635 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2020, November 5). In 4 days: SciBeh workshop ‘Building an online information environment for policy relevant science’ Join us! Topics: Crisis open science, interfacing to policy, online discourse, tools for research curation talks, panels, hackathons https://t.co/SPeD5BVgj3… I https://t.co/kQClhpHKx5 [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1324286406764744704

    1. ReconfigBehSci on Twitter: ‘1 week to the SciBeh workshop “Building an online information environment for policy relevant science” Join us, register now! Topics: Crisis open science, interfacing to policy, online discourse, tools for research curation talks, panels, hackathons https://t.co/Gsr66BRGcJ https://t.co/uRrhSb9t05’ / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved 2 March 2021, from https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1323207455283826690

  2. Feb 2021
    1. allowing you to limit what invoked tasks or nested activies “see” and what they propagate to the caller context.
    2. a method that doesn’t have access to variables outside its scope
    1. The term encapsulation is often used interchangeably with information hiding. Not all agree on the distinctions between the two though; one may think of information hiding as being the principle and encapsulation being the technique. A software module hides information by encapsulating the information into a module or other construct which presents an interface.
    1. The main purpose of this book is to go one step forward, not onlyto use the principle of maximum entropy in predicting probabilitydistributions, but to replace altogether the concept of entropy withthe more suitable concept of information, or better yet, the missinginformation (MI).

      The purpose of this textbook

    2. Thereare also a few books on statistical thermodynamics that use infor-mation theory such as those by Jaynes, Katz, and Tribus.

      Books on statistical thermodynamics that use information theory.

      Which textbook of Jaynes is he referring to?

    3. Levine, R. D. and Tribus, M (eds) (1979),The Maximum Entropy Principle,MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

      Book on statistical thermodynamics that use information theory, mentioned in Chapter 1.

    4. Katz, A. (1967),Principles of Statistical Mechanics: The Informational TheoryApproach,W.H.Freeman,London.

      Books on statistical thermodynamics that use information theory.

    1. Programming to an interface means that when you are presented with some programming interface (be it a class library, a set of functions, a network protocol or anything else) that you keep to using only things guaranteed by the interface. You may have knowledge about the underlying implementation (you may have written it), but you should not ever use that knowledge.
    1. Any representation of information such as a chart, diagram or table. Multiple views of the same information are possible, such as a bar chart for management and a tabular view for accountants.
    1. sigma代数涵盖了“一切可能事件的一切可能组合”

      一切可能事件的一切组合似乎是个不错的信息的定义。。。

    2. 所以这个sigma代数越大,那么信息就越多

      最大的sigma代数是\(\mathcal{F}\)?

      • sigma代数的大小如何理解?
      • 信息的定义?
    1. Tiger tiger burning bright. In the forest of the night. The falcon cannot hear the falconer. Things fall apart. When the stars threw down their spears what rough beast .

      This is a mix of lines from two poems - "Tyger" by William Blake and "The Second Coming" by William Butler Yeats.

    1. Searches and hashtags in social media are much less reliable as verification tools because you could be fishing within the "bubble" (or "echo chamber") of those who share common interests, fears and prejudices—and are more likely to be perpetuating myths and rumors.
  3. Jan 2021
    1. Group Rules from the Admins1NO POSTING LINKS INSIDE OF POST - FOR ANY REASONWe've seen way too many groups become a glorified classified ad & members don't like that. We don't want the quality of our group negatively impacted because of endless links everywhere. NO LINKS2NO POST FROM FAN PAGES / ARTICLES / VIDEO LINKSOur mission is to cultivate the highest quality content inside the group. If we allowed videos, fan page shares, & outside websites, our group would turn into spam fest. Original written content only3NO SELF PROMOTION, RECRUITING, OR DM SPAMMINGMembers love our group because it's SAFE. We are very strict on banning members who blatantly self promote their product or services in the group OR secretly private message members to recruit them.4NO POSTING OR UPLOADING VIDEOS OF ANY KINDTo protect the quality of our group & prevent members from being solicited products & services - we don't allow any videos because we can't monitor what's being said word for word. Written post only.

      Wow, that's strict.

    1. Muzzey had hoped that the advancement of technology might make the process easier over time, that tools like ContentID could streamline things for artists. But he says it hasn’t. “I’ve had to come to terms with the fact that this isn’t a blip: this is the new normal, and it’s getting worse, not better,” he says. “Part of that problem is that people like me don’t realize their stuff is out there or think I’m not famous, so how can it be possible, not realizing that if you have a Soundcloud page, your music has been ripped, put into torrents, probably in a TV show in China somewhere, and that’s just how that world works. You don’t realize it until it’s revealed to you layer by layer.”

      There's an interesting information imbalance that creators have with online content. It's easy for their content to travel around, but it's much harder for them to tell where that content has been.

      It would be interesting if more systems used webmention then text creators could include invisible links as a possible solution for those who are too lazy to reformat or strip them out in content farm manner.

  4. Dec 2020
    1. Types of Structure Outliners take advantage of what may be the most primitive of relationships, probably the first one you learned as an infant: in. Things can be in or contained by other things; alternatively, things can be superior to other things in a pecking order. Whatever the cognitive mechanics, trees/hierarchies are a preferred way of structuring things. But it is not the only way. Computer users also encounter: links, relationships, attributes, spatial/tabular arrangements, and metaphoric content. Links are what we know from the Web, but they can be so much more. The simplest ones are a sort of ad hoc spaghetti connecting pieces of text to text containers (like Web pages), but we will see many interesting kinds that have names, programs attached, and even work two-way. Relationships are what databases do, most easily imagined as “is-a” statements which are simple types of rules: Ted is a supervisor, supervisors are employees, all employees have employee numbers. Attributes are adjectives or tags that help characterize or locate things. Finder labels and playlists are good examples of these. Spatial/tabular arrangements are obvious: the very existence of the personal computer sprang from the power of the spreadsheet. Metaphors are a complex and powerful technique of inheriting structure from something familiar. The Mac desktop is a good example. Photoshop is another, where all the common tools had a darkroom tool or technique as their predecessor.

      Structuring Information

      Ted Goranson holds that there are only a couple of ways to structure information.

      In — Possibly the most primitive of relationships. Things can be in other things and things can be superior to other things.

      Links —Links are what we know from the web, but these types of links or only one implementation. There are others, like bi-directional linking.

      Relationships — This is what we typically use databases for and is most easily conceived as "is-a" statements.

      Attributes — Adjectives or tags that help characterize or locate things.

      Metaphors — A technique for inheriting structure from something familiar.

    1. The only solution that I can see is to ensure that each user gets their own set of stores for each server-rendered page. We can achieve this with the context API, and expose the stores like so: <script> import { stores } from '@sapper/app'; const { page, preloading, session } = stores(); </script> Calling stores() outside component initialisation would be an error.

      Good solution.

    2. One way to do that is to export them from @sapper/app directly, and rely on the fact that we can reset them immediately before server rendering to ensure that session data isn't accidentally leaked between two users accessing the same server.
    1. This would be cumbersome, and would encourage developers to populate stores from inside components, which makes accidental data leakage significantly more likely.
    2. Just realised this doesn't actually work. If store is just something exported by the app, there's no way to prevent leakage. Instead, it needs to be tied to rendering, which means we need to use the context API. Sapper needs to provide a top level component that sets the store as context for the rest of the app. You would therefore only be able to access it during initialisation, which means you couldn't do it inside a setTimeout and get someone else's session by accident:
    1. This is an opportunity to fix a bug: if you're on a page that redirects to a login page if there's no user object, or otherwise preloads data specific to that user, then logging out won't automatically update the page — you could easily end up with a page like HOME ABOUT LOG IN ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Secret, user-specific data that shouldn't be visible alongside a 'log in' button:
    1. If you give any question to a student that has a clear, definitive answer, you are tempting them to cheat.

      We should be assessing how people use information to solve problems they care about, rather than whether or not they can recall information.

  5. Nov 2020
    1. I've spent the last 3.5 years building a platform for "information applications". The key observation which prompted this was that hierarchical file systems didn't work well for organising information within an organisation.However, hierarchy itself is still incredibly valuable. People think in terms of hierarchies - it's just that they think in terms of multiple hierarchies and an item will almost always belong in more than one place in those hierarchies.If you allow users to describe items in the way which makes sense to them, and then search and browse by any of the terms they've used, then you've eliminated almost all the frustrations of a file system. In my experience of working with people building complex information applications, you need: * deep hierarchy for classifying things * shallow hierarchy for noting relationships (eg "parent company") * multi-values for every single field * controlled values (in our case by linking to other items wherever possible) Unfortunately, none of this stuff is done well by existing database systems. Which was annoying, because I had to write an object store.

      Impressed by this comment. It foreshadows what Roam would become:

      • People think in terms of items belonging to multiple hierarchies
      • If you allow users to describe items in a way that makes sense to them and allow them to search and browse by any of the terms they've used, you've solved many of the problems of existing file systems

      What you need to build a complex information system is:

      • Deep hierarchies for classifying things (overlapping hierarchies should be possible)
      • Shallow hierarchies for noting relationships (Roam does this with a flat structure)
      • Multi-values for every single field
      • Controlled values (e.g. linking to other items when possible)
    1. Almost all interfaces today, with the exception of TheBrain visual user interface, are limited to organizing information into hierarchies, where a piece of information can only be categorized into one place. For simple applications this is fine, but for users engaging in more complex business processes, it is simply inadequate. A document will have a variety of different issues or people associated with it – with hierarchies one cannot show all these relationships without multiple copies of the information.

      Shelley Hayduk also identifies the issue that most information management software uses a file cabinet metaphor (i.e. hierarchy). This has the limitation that a piece of information can only be categorized in one place. For more complex things, this is inadequate.

    1. Professionally our methods of transmitting and reviewing the results of research are generations old and by now are totally inadequate for their purpose. If the aggregate time spent in writing scholarly works and in reading them could be evaluated, the ratio between these amounts of time might well be startling. Those who conscientiously attempt to keep abreast of current thought, even in restricted fields, by close and continuous reading might well shy away from an examination calculated to show how much of the previous month's efforts could be produced on call. Mendel's concept of the laws of genetics was lost to the world for a generation because his publication did not reach the few who were capable of grasping and extending it; and this sort of catastrophe is undoubtedly being repeated all about us, as truly significant attainments become lost in the mass of the inconsequential.

      Specialization, although necessary, has rendered it impossible to stay up to date with the advances of a field.

  6. Oct 2020
    1. What a weight!

      I like how much information can be packed into a few words "What a weight!". I wonder how a machine learning approach on summarizing the text , or finding and outlining those little phases, would perform. Although I am pretty sure there already is some kind of attempt to train a classifier using premade summaries of stories and notations. One of the challenges I would assume to be the correct identification of the actual borders of such notations by the classifier. One solution for that would be to assume that a notation is always one sentence long and work from there.

    1. Data shall be normalized between the organization and its customers and within the organization itself Data shall be easy to transfer and be reusable within the organization and within the partner network Wherever possible data entry shall be avoided and be replaced by data lookup, selection and confirmation utilities instead
    2. Information flow is key to delivering high quality services; if people don’t know what they’re supposed to and when they’re supposed to know it – service suffers.
    1. Il est nécessaire de donner à la famille l’adresse de l’ENT de l’école ou de l’établissement scolaire, ainsi que le guide de prise en main de l’ENT

      donner le guide de prise en main ne suffit pas, prévoir d'outilller les parents

    2. informer la famille sur les associations des parents d’élèves présentes dans l’école ou l’établissement scolaire et leurs missions ;
    1. An Evaluation of Problem-based Learning Supported by Information and Communication Technology: A Pilot Study

      (Under "Viewing Options", select PDF.) In this article, Ernawaty and Sujono (2019) summarize results of a study funded by the Research and Higher Education Directorate of Indonesia. The study aimed to evaluate the cogency of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in problem based learning (PBL) and traditional teaching methods (TTM) based upon learner test scores. The concepts of PBL, TTM, and implications of ICTs are briefly reviewed. Results of the study revealed that PBL with the support of an ICT yielded the highest test scores. (6/10)

    1. We are sharded beings; the sum total of our various aspects as contained within our biological beings as well as the myriad of technologies that we use to extend our biological abilities.

      To some extent, this thesis could extend Cesar Hidalgo's concept of the personbyte as in putting part of one's self out onto the internet, one can, in some sense, contain more information than previously required.

      Richard Dawkin's concept of meme extends the idea a bit further in that an individual's thoughts can infect others and spread with a variable contagion rate dependent on various variables.

      I would suspect that though this does extend the idea of personbyte, there is still some limit to how large the size of a particular person's sphere could expand.

    1. Reversing the trend toward privatization will thus require not just massive public mobilization and demand of elected officials, but also a hard turn away from efficiency as a primary value, a recognition that the building of relationships and the cultivation of care is slow and difficult and of necessity inefficient. In fact, that its value lies in its inefficiency — but making the case for such inefficiency as a necessary value requires a lot of effort, and a lot of caution.

      There's a kernel here of something about the value of links (social, business, etc.) as put forward by Cesar Hidalgo in Why Information Grows. Where is the real value? How can it best be extracted? Built up? Having a more direct means of valuing these otherwise seeming intangibles will be important in the future.

    1. The notion that counting more shapes in the sky will reveal more details of the Big Bang is implied in a central principle of quantum physics known as “unitarity.” Unitarity dictates that the probabilities of all possible quantum states of the universe must add up to one, now and forever; thus, information, which is stored in quantum states, can never be lost — only scrambled. This means that all information about the birth of the cosmos remains encoded in its present state, and the more precisely cosmologists know the latter, the more they can learn about the former.
    1. Social scientist, on the other hand, have focused on what ties are more likely to bring in new information, which are primarily weak ties (Granovetter 1973), and on why weak ties bring new information (because they bridge structural holes (Burt 2001), (Burt 2005)).
    1. One thing that using this tool has highlighted for me is that there are a lot of things happening in our community every day, between news, announcements, events and other stuff. If you only rely on what your social media service of choice has decided is worth knowing because it’s generating clicks or discussion, you’re likely to miss something important. Also, do you really want to get your news crammed in between cat videos and political rants from distant acquaintances?
    1. Found reference to this in a review of Henry Quastler's book Information Theory in Biology.

      A more serious thing, in the reviewer's opinion, is the compIete absence of contributions deaJing with information theory and the central nervous system, which may be the field par excellence for the use of such a theory. Although no explicit reference to information theory is made in the well-known paper of W. McCulloch and W. Pitts (1943), the connection is quite obvious. This is made explicit in the systematic elaboration of the McCulloch-Pitts' approach by J. von Neumann (1952). In his interesting book J. T. Culbertson (1950) discussed possible neuraI mechanisms for recognition of visual patterns, and particularly investigated the problems of how greatly a pattern may be deformed without ceasing to be recognizable. The connection between this problem and the problem of distortion in the theory of information is obvious. The work of Anatol Rapoport and his associates on random nets, and especially on their applications to rumor spread (see the series of papers which appeared in this Journal during the past four years), is also closely connected with problems of information theory.

      Electronic copy available at: http://www.cse.chalmers.se/~coquand/AUTOMATA/mcp.pdf

    1. Is it possible to avoid the public goods problem altogether?

      As Lynne Kelly indicates, knowledge is a broad public good, so it is kept by higher priests and only transferred in private ceremonies to the initiated in indigenous cultures. In many senses, we've brought the value of specific information down dramatically, but there's also so much of it now, even with writing and better dissemination, it's become more valuable again.

      I should revisit the economics of these ideas and create a model/graph of this idea over history with knowledge, value, and time on various axes.

    1. Similar to my recent musings (link coming soon) on the dualism of matter vs information, I find that the real beauty may lie precisely in the complexity of their combination.

      There's a kernel of an idea hiding in here that I want to come back and revisit at a future date.

    1. So today, as a somewhat limited experiment, I played around with my Hypothes.is atom feed (https://hypothes.is/stream.atom?user=chrisaldrich, because you know you want to subscribe to this) and piped it into IFTTT. Each post creates a new document in a OneDrive file which I can convert to a markdown .md file that can be picked up by my Obsidian client.

      Trying to see if this work for me when linking with google drive. Unsure how to convert to markdown.

  7. Sep 2020
    1. Leuker, C., Hertwig, R., Gumenik, K., Eggeling, L. M., Hechtlinger, S., Kozyreva, A., Samaan, L., & Fleischhut, N. (2020). Wie informiert sich die Bevölkerung in Deutschland rund um das Coronavirus? Umfrage zu vorherrschenden Themen und Gründen, dem Umgang mit Fehlinformationen, sowie der Risikowahrnehmung und dem Wissen der Bevölkerung rund um das Coronavirus (Version 5, p. 966670) [Application/pdf]. Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung. https://doi.org/10.17617/2.3247925