peer review happens before the research is completed. In-principle acceptance before knowing outcomes combats publication bias and provides a clear distinction between confirmatory and exploratory research. The theoretical case for how RRs would improve the credibility of research findings is straightforward, but there is little empirical evidence. Also, there could be unintended costs of RRs such as reducing innovation or novelty. 353 researchers peer reviewed a pair of papers from 29 published RRs and 57 non-RR comparison papers. RRs outperformed comparison papers on all 19 criteria (mean difference=.46) with effects ranging from little difference in novelty (0.13) and creativity (0.22) to substantial differences in rigor of methodology (0.99) and analysis (0.97) and overall paper quality (0.66). RRs could improve research quality while reducing publication bias and ultimately improve the credibility of the published literature.
    5. Research Quality of Registered Reports Compared to the Traditional Publishing Model
    1. 2020-11-16

    2. Kuper, N., Modersitzki, N., Phan, L. V., & Rauthmann, J. (2020). The Situation During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Snapshot in Germany. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/49chx

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/49chx
    4. During government-implemented restrictions in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, people’s everyday lives changed profoundly. However, there is to date little research chronicling how people perceived their changed everyday lives and which consequences this had. In a two-wave study, we examined the psychological characteristics of people’s situations and their correlates during shutdown in a large German sample (NT1 = 1,353; NT2 = 446). First, we compared characteristics during government-issued restrictions with retrospective accounts from before and with a follow-up assessment 6 to 7 months later when many restrictions had been lifted. We found that mean levels were lower and variances were higher for most characteristics during the shutdown. Second, the experience of certain situation characteristics was associated in meaningful and theoretically expected ways with people’s traits, appraisals of the COVID-19 crisis, and subjective well-being. Lastly, situation characteristics often substantially explained the associations of traits with appraisals and well-being. Our findings highlight the importance of considering perceived situations as these contribute to people’s functioning during crises.
    5. The Situation During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Snapshot in Germany
    1. 2020-11-16

    2. CohenNov. 16, J., 2020, & Am, 7:00. (2020, November 16). ‘Just beautiful’: Another COVID-19 vaccine, from newcomer Moderna, succeeds in large-scale trial. Science | AAAS. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/11/just-beautiful-another-covid-19-vaccine-newcomer-moderna-succeeds-large-scale-trial

    3. Another COVID-19 vaccine using the same previously unproven technology as the vaccine from Pfizer and BioNTech, the U.S. and German companies that reported success on 9 November, appears to work remarkably well. And this time, the maker, U.S. biotech Moderna, is releasing a bit more data to back its claim than the other two companies.
    4. ‘Just beautiful’: Another COVID-19 vaccine, from newcomer Moderna, succeeds in large-scale trial
    1. 2020-11-16

    2. Agarwal, A. (2020). Ripple Effect of a Pandemic: Analysis of the Psychological Stress Landscape during COVID19. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/nat49

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/nat49
    4. The recent outbreak of an infectious novel coronavirus disease 2019 (nCoV-19) is significantly influencing the lifestyle of everyone all over the world. A pandemic that has not only claimed countless lives of people across the globe but also has struck the plain and tranquil psychological landscape of the world citizens. COVID-19’s hit on the landscape has resulted in a ripple effect witnessed across the minds of people across the globe. In this paper, we aim to study this ripple effect in terms of the variations caused by the psychological stress of individuals. Stress is the basic gateway to most of the other psychological disorders, as a result, a comprehensive psycholinguist and psychoacoustic study are conducted. This analysis is conducted for students and migrant workers for their distinctive online and offline behavioral activity. Finally, neurobiological insights regarding the implication and necessity of such studies are provided in the field of psychology and neuroscience.
    5. Ripple Effect of a Pandemic: Analysis of the Psychological Stress Landscape during COVID19
    1. 2020-11-17

    2. Stienwandt, S., Cameron, E. E., Soderstrom, M., Casar, M. J., Le, C., & Roos, L. E. (2020). Keeping Kids Busy: Family Factors Associated with Hands-on Play and Screen Time During the COVID-19 Pandemic. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/prtyf

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/prtyf
    4. Parent-child interactions are crucial for child development. The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected mental health and increased parenting challenges impacting parent-child functioning. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between parent factors and child activities to identify parental needs. A convenience sample of parents (N = 708), primarily mothers (n = 610; 87.4%) aged 35.59 years old (SD = 5.59; range = 21-72), with children ages 2-8 years completed an online questionnaire between April 14-June 1, 2020. Participants mostly resided in Canada and had an income of >$100,000. Parent-child activities were measured as total weekly time and combined time across activities within two categories: hands-on play and screen time. Bivariate correlations informed block-wise linear regression models. For families with childcare needs, parental anxiety was associated with higher total hands-on play (F(3,142) = 14.01, p < .001), combined hands-on play (F(2,85) = 6.82, p = .011), and combined screen time (F(2,82) = 6.25, p = .014). Families without childcare needs indicated parenting stress was associated with lower total hands-on play (F(3,212) = 7.95, p < .005) and combined hands-on play (F(2,110) = 5.67, p = .019), and higher supervised screen time (F(3,138) = 6.14, p = .014). Family structure and indices of socioeconomic status were also predictive of activities across childcare needs and child ages. To promote high-quality parent-child interactions and positive developmental outcomes in the pandemic, policy makers should support childcare needs, parent mental health and stress, and provide evidence-based guidelines for child screen time.
    5. Keeping Kids Busy: Family Factors Associated with Hands-on Play and Screen Time During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    1. 2020-11-18

    2. Zhang, Y., & Cook, C. (2020). A Rapid Scoping Review of Publications Examining Psychological Impacts of COVID-19 in China. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/2uadr

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/2uadr
    4. Objective: Despite the surge of publications examining the psychological impacts of COVID-19 in China, little was reported about effective solutions. The gap necessitates a timely literature synthesis. Methods: A rapid scoping review was conducted in major English and Chinese databases, ArXivs, and trial registries. Two researchers independently extracted data following the PRISMA guideline. Results: Screening of publications led to 102 English and 322 Chinese publications between December 31st, 2019, and June 15th, 2020. The majority resembled "Problem Admiration" efforts of commentaries on policies or guidelines (35.38%), and cross-sectional surveys (53.54%) that documented the prevalence and types of psychopathology in China during the pandemic. Although the publications unanimously called for clinical trials, solution-focused studies were scarce (2.12%). Conclusions: Researchers should move beyond “Problem Admiration” to coordinating rigorous trials of timely, scalable, and cost-effective prevention and intervention strategies to address the psychological demands of people in the current and future crises.
    5. A Rapid Scoping Review of Publications Examining Psychological Impacts of COVID-19 in China
    1. 2020-11-10

    2. Samaritans responds to NCISH’s 2020 suicide figures in England. (n.d.). Samaritans. Retrieved 18 November 2020, from https://www.samaritans.org/news/samaritans-responds-ncish-new-suicide-figures-england/

    3. Suicide is a tragedy that devastates friends, families and communities. While the data published by the National Confidential Inquiry indicates that suicide rates during lockdown in England have not been impacted in the way that many of us were concerned about, we must not be complacent. Suicide is a major public health issue and this data does indicate that the trend we have seen over the last two years is unlikely to have reversed.
    4. Samaritans responds to the National Confidential Inquiry's figures on suspected suicides during lockdown in England
    1. 2020-10-29

    2. Wunderling, N., Krönke, J., Wohlfarth, V., Kohler, J., Heitzig, J., Staal, A., Willner, S., Winkelmann, R., & Donges, J. F. (2020). Modelling nonlinear dynamics of interacting tipping elements on complex networks: The PyCascades package. ArXiv:2011.02031 [Nlin, Physics:Physics]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2011.02031

    3. 2011.02031
    4. Tipping elements occur in various systems such as in socio-economics, ecology and the climate system. In many cases, the individual tipping elements are not independent from each other, but they interact across scales in time and space. To model systems of interacting tipping elements, we here introduce the PyCascades open source software package for studying interacting tipping elements (doi: 10.5281/zenodo.4153102). PyCascades is an object-oriented and easily extendable package written in the programming language Python. It allows for investigating under which conditions potentially dangerous cascades between interacting dynamical systems, with a focus on tipping elements, can emerge. With PyCascades it is possible to use different types of tipping elements such as double-fold and Hopf types and interactions between them. PyCascades can be applied to arbitrary complex network structures and has recently been extended to stochastic dynamical systems. This paper provides an overview of the functionality of PyCascades by introducing the basic concepts and the methodology behind it. In the end, three examples are discussed, showing three different applications of the software package. First, the moisture recycling network of the Amazon rainforest is investigated. Second, a model of interacting Earth system tipping elements is discussed. And third, the PyCascades modelling framework is applied to a global trade network.
    5. Modelling nonlinear dynamics of interacting tipping elements on complex networks: the PyCascades package
    1. 2020-11-09

    2. Weibelzahl, S., Reiter, J., & Duden, G. (2020). Pandemic-Induced Depression and Anxiety in Healthcare Professionals. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/5rehd

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/5rehd
    4. Medical staff has been at the centre of the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, facing diverse work-related stressors. Studies from various countries have shown that healthcare professionals have an increased risk of burnout and mental disorders during pandemic outbreaks. The present study aimed to investigate what kind of work-related stressors healthcare professionals in Germany have been facing and how they have been affected psychologically by the COVID-19 pandemic. N=300 healthcare professionals completed an online survey including the ISR symptom checklist to measure psychological well-being and questions on help-seeking behaviour. Findings were analyzed using t-tests, regression, and comparisons to large clinical and non-clinical samples assessed before and during the pandemic. Results show that healthcare professionals were most affected by protective measures at their workplace and changes in work procedures. Psychological symptoms, especially of anxiety and depression, were significantly more severe than in a non-clinical pre-pandemic sample and in the general population during the pandemic. At the same time, most professionals indicated that they would not seek help for psychological concerns. These findings indicate that healthcare employers need to pay increasing attention to the mental health of their staff, encourage help-seeking behaviour, as well as provide access to mental health support.
    5. Pandemic-Induced Depression and Anxiety in Healthcare Professionals
  3. Oct 2020
    1. Brous, P., & Janssen, M. (2020). Trusted Decision-Making: Data Governance for Creating Trust in Data Science Decision Outcomes. Administrative Sciences, 10(4), 81. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10040081

    2. 2020-10-14

    3. 10.3390/admsci10040081
    4. Organizations are increasingly introducing data science initiatives to support decision-making. However, the decision outcomes of data science initiatives are not always used or adopted by decision-makers, often due to uncertainty about the quality of data input. It is, therefore, not surprising that organizations are increasingly turning to data governance as a means to improve the acceptance of data science decision outcomes. In this paper, propositions will be developed to understand the role of data governance in creating trust in data science decision outcomes. Two explanatory case studies in the asset management domain are analyzed to derive boundary conditions. The first case study is a data science project designed to improve the efficiency of road management through predictive maintenance, and the second case study is a data science project designed to detect fraudulent usage of electricity in medium and low voltage electrical grids without infringing privacy regulations. The duality of technology is used as our theoretical lens to understand the interactions between the organization, decision-makers, and technology. The results show that data science decision outcomes are more likely to be accepted if the organization has an established data governance capability. Data governance is also needed to ensure that organizational conditions of data science are met, and that incurred organizational changes are managed efficiently. These results imply that a mature data governance capability is required before sufficient trust can be placed in data science decision outcomes for decision-making.
    5. Trusted Decision-Making: Data Governance for Creating Trust in Data Science Decision Outcomes
    1. 2020-10-28

    2. CNN, N. P. W., Jo Shelley and William Bonnett. (n.d.). Doctors and nurses face abuse as UK coronavirus cases soar but social distancing wanes. CNN. Retrieved 29 October 2020, from https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/28/europe/coronavirus-blackburn-icu-second-wave/index.html

    3. As a matron in a hectic ICU, Linda Gregson felt the coronavirus pandemic had stretched her idea of what was possible to its limits. Then came the video call. It had been set up so one of her critically ill Covid-19 patients could see their loved ones. But instead of the usual smiling face, or couple of waving children at the other end of the line, this time there were 45 relatives, all crammed into one room
    4. Doctors and nurses face abuse as UK coronavirus cases soar but social distancing wanes