247 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2019
    1. Mutual information is one of many quantities that measures how much one random variables tells us about another. It is a dimensionless quantity with (generally) units of bits, and can be thought of as the reduction in uncertainty about one random variable given knowledge of another. High mutual information indicates a large reduction in uncertainty; low mutual information indicates a small reduction; and zero mutual information between two random variables means the variables are independent.
    1. In 1996 and 1998, a pair of workshops at the University of Glasgow on information retrieval and human–computer interaction sought to address the overlap between these two fields. Marchionini notes the impact of the World Wide Web and the sudden increase in information literacy – changes that were only embryonic in the late 1990s.

      it took a half a century for these disciplines to discern their complementarity!

    1. The web, in yet another example of its leveling effect, allows nearly everyone to see nearly every interface. Thus designers can learn rapidly from what others have done, and users can see if one web site's experience is substandard compared to others.
  2. Jun 2019
  3. May 2019
    1. teaching facts is a poor substitute for teaching people how to learn, i.e., giving them the skills to be able to locate, evaluate, and effectively use information for any given need

      equates learning how to learn with IL

    2. little in their environment fosters active thinking or problem solving

      an appeal for open education

    3. They remain one of the few safeguards against information control by a minority

      ominous and prophetic

  4. Apr 2019
    1. But even when both milk and sugar are taken out of the equation, chocolate appears to play a role in pimple formation.

      "Future studies with a larger study group using dark chocolate as well as specific components of chocolate, such as the flavonoids coupled with more diligent documentation of the participants' diets and menstrual cycles may provide valuable and comprehensive dermatology guidance to acne patients" (Delost, Delost, & Lloyd, 2016).

    2. Interestingly, jelly beans didn't have an effect on acne. But when people ate chocolate, their pimples increased.

      The pimples increased with "the chocolate consumption group [having] a statistically significant (P < .0001) increase in acne lesions (+4.8 lesions) compared with the jellybean consumption group (−0.7 lesions)" (Delost, Delost, & Lloyd, 2016).

    3. All patients received both "treatments."

      When they say all patients received both treatments they are referring to the "Crossover analysis was done 4 weeks later. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of acne lesions between the 2 groups when the crossover occurred (P = .322), which demonstrates adequate washout from the first part of the study" (Delost, Delost, & Lloyd, 2016).

    4. glycemic load

      "The link of chocolate to acne vulgaris was replaced by the theory that a high glycemic index may contribute to acne vulgaris. In this study, we attempted to revisit the controversial topic by assessing the development of new acne lesions following ingestion of chocolate versus a nonchocolate candy with a similar glycemic load." (Delost, Delost, & Lloyd, 2016).

    1. Our culture is defined by the music we listen to, and the way it is portrayed in the media. Every culture around the world has a different style of song or dance that represents their traditions. Culture can not only be changed through popular songs, but is best represented through music. One of the best ways to understand a foreign culture is by listening to the music that is favorable among the people whose culture you are trying to understand. Music is one of the most powerful forms of art between cultures.

      Music has the power to redefine cultures. We can see this through generational differences between song preferences. For example, American country music back in the late 1900s has a much different feel and style compared to country music now in 2019. While keeping within the same genre, this style of music touches upon different subjects, and uses different instruments, sounds and lyrics. Even early hip-hop has evolved from its beginnings. Hip-hop music is considered the most popular music as of right now, but it has not always been that way. Each generation favors different types of genres of music, and it is clear which backgrounds over the years have favored certain genres of music. As much as music can differentiate cultures, and generations, music can bring people of completely different background together by its artistic flavor and general popularity throughout the mainstream media.

    1. Virtual reality meets this bar when it comes to one-on-one conversations: when we analyzed the EEG results of participants who chatted in virtual reality, we found that on average they were within the optimal range of cognitive effort. To put it another way, participants in virtual reality were neither bored nor overstimulated. They were also in the ideal zone for remembering and processing information.
    1. How does having diverse members in a group increase the critical thinking of the group?

      It is just as important to define concepts as it is to identify them. For example, diversity will actually mean different things in different circumstances. This is a subtle but important distinction- you must have a clear (if not absolute) definition of a cncept before you begin to research it.

    1. Evidence to win a bet with a rival in the dorm.

      What are the stakes? Money? Bragging rights? Public humiliation for the loser? The secrets of creation? (I have a sneaking suspicion that this will not be considered, considered a substantive annotation, so I will make an extra).

    1. Only one version of the truth is presented about controversial issues.

      Very important. You can create a false impression easily simply by omitting information, as opposed to outright lying. The "sin of omission" is a huge and often unrecognized problem in researching information. If you know there is another side, please gather information about it. Ideally, study until you can understand why your opponents feel the way they do.

    1. Digital sociology needs more big theory as well as testable theory.

      Here I might posit that Cesar Hidalgo's book Why Information Grows (MIT, 2015) has some interesting theses about links between people and companies which could be extrapolated up to "societies of linked companies". What could we predict about how those will interact based on the underlying pieces? Is it possible that we see other emergent complex behaviors?

    1. When we think about caring for our neighbors, we think about local churches, and charities—systems embedded in our communities. But I see these technological systems as one of the main ways that we take care of each other at scale. It’s how Americans care for all three hundred million of our neighbors, rich or poor, spread over four million square miles, embedded in global supply chains.
  5. Mar 2019
    1. Given that engagement and integration(i.e., involvement in the various social and academic ac-tivities of university/college life) are considered key tosuccessful academic achievement (see Tinto2006), theidentifying features of social anxiety, including fear ofnegative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new orall social situations (Ginsburg et al.1998), may be espe-cially disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts

      The author provides context for the problem to be clearly understood by the readers and those who do not have any sort of background information concerning the topic

    1. This page is not necessarily attractive to look at but it is a thorough presentation of various features of infographics. Features are organized by topic and generally presented as a bulleted list. The focus of the page is how to use infographics for assessment; however, the page is useful to those who wish to learn how to create infographics and to identify the software tools that can be used to create them easily. Rating 4/5

    1. This link is for the Association of Information Science and Technology. While many of the resources are available only to those who are association members, there are a great many resources to be found via this site. Among the items available are their newsletter and their journal articles. As the title suggests, there is a technology focus, and also a focus on scientific findings that can guide instructional designers in the presentation and display of visual and textual information, often but not exclusively online. Instructional designers are specifically addressed via the content of this site. A student membership is available. Rating 5/5

    1. WebQuests typically contain an introduction, task, process, evaluation, and conclusion

      The process of obtaining information from the web which can help students to understand the type of information they are recieving and deciding if it is relevant and accurate

    1. Engelbart insisted that effective intellectual augmentation was always realized within a system, and that any intervention intended to accelerate intellectual augmentation must be understood as an intervention in a system. And while at many points the 1962 report emphasizes the individual knowledge worker, there is also the idea of sharing the context of one’s work (an idea Vannevar Bush had also described in “As We May Think”), the foundation of Engelbart’s lifelong view that a crucial way to accelerate intellectual augmentation was to think together more comprehensively and effectively. One might even rewrite Engelbart’s words above to say, “We do not speak of isolated clever individuals with knowledge of particular domains. We refer to a way of life in an integrated society where poets, musicians, dreamers, and visionaries usefully co-exist with engineers, scientists, executives, and governmental leaders.” Make your own list.
    1. Found reference to this in a review of Henry Quastler's book Information Theory in Biology.

      A more serious thing, in the reviewer's opinion, is the compIete absence of contributions deaJing with information theory and the central nervous system, which may be the field par excellence for the use of such a theory. Although no explicit reference to information theory is made in the well-known paper of W. McCulloch and W. Pitts (1943), the connection is quite obvious. This is made explicit in the systematic elaboration of the McCulloch-Pitts' approach by J. von Neumann (1952). In his interesting book J. T. Culbertson (1950) discussed possible neuraI mechanisms for recognition of visual patterns, and particularly investigated the problems of how greatly a pattern may be deformed without ceasing to be recognizable. The connection between this problem and the problem of distortion in the theory of information is obvious. The work of Anatol Rapoport and his associates on random nets, and especially on their applications to rumor spread (see the series of papers which appeared in this Journal during the past four years), is also closely connected with problems of information theory.

      Electronic copy available at: http://www.cse.chalmers.se/~coquand/AUTOMATA/mcp.pdf

  6. Feb 2019
    1. The result is that these new knowledge territories become the subject of political conflict. The first conflict is over the distribution of knowledge: “Who knows?” The second is about authority: “Who decides who knows?” The third is about power: “Who decides who decides who knows?”
    1. The summation of human experience is being expanded at a prodigious rate

      The prodigious rate itself is expanding, is it a scale even conceivable at this time? (insert the usual stats of YouTube content growing at 300 hours a minute).

      I'm anxious to read if he anticipates the notion of turning to automation to try and handle this organization- it always seemed that Bush's vision was human focused.

    1. These discussions can be fraught with power dynamics, resulting in controversial issues appearing unbalanced as more powerful authors block alternative viewpoints.

      Students need to know which information is going to be unbiased and true. There are MANY internet sources that use shock value information or biased information rather than presenting corect information.

    1. Using questions and keywords to find the information you need

      Learning how to search correctly can help to find more accurate information faster by using keywords and other searching practices.

  7. Jan 2019
    1. Our students have an unprecedented breadth of information resources at their fingertips, yet there is a significant danger that they will miss the opportunity to engage with those voices that hold the greatest prospects for growth. Collecting confirmations of one’s existing views is a poor substitute for meaningful learning.
    2. For example, an individual who believes that knowledge in a certain domain consists of a set of discrete, relatively static facts will likely achieve a sense of certainty on a research question much more quickly than someone who views knowledge as provisional, relative, and evolving.

      But when curricula reinforce the confusion of speed and intelligence, that time may be precious.

    3. Nyhan and Reifler also found that presenting challenging information in a chart or graph tends to reduce disconfirmation bias. The researchers concluded that the decreased ambiguity of graphical information (as opposed to text) makes it harder for test subjects to question or argue against the content of the chart.

      Amazingly important double-edged finding for discussions of data visualization!

    4. A study by Nyhan and Reifler showed that having test subjects engage in a self-affirmation exercise significantly reduced their level of defensive processing when faced with counter-attitudinal information on policy issues.

      Relation to stereotype threat?

    5. Likewise, merely telling students that motivated reasoning has an impact on their information processing is apt to yield mixed results because students who view themselves as intelligent, fair-minded people will likely meet this revelation with a level of disconfirmation bias.

      Students and faculty both. Many disciplines are reluctant to introduce critical perspectives on disciplinary publishing too early, feeling that students need grounding in accepted information flows before branching out into active debates.

    6. additional motivation for test subjects to process information accurately made the impact of early preferences less prominent, though the influence did not disappear entirely

      Interesting implications for assignment design.

    7. Is it safe to assume that we give each bit of information a “fair hearing,” always adjusting our beliefs to conform to compelling evidence? Or do our backgrounds and preferences inhibit our ability to be objective when evaluating information that challenges our beliefs?

      What interests me here is how we might rethink the concept of "political" information. Most if not all information can be situated in a polis. How can we show the risk of motivated reasoning in "scientific" disciplines without falling into both-sidesism?

    8. By examining information as a product of people’s contingent choices, rather than as an impartial recording of unchanging truths, the critically information-literate student develops an outlook toward information characterized by a robust sense of agency and a heightened concern for justice.

      It seems like there's still a transfer problem here, though. There seems to be an assertion that criticality will be inherently cross-domain, but I'm not clear why that should be true. Why would the critical outlook not remain domain-specific. (To say "if it does, then it isn't critical", seems like a tautology.)

    1. embodied information,”

      As information has become more ubiquitous and trivial, an important sense of the word has faded. "Information" is something "put in a form" or something "that forms."

      It's fascinating to think about how information forms us, and how outsourcing that also changes us.

      Note also that Brooke calls for "a return." This is a great fact to keep in my back pocket for the common misconception of posthumanism as "after human crazy cyborg thingy." No, Brooke, a posthumanist, says "go back."

    1. Gymnastics is a sport in which athletes called gymnasts perform acrobatic feats – leaps, flips, turns, handstands and more – on a piece of apparatus such as a balance beam, or with a piece of apparatus like a rope or ribbon. 

      Background info

  8. wendynorris.com wendynorris.com
    1. Zack [42] distinguished these four termsaccording to two dimensions: the nature of what is being processed and the consti-tution of the processing problem.The nature of what is being processed is either information or frames of ref-erence. With information, we mean “observations that have been cognitively pro-cessed and punctuated into coherent messages” [42]. Frames of reference [4, p.108], on the other hand, are the interpretative frames which provide the context forcreating and understanding information. There can be situations in which there is alack of information or a frame of reference, or too much information or too manyframes of reference to process.

      Description of information processing challenges and breakdowns.

      Uncertainty -- not enough information

      Complexity -- too much information

      Ambiguity -- lack of clear meaning

      Equivocality -- multiple meanings

    2. Sensemaking is about contextual rationality, built out of vaguequestions, muddy answers, and negotiated agreements that attempt to reduce ambi-guity and equivocality. The genesis of Sensemaking is a lack of fit between whatwe expect and what we encounter [40]. With Sensemaking, one does not look at thequestion of “which course of action should we choose?”, but instead at an earlierpoint in time where users are unsure whether there is even a decision to be made,with questions such as “what is going on here, and should I even be asking this ques-tion just now?” [40]. This shows that Sensemaking is used to overcome situationsof ambiguity. When there are too many interpretations of an event, people engagein Sensemaking too, to reduce equivocality.

      Definition of sensemaking and how the process interacts with ambiguity and equivocality in framing information.

      "Sensemaking is about coping with information processing challenges of ambiguity and equivocality by dealing with frames of reference."

    3. Decision making is traditionally viewed as a sequential process of problem classifi-cation and definition, alternative generation, alternative evaluation, and selection ofthe best course of action [26]. This process is about strategic rationality, aimed atreducing uncertainty [6, 36]. Uncertainty can be reduced through objective analysisbecause it consists of clear questions for which answers exist [5, 40]. Complex-ity can also be reduced by objective analysis, as it requires restricting or reducingfactual information and associated linkages [42]

      Definition of decision making and how this process interacts with uncertainty and complexity in information.

      "Decision making is about coping with information processing challenges of uncertainty and complexity by dealing with information"

    4. Crisis environments are characterized by various types of information problemsthat complicate the response, such as inaccurate, late, superficial, irrelevant, unreli-able, and conflicting information [30, 32]. This poses difficulties for actors to makesense of what is going on and to take appropriate action. Such issues of informationprocessing are a major challenge for the field of crisis management, both concep-tually and empirically [19].

      Description of information problems in crisis environments.

  9. Dec 2018
    1. It is based on reciprocity and a level of trust that each party is actively seeking value-added information for the other.

      Seems like this is a critical assumption to examine for current media literacy/misinformation discussions. As networks become very large and very flat, does this assumption of reciprocity and good faith hold? (I'm thinking, here, of people whose expertise I trust in one domain but perhaps not in another, or the fact that sometimes I'm talking to one part of my network and not really "actively seeking information" for other parts.)

  10. Nov 2018
    1. I had begun to think of social movements’ abilities in terms of “capacities”—like the muscles one develops while exercising but could be used for other purposes like carrying groceries or walking long distances—and their repertoire of pro-test, like marches, rallies, and occupations as “signals” of those capacities.

      I find it interesting that she's using words from information theory like "capacities" and "signals" here. It reminds me of the thesis of Caesar Hidalgo's Why Information Grows and his ideas about links. While within the social milieu, links may be easier to break with new modes of communication, what most protesters won't grasp or have the time and patience for is the recreation of new links to create new institutions for rule. As seen in many war torn countries, this is the most difficult part. Similarly campaigning is easy, governing is much harder.

      As an example: The US government's breaking of the links of military and police forces in post-war Iraq made their recovery process far more difficult because all those links within the social hierarchy and political landscape proved harder to reconstruct.

    1. Understanding Individual Neuron Importance Using Information Theory

      前几天也发现了这个文,果断收藏下载了!

      在信息论下,讨论互信息和分类效率等在网络内部的影响~

    2. Understanding Convolutional Neural Network Training with Information Theory

      要认真读的文,从信息论观点去理解 CNN。

  11. Oct 2018
    1. For students to work in the open, everything they use has to be original content, openly licensed, or in the public domain

      have to disagree here. Students can link, quote, summarize, paraphrase, and thus build or contribute to open resources from closed information

  12. Sep 2018
    1. This won't be the first time that teens use Snapchat as a portal for political action.

      Snapchat is definitely a good way to spread information, especially with its wide range of use.

    1. travel

      Improve information for LDLC workers about travel; assess the existing gaps to protect workers during their work related travel and develop or improve the tools for their protection

    2. information LDLC workers

      Improve information for LDLC workers about their rights related to OH&S and WC

    1. Deluged by apparent facts, arguments and counterarguments, our brains resort to the most obvious filter, the easiest cognitive shortcut for a social animal: We look to our peers, see what they believe and cheer along. As a result, open and participatory speech has turned into its opposite. Important voices are silenced by mobs of trolls using open platforms to hurl abuse and threats. Bogus news shared from one friend or follower to the next becomes received wisdom. Crucial pieces of information drown in so much irrelevance that they are lost. If books were burned in the street, we would be alarmed. Now, we are simply exhausted.
    2. For the longest time, we thought that as speech became more democratized, democracy itself would flourish. As more and more people could broadcast their words and opinions, there would be an ever-fiercer battle of ideas—with truth emerging as the winner, stronger from the fight. But in 2018, it is increasingly clear that more speech can in fact threaten democracy. The glut of information we now face, made possible by digital tools and social media platforms, can bury what is true, greatly elevate and amplify misinformation and distract from what is important.
    3. But in the digital age, when speech can exist mostly unfettered, the big threat to truth looks very different. It’s not just censorship, but an avalanche of undistinguished speech—some true, some false, some fake, some important, some trivial, much of it out-of-context, all burying us.
  13. Aug 2018
    1. ‘In a complexinformation society, with a highly developed divi-sion of intellectual labor, we have no option butrely on information from sources that are usuallytrustworthy.’
    2. ‘Thedilemma, then, is that a right to information couldmake people worse off in terms of information.’’Elgesem then provides a contextual analysis of therole search engines play in the broader ‘‘informationecology’’ constituted by contemporary ICTs. Elgesemis able to connect the search engine dilemma withKant’s second formulation of the CategoricalImperative, ‘‘Act in such a way that you treathumanity, whether in your own person or in theperson of another, always at the same time as an endand never simply as a means.’’8Here, Elgeseminterprets Kant to mean that by ‘‘humanity,’’ Kantrefers to our ability to reason as the central propertythat makes us human. The simple point, as empha-sized in Kant’s famous example regarding lying, isthat failure to provide truthful information is a primeexample of violating the CI because false informationmakes it impossible for the recipient to exercise herrationality. By the same token, Elgesem argues that abiased search engine likewise makes it impossible forusers to exercise their rationality, and thus likewiserepresent violations of the CI.
    1. Social scientist, on the other hand, have focused on what ties are more likely to bring in new information, which are primarily weak ties (Granovetter 1973), and on why weak ties bring new information (because they bridge structural holes (Burt 2001), (Burt 2005)).
    1. Instead of trying to force their messages into the mainstream, these adversaries target polarized communities and “embed” fake accounts within them. The false personas engage with real people in those communities to build credibility. Once their influence has been established, they can introduce new viewpoints and amplify divisive and inflammatory narratives that are already circulating. It’s the digital equivalent of moving to an isolated and tight-knit community, using its own language quirks and catering to its obsessions, running for mayor, and then using that position to influence national politics.
    2. However, as the following diagrams will show, the middle is a lot weaker than it looks, and this makes public discourse vulnerable both to extremists at home and to manipulation by outside actors such as Russia.
    1. Half of Americans say news and current events matter a lot to their daily lives, while 30 percent say the news doesn’t have much to do with them. The rest aren’t sure. A quarter of Americans say they paid a lot of attention to the news on Tuesday, with 32 percent paying just some attention, 26 percent paying not very much attention and 18 percent paying no attention at all. Forty-seven percent thought the news was at least a little busier than average. Of those who paid any attention to the news on Tuesday, 32 percent spent an hour or more reading, watching or listening. About 23 percent spent 30 minutes to an hour, 18 percent spent 15 minutes to half an hour, and 21 percent spent less than 15 minutes. Just 15 percent of those who paid any attention to the news Tuesday have a great deal of trust in the media to state the facts fully, accurately and fairly. Thirty-eight percent have a fair amount of trust, 28 percent don’t have much trust in the media, and 11 percent have none at all. Those who followed the news on Tuesday were most likely to say they had gotten their news from an online news source (42 percent) or local TV (37 percent), followed by national cable TV (33 percent), social media (28 percent), national network news (23 percent), radio (19 percent) and conversations with other people (19 percent). The least popular source was print newspapers and magazines (10 percent).
    2. Most Americans pay at least a little attention to current events, but they differ enormously in where they turn to get their news and which stories they pay attention to. To get a better sense of how a busy news cycle played out in homes across the country, we repeated an experiment, teaming up with YouGov to ask 1,000 people nationwide to describe their news consumption and respond to a simple prompt: “In your own words, please describe what you would say happened in the news on Tuesday.”
    1. differing nomenclature makes the search for a commonly agreed definition or understanding of digital literacies even more elusive

      An important point. I wonder if Bruce's work might help here.

    2. Representation of Digital Intelligence

      I wonder if the similarity to a pie chart hints a message that the components are all equal. The use of the color spectrum also says something about continuity and adjacency which may not be intended. But it looks nice.

    1. As people see more, they are more likely to notice things they can do something about, which confirms the perception of control and also reduces crisis intensity to lower levels by virtue of early intervention in its development

      "Information is Aid" also contributes to the idea that enactment can assert a sense of control.

    2. As forcefulness and ambiguity increase, enactment is more con- sequential, and more of the unfolding crisis is under the direct control of human action. Conversely, as action becomes more tentative and situations become more clearly structured, enactment processes will play a smaller role in crisis development and managment. Enactment, therefore, will have most effect on those portions of a crisis which are loosely coupled.

      Again, another argument for "Information is Aid" as a way to clarify the known situation, provide more complete descriptions of potential action, etc., this ultimately helps to decrease ambiguity.

    3. Capacity and response repertoire affect crisis perception, because people see those events they feel they have the capacity to do something about. As capacities change, so too do perceptions and actions. This relationship is one of the crucial leverage points to improve crisis management.

      This gets at the idea of information as a form of humanitarian aid.

    1. As Coyle and Meier (2009) argue, disasters are often seen as crises of information where it is vital to make sure that people know where to find potable water, how to ask for help, where their relatives are, or if their home is at risk; as well as providing emergency response and human-itarian agencies with information about affected populations. Such a quest for information for ‘security’, in turn, provides fertile ground for a quest for technological solutions, such as big data, which open up opportunities for the extended surveillance of everyday life. The assumption is that if only enough information could be gathered and exchanged, preparedness, resilience and control would follow. This is particularly pertinent with regard to mobile pop-ulations (Adey and Kirby 2016)

      The Information is Aid perspective that drives my research agenda.

  14. Jul 2018
    1. "The internet has become the main threat — a sphere that isn't controlled by the Kremlin," said Pavel Chikov, a member of Russia's presidential human rights council. "That's why they're going after it. Its very existence as we know it is being undermined by these measures."
    2. "Putin was never very fond of the internet even in the early 2000s," said Andrei Soldatov, a Russian investigative journalist who specializes in security services and cyber issues. "When he was forced to think about the internet during the protests, he became very suspicious, especially about social networks. He thinks there's a plot, a Western conspiracy against him. He believes there is a very dangerous thing for him and he needs to put this thing under control."
    1. creating a new international news operation called Sputnik to “provide an alternative viewpoint on world events.” More and more, though, the Kremlin is manipulating the information sphere in more insidious ways.
    1. RuNet Echo has previously written about the efforts of the Russian “Troll Army” to inject the social networks and online media websites with pro-Kremlin rhetoric. Twitter is no exception, and multiple users have observed Twitter accounts tweeting similar statements during and around key breaking news and events. Increasingly active throughout Russia's interventions in Ukraine, these “bots” have been designed to look like real Twitter users, complete with avatars.
    1. We’ve built an information ecosystem where information can fly through social networks (both technical and personal). Folks keep looking to the architects of technical networks to solve the problem. I’m confident that these companies can do a lot to curb some of the groups who have capitalized on what’s happening to seek financial gain. But the battles over ideology and attention are going to be far trickier. What’s at stake isn’t “fake news.” What’s at stake is the increasing capacity of those committed to a form of isolationist and hate-driven tribalism that has been around for a very long time. They have evolved with the information landscape, becoming sophisticated in leveraging whatever tools are available to achieve power, status, and attention. And those seeking a progressive and inclusive agenda, those seeking to combat tribalism to form a more perfect union —  they haven’t kept up.
    2. As I wrote in “Hacking the Attention Economy,” manipulating the media for profit, ideology, and lulz has evolved over time. The strategies that hackers, hoaxers, and haters have taken have become more sophisticated. The campaigns have gotten more intense. And now many of the actors most set on undermining institutionalized information intermediaries are in the most powerful office in the land. They are waging war on the media and the media doesn’t know what to do other than to report on it.
    3. How many years did it take for the US military to learn that waging war with tribal networks couldn’t be fought with traditional military strategies? How long will it take for the news media to wake up and recognize that they’re being played? And how long after that will it take for editors and publishers to start evolving their strategies?
    4. there’s no cost to the administration to be helpful to the media because the people the Trump Administration cares about don’t trust the media anyhow.
    5. News agencies, long trained to focus on reporting information and maintaining a conceptual model of standards, are ill-equipped to understand that they may have a role in this war, that their actions and decisions are shaping the way the war plays out.
    1. When messaging is coordinated and consistent, it easily fools our brains, already exhausted and increasingly reliant on heuristics (simple psychological shortcuts) due to the overwhelming amount of information flashing before our eyes every day. When we see multiple messages about the same topic, our brains use that as a short-cut to credibility. It must be true we say — I’ve seen that same claim several times today.
    2. I saw Eliot Higgins present in Paris in early January, and he listed four ‘Ps’ which helped explain the different motivations. I’ve been thinking about these a great deal and using Eliot’s original list have identified four additional motivations for the creation of this type of content: Poor Journalism, Parody, to Provoke or ‘Punk’, Passion, Partisanship, Profit, Political Influence or Power, and Propaganda.This is a work in progress but once you start breaking these categories down and mapping them against one another you begin to see distinct patterns in terms of the types of content created for specific purposes.
    3. Back in November, I wrote about the different types of problematic information I saw circulate during the US election. Since then, I’ve been trying to refine a typology (and thank you to Global Voices for helping me to develop my definitions even further). I would argue there are seven distinct types of problematic content that sit within our information ecosystem. They sit on a scale, one that loosely measures the intent to deceive.
    4. As Danah Boyd outlined in a recent piece, we are at war. An information war. We certainly should worry about people (including journalists) unwittingly sharing misinformation, but far more concerning are the systematic disinformation campaigns.
    5. To understand the current information ecosystem, we need to break down three elements:The different types of content that are being created and sharedThe motivations of those who create this contentThe ways this content is being disseminated
    1. The over­load of information, for example, is becoming so extensive that taking advantage of only the tiniest fraction of it not only blows apart the principle of instantaneity and 'real-time' communication, but also slows down operators to a pomt where they lose themselves in the eternity of electronically networked information.

      High tempo Information overload exacerbates time compression and thus impacts temporal sensemaking through typical means via chronologies, linear information processing, and past/present/future contexts.

    1. Furthermore, and differentiating digital time from clock time, he suggests that a lack of adherence to chronological time is compounded by the fact that digital technologies connect with a flow of information that is al-ways and instantly available. He argues that continual change, which is bound up with web services such as social network sites, blogs and the news, is central to the experi-enced need for constant connectivity.

      Q: How does this idea of time vs information flow affect the data harvested during a digital crowdwork process in humanitarian emergencies?

      Q: How does this idea of time vs information flow manifest when the information flow is not chronological due to content throttling or algorithmic decisions on what content to deliver to a user?

  15. course-computational-literary-analysis.netlify.com course-computational-literary-analysis.netlify.com
    1. Her astonishing quickness of perception, detected a change in my voice, or my manner, when I put that question, which warned her that I had been speaking all along with some ulterior object in view. She stopped, and taking her arm out of mine, looked me searchingly in the face.

      At the end of the first narrative, Rachel break the engagement and Godfrey agree with it without argument. The reason why Rachel breaks the engagement and the reason why Godfrey accepts it happily is revealed by Mr. Bruff in this chapter. I think it is a typical example of the unique information flow in Moonstone. The writer is so sagacious that he arranges one narrator to show the strange events and lets another narrator reveal the truth and raise some new puzzles. As a result, the writer can promote the development of the plot and reveal the mystery behind it at the same time. It makes readers keep curious all the time because there is fascinating''truth'' in every narrative.

  16. Jun 2018
    1. article identifies many important information literacy issues - issues of a kind generally not discussed in traditional info lit contexts

    1. Following the history of information technology and the massive trend towards open source, wecan see that democratizing information is the natural next step in the incessant trend to opensource, and thus the next big opportunity for innovation.
    2. The way to play a consolidating market is to investheavily into the consolidating incumbents (which are likely to continue growing strongly for along period of time) and to invest progressively in the insurgent platforms that will grow tocommoditize the incumbent business models and create a new wave of innovation. We arefocused on the latter
    3. Those who succeed the most and establish successful platforms “on top” of the open standardlater tend to consolidate the industry by leveraging their scale (in assets and distribution) tointegrate vertically and expand horizontally at the expense of smaller companies. Competing inthis new environment suddenly becomes expensive and startups struggle to create value in theshadow of incumbents, compressing venture returns.Demand then builds for a low cost, open source alternative to the incumbent platforms, and thecycle repeats itself: the new open standard emerges and gets adopted, the market decentralizes asnew firms leverage the cost savings to compete with the old on price, value creation shiftsupwards (once more), and so on
    4. Information technology evolves in multi-decade cycles of expansion, consolidation anddecentralization. Periods of expansion follow the introduction of a new open platform thatreduces the production costs of technology as it becomes a shared standard. As production costsfall, new firms come to market leveraging the standard to compete with established incumbents,pushing down prices and margins, and decentralizing existing market powers.The price drop attracts new users, increasing the overall size of the market and creating newopportunities for mass consumer applications. Entrepreneurial talent moves to serve the newmarkets where costs are low, competition is scarce, and the upside is high. Often these earlyentrepreneurs will introduce new kinds of business models, orthogonal to existing ones
    1. Non-cooperative companies solve this problem by taking up front capital and using that to subsidize one or both sides of the marketplace – guaranteeing fees to musicians and doing lots of marketing to recruit users. Cooperatives lack this up front capital, making it hard to get started.
    2. First and foremost, it is not clear that Info Coops will produce more open information? After all, the logic of the information coop model is that information is only shared with members.
    1. An FOI request involves a written query for records, a submission fee

      I disgaree to the idea of associated fees for requesting government information because this can be a potential barrier to the freedom of information ideology. I think everyone should enjoy this freedom regardless of their economic status.

  17. May 2018
    1. Users of the internet emphasize retrieving and manipulating information over contextualizing or conceptualizing its meaning

      Sounds like an information literacy deficit, but to be fair, IL proponents push the same imbalance.

  18. Apr 2018
    1. Information we receive without consciously asking a question

      Information diet & filter bubbles are related concepts. I wonder if there is such a thing as "Information Affective Disorder"?

    1. an effective marginal cost of zero

      This aspect of information goods is oft quoted as a distinguishing feature whose existence supports a radically different approach from previous publishing methods.

      It's true that the marginal cost is dramatically decreased with digital publishing. But there's a big difference between "closer to zero than before" and actually zero. The marginal cost of digital information goods is not actually zero. That people are willing to trade their privacy in exchange for someone else bearing the costs of managing information is one piece of evidence of this.

  19. burn.coplacdigital.org burn.coplacdigital.org
    1. February 2016, Lee passed away at age 89

      I do not recall this being mentioned in the timeline, perhaps would be a beneficial addition?

  20. Mar 2018
    1. Wessam Elhefnawy is a PhD student at Old Dominion University (ODU), member of the Pareto Lab directed by Professor Yaohang Li.

      author data

  21. Feb 2018
    1. Singers

      The recordings in the archive are drawn from the TG4 programmes ‘Abair Amhrán’, ‘Amhrán is Ansa Liom’, and ‘Sean-Nós’, as well as their broadcasting of the singing competitions of the annual An tOireachtas festival. Virtually all singers of unaccompanied song in Irish, practicing at any point over the past 110 years, are included in the archive’s recordings. Representation of different regions of origin, age groups, and themes of song is highly diverse.

  22. Jan 2018
    1. the protection of private information in an online environment has become the responsibility of user

      Certainly an info lit issue. The Information Has Value frame puts heavy emphasis on other people's info, but we also need to be conscious of the value of our own

  23. Dec 2017
    1. In repeating the well-worn phrase that is supposed to sum up natural selection, ‘survival of the fittest’, we seldom think to ask: the fittest what? It won’t do to think that the phrase refers to fitness in individuals such as you and me. Even the fittest individuals never survive at all. We all die. What does survive is best described as information, much of which is encoded in the genes.
  24. Nov 2017
    1. institutional demands for enterprise services such as e-mail, student information systems, and the branded website become mission-critical

      In context, these other dimensions of “online presence” in Higher Education take a special meaning. Reminds me of WPcampus. One might have thought that it was about using WordPress to enhance learning. While there are some presentations on leveraging WP as a kind of “Learning Management System”, much of it is about Higher Education as a sector for webwork (-development, -design, etc.).

    1. when Americans get news online, they increasingly reach for a smartphone (55%), with computer use falling significantly

      Does this impact the quality of the news people receive? News on a phone would have less depth, and possibly trend towards clickbait. Is it more personalized, more subject to algorithmic interference?

    1. the figure is just 53 percent when people are asked specifically about the news that they themselves use

      This bears further investigation. Is it low by historical standards? If so, might it be a result of marketing efforts by media outlets, as they try to distinguish themselves from the competition?

    2. people do not always distinguish between news reports and advertising on news sites, and the contrast between a professionally reported story and the “around the web” recommendations that may accompany it can be jarring

      In the online environment these sites and articles are mixed together as if they were equivalent. When we encounter newspapers in stores, they are generally not adjacent to tabloids.

  25. Oct 2017
    1. Technology is the problem. When the profit motive trumps the public good

      That second thing is the major problem - the attitude that money matters and people don't. Truth becomes a casualty. Humanity becomes a casualty. It manifests itself in the precarious employment situation and the opioid crisis as well as the media.

    1. Avant d’être des biens économiques, la culture et l’information fondent notre humanité

      La culture et l'information participent à la construction de notre personne en ce sens qu'à travers elles, nous avons les ressources et les outils favorables à notre épanouissement.

    1. Katie Courie

      Katie Couric is an American journalist and author who is mostly known for her television news roles. She has a been a host on all of the "Big Three" television networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC). She has also worked as a daytime talk show host. such as being a "Today" co-host. She is also famous for becoming the first woman to anchor "CBS Evening News" alone in 2006 and being a "60 Minutes" correspondent. Some of her distinctions include being inducted to the Television Hall of Fame in 2004 and having a New York TImes best-selling book. She recently worked as the Yahoo! Global News Anchor.

      Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Three_television_networks , http://katiecouric.com/ , https://www.biography.com/people/katie-couric-9542060

    1. How information is accessed, created, and shared is revealing about the future of learning

      This is talking about information literacy in a broad sense.

    1. what does it mean to be human in a digital age

      Been thinking about this from the infolit angle for a few years. Info is easy to find and access, and a little less easy to filter and evaluate. What matters more is creativity - what we can do with info, how we can connect it, what we can make out of it - all of which is impeded by copyright and enabled by openness.

    2. how we make decisions with that data needs to be as transparent as the content

      another black box that needs to be opened

    3. And so, that part I think was the second marking point for me was this idea of connectedness, and that by being connected-- being transparent and connected-- you produced this huge array of potential knowledge futures in these areas.

      Transparency is an important part of openness that I don't see discussed much in the OER community these days. If we replace an expensive text with free OER there is a great financial benefit for students, but the process of developing and selecting the OER remains something of a black box to the students. But if the students are involved in that development and selection, that process becomes transparent. Students can learn the process as well as the content, and build powerful learning skills, and an increased level of educational independence.

  26. Sep 2017
    1. The studying strategy with “the greatest power,” she adds, involves deeply questioning the text — asking yourself if you agree with the author, and why or why not.

      Etexts have an advantage in the annotation department in that they're not limited to the marginal space. Annotations can be as lengthy as they need to be. They can also be organized through tags, and thus easily searched. They can contain hyperlinks and be hyperlinked, tying texts together. I wonder how many people are taught, in any meaningful or systematic way, to use digital texts. And if they were, how would that change this dilemma.

    1. copyright is about ambiguity, not right and wrong answers, may be a helpful way of framing copyright education

      Does this relate to Perry https://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~rapaport/perry.positions.html ? I wonder.

    2. want to remain neutral or impartial

      Education, in a broad sense, is the pursuit of truth. If we support the pursuit of truth, we are not neutral.

  27. spring2018.robinwharton.net spring2018.robinwharton.net
    1. Kenneth Haltman

      Kenneth Haltman is a Professor of Art History at the University of Oklahoma. He has a B.A. from Wesleyan University in Comparative Literature, Creative Writing, and Translation and a Ph.D. from Yale University in American Studies. He has many important publications, such "American Artifacts: Essays in Material Culture" (this text) and a translation of René Brimo's classic study of American patronage and art collecting. He mainly deals with historical American art and its relation to the culture of the United States.

      Sources: http://www.ou.edu/finearts/visual-arts/programs/bachelor_of_art_in_art_history/kenneth_haltman.html , http://ou.academia.edu/KennethHaltman