326 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Work never ends. No matter how much you get done there will always be more. I see a lot of colleagues burn out because they think their extra effort will be noticed. Most managers appriciate it but do not promote their employees.

      Common reality of overworking

    1. Pay for each job is still set through a black-box algorithm
    2. Under the pay model the company employed from 2017 until the fall of 2019, each dollar of customer tip did not raise workers’ earnings by a dollar
  2. Jan 2020
  3. Dec 2019
    1. The two things I really like about working for smaller places or starting a company is you get very direct access to users and customers and their problems, which means you can actually have empathy for what's actually going on with them, and then you can directly solve it. That cycle is so powerful, the sooner you learn how to make that cycle happen in your career, the better off you'll be. If you can make software and make software for other people, the outcome truly is hundreds of millions of dollars worth of value if you get it right. That's where I'm here to try and encourage you to do. I'm not really saying that you shouldn't go work at a big tech company. I am saying you should probably leave before it makes you soft. 

      What are the benefits of working at the smaller companies/startups over the tech giants

    1. Don't focus too much on the salary. It's just one tiny part of the whole package.Your dev job pays your rent, food and savings. I assume that most dev jobs do this quite well.Beyond this, the main goal of a job is to increase your future market value, your professional network and to have fun. So. basically it's about how much you are worth in your next job and that you enjoy your time.A high salary doesn't help you if you do stuff which doesn't matter in a few years.

      Don't focus on the salary in your dev job.

    1. One of the more clever aspects of the agent is how it can verify a user's identity (or more precisely, possession of a private key) without revealing that private key to anybody.
    1. afternoons are spent reading/researching/online classes.This has really helped me avoid burn out. I go into the weekend less exhausted and more motivated to return on Monday and implement new stuff. It has also helped generate some inspiration for weekend/personal projects.

      Learning at work as solution to burn out and inspiration for personal projects

    1. We want to learn, but we worry that we might not like what we learn. Or that learning will cost us too much. Or that we will have to give up cherished ideas.

      I believe it is normal to worry about the usage of a new domain-based knowledge

    2. Talented people flock to employers that promise to invest in their development whether they will stay at the company or not.

      Cannot agree more on that

    1. “NextNow Collaboratory is an interesting example of a new kind of collective intelligence: an Internet-enabled, portable social network, easily transferable from one social cause to another.”

      Sense Collective's TotemSDK brings together tools, protocols, platform integrations and best practices for extending collective intelligence beyond our current capabilities. A number of cryptographic primitives have emerged which support the amazing work of projects like the NextNow Collaboratory in exciting ways that help to upgrade the general purpose social computing substrate which make tools like hypothes.is so valuable.

    1. I also recently took about 10 months off of work, specifically to focus on learning. It was incredible, and I don’t regret it financially. I would often get up at 6 in the morning or even earlier (which I never do) just from excitement about what I was going to learn about and accomplish in the day. Spending my time focused Only on what I was most interested in was incredibly rewarding.

      Approach of taking 10 months off from work just to learn something new

    1. For now, that will have to be my justification. I’m not ready to give up writing. I’m not ready to take up some high-paid job that I’d hate in order to reduce the world’s suffering. Maybe that will change. For now, call me Net-Positive Man.
    1. I'm working for myself right now, but if one day I needed to go get a full-time job again, I would almost certainly not go to big tech again. I'd rather get paid a fifth of what I was doing, but do something that leaves me with some energy after I put in a day's work

      Reflections after working for FAANG

    2. Second, in my experience working with ex-FAANG - these engineers, while they all tend to be very smart, tend to be borderline junior engineers in the real world. They simply don't know how to build or operate something without the luxury of the mature tooling that exists at FAANG. You may be in for a reality shock when you leave the FAANG bubble

      Working with engineers out of FAANG can be surprising

    3. more money comes at the cost of very high expectations and brutal deadlines
  4. Nov 2019
    1. almost no organizations today support maker schedules

      Unfortunate truth

    2. In our experience, the best way to prevent a useless meeting is to write up our goals and thoughts first. Despite working in the same office, our team at Nuclino has converted nearly all of our meetings into asynchronously written reports.

      Weekly status report (example):

    3. The most straightforward way to address this is to build a team knowledge base. Not only does that minimize the number of repetitive questions bounced around the office, it allows new team members to basically onboard themselves.

      Building a team knowledge base

    4. it's a matter of culture. None of these rules would work if the management fails to see that makers need to follow a different schedule

      Change in the work environment needs acknowledgement of managers

    5. People think it’s efficient to distribute information all at the same time to a bunch of people around a room. But it’s actually a lot less efficient than distributing it asynchronously by writing it up and sending it out and letting people absorb it when they’re ready to so it doesn’t break their days into smaller bits.”

      Async > meetings

    6. It doesn't mean that we ignore all messages and only look up from our work when something is on fire – but the general expectation is that it's okay to not be immediately available to your teammates when you are focusing on your work

      One of the rules of "Office time"

    7. Office hours are chunks of time that makers set aside for meetings, while the rest of the time they are free to go into a Do Not Disturb mode

      "Office hours" - technique to improve makers schedule

    8. context switching between communication and creative work only kills the quality of both

      Context switching lowers the quality

    9. managers fail to see and address this problem is that they are used to looking at communication and assume it's a good thing. Because they see activity

      Managers in general perceive meetings as a good thing

    10. Immediate response becomes the implicit expectation, with barely any barriers or restrictions in place

      Why Slack is a great distraction:

      in the absence of barriers convenience always wins

    11. since most powerful people operate on the manager schedule, they're in a position to force everyone to adapt to their schedule

      Managers highly affect makers schedule

    12. Working in an open office renders us even more vulnerable

      Like single standup meeting, open office doesn't improve the productivity of makers

    13. A study conducted by Gloria Marks, a Professor of Informatics at the University of California, revealed that it takes us an average of 23 minutes and 15 seconds to refocus on a task after an interruption, and even when we do, we experience a decrease in productivity

      23 minutes and 15 seconds - average time to refocus on task after an interruption

    14. For managers, interruptions in the form of meetings, phone calls, and Slack notifications are normal. For someone on the maker schedule, however, even the slightest distraction can have a disruptive effect

      How ideal schedule should look like:

    1. Preservation of He and its isotope signatures in diamond is supported by He heterogeneities within individual diamonds (18, 20)

      By doing experiments, scientists discovered that the variability in the 3-He/4-He is inherent inside each diamond. They got hold of diamonds which were free of inclusions thereby eliminating any possibility of inconsistencies in helium ratios originating from these inclusions. Then they crushed the diamond in vacuum, to verify that 90% of helium is present in the groundmass of the diamond. This was followed by step-heating the crushed diamond to measure the variability in the 3-He/4-He ratio in the diamond.

  5. Oct 2019
    1. I had to upgrade my other project from Webpack 2 / Angular 5 to Webpack 4/Angular 7 and it was a complete nightmare! I lost a ton of hours and can't really justify charging my client for the weeks worth of time to figure it out.
    1. The value of uninterrupted time to devote to development is hard to overstate, and if I continue I won’t have that. So I couldn’t expect to be nearly as productive, which makes the whole thing less attractive — I’m one of those people who derives a lot of enjoyment from making tangible progress.
    1. Un 7-Eleven de la ciudad de Brisbane deberá pagar casi 200.000 dólares de multa por aprovecharse de sus trabajadores extranjeros y crear registros falsos para encubrir estas acciones ilegales. Este caso se suma a la serie de escándalos de explotación que afectan a esta franquicia, seis de ellas en la capital de Queensland. Updated Updated 05/06/2018 By R.O. Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitter  Un Tribunal del Circuito Federal multó a Avinash Pratap Singh, gerente y dueño parcial de una gasolinera 7-Eleven en East Brisbane, con 32.130 dólares y a la empresa que dirige S & A Enterprises con otros160.650 dólares tras una investigación realizada en 2015 por la Defensoría de Empleo Justo (Fair Work Ombudsman).Los inspectores de la Defensoría hallaron que los empleados, todos ellos jóvenes estudiantes provenientes de la India, recibieron 5,593 dólares menos en total por los períodos en que trabajaron en la gasolinera en 2014.Singh y su empresa admitieron que pagaron a sus empleados 14,14 por hora, que está por debajo del salario mínimo legal, y que además no les dieron a estos jóvenes el dinero que les correspondía por horas extras trabajadas ni por las jornadas durante los fines de semana y los días festivos.A otro empleado de la gasolinera se le pagó un 25 por ciento menos de lo que le correspondía (4,439 dólares) por los cinco meses que trabajó, mientras que a otro joven se le dio 1,154 dólares menos durante las siete semanas que estuvo empleado en ese lugar (41 por ciento menos(.Singh y S & A Enterprises también proporcionaron datos falsos a la oficina central de 7-Eleven sobre los salarios, según un comunicado de la Defensoría de Empleo Justo.El juez Angelo Vasta indicó que la entrada de datos falsos sobre las horas y los salarios dados a los empleados de esa gasolinera en el sistema de pagos “crearon registros en los que parece que los empleados recibieron las tasas de salarios fijados por los laudos actuales, incluyendo las tasas de recargo y las pagas por horas extraordinarias de trabajo, las cuales no tienen relación con las horas de trabajo o las tasas reales por hora (que se les pagó)”.El juez además obligó a los responsables a pagar a la Defensoría 2,247 por los costes legales.
    1. Mr Chang admitted his company had paid flat hourly rates as low as $13 an hour. 7-Eleven investigation 7-Eleven playing 'statistical tricks' in worker compensation scheme'He made me scared': 7-Eleven worker speaks of intimidationExploitation integral to 7-Eleven business model: insider7-Eleven staff work twice as long at half pay rate7-Eleven business model rips off workers, former ACCC boss saysConvenience store empire 'built on something not much different from slavery' This resulted in significant underpayment of the minimum hourly rate, casual loadings and penalty rates for shift and weekend work that employees were owed under the General Retail Award 2010.Judge Michael Jarrett found Mr Chang knew the relevant Award that applied but had "established a business model that relied upon a deliberate disregard of the employees' workplace entitlements and a course of conduct designed to conceal that deliberate disregard".Judge Jarrett found no evidence the company's contraventions were motivated by poor cash flow.He said "rather, it seems, the company's profit has been enhanced by the underpayments concerned".The FWO confirmed all underpayments had been rectified."Businesses should be in no doubt that lawful obligations to pay minimum wage rates, keep appropriate employment records and issue pay slips apply to all employers in Australia and they are not negotiable," Fair Work Ombudsman Natalie James said."The deliberate nature of the underpayments and the lengths that Mr Chang went to in order to hide his conduct from us and from the 7-Eleven head office is of grave concern."Mr Chang was fully aware of his lawful obligations and chose to manipulate the system in order to undercut the entitlements of vulnerable workers. "We are pleased that the court has seen fit to penalise such blatant conduct and hope that this serves as a warning that such behaviour will be penalised."Mr Chang and his company sold the 7-Eleven franchise in late-2016 and the franchise is now operated by an entity unrelated to these contraventions.The FWO said it had taken legal action against nine 7-Eleven operators since 2009, and that cases against three operators were still before the courts.7-Eleven's Australian head office has since commented on the court decision."7-Eleven welcomes the Fair Work Ombudsman's actions pursuing these wage underpayment claims dating back to 2013-14," a company spokesperson said."The Franchisee concerned is no longer part of our store network."We have introduced comprehensive reforms to ensure our Franchised store network operates at the highest standards we expect, and will take action where those standards are not being met."
    1. The penalties are the result of a legal action by the Fair Work Ombudsman after its investigation found that 21 employees across the two stores had been underpaid a total of $31,507.27 over a 12-month period. Viplus Pty Ltd, which operated a store in Adelaide Street until July 2017, was penalised $88,140, while Vipper Pty Ltd, which operated a store in George Street until May 2017, was penalised $68,262. Penalties totalling $36,559 were also handed down against Jason Yuan, a director of both companies. The stores were two of 20 7-Eleven outlets targeted for surprise night-time visits by the Fair Work Ombudsman as part of a tri-State operation in September 2014. The Fair Work Ombudsman has taken legal action against 11 7-Eleven operators since 2009. In this matter, inspectors found that the workers at both stores were paid flat rates for all hours worked, save for public holidays where they received an additional $20 per hour in cash.  Given the 24 hour, seven-day nature of the businesses, this resulted in significant underpayments of Saturday and public holiday penalty rates, overtime rates and shift work rates stipulated by the General Retail Industry Award 2010. Two workers at the Adelaide Street store were also found to have been paid at the incorrect classification. Individual underpayments ranged from $98.36 to $5080.16. They have all now been rectified The respondents were also penalised for failing to meet record-keeping and payslip requirements, including by failing to include information in respect of cash payments made to some of the employees. In her judgment, Judge Mercuri noted that the underpayments were “substantial”, particularly given the low-skilled nature of the work and the vulnerability of the workers due to their age and, in some cases, their visa status. “Given that many of the employees of both Viplus and Vipper were in Australia on various visas, with many being young workers, the impact of the underpayments was significant for each of the affected employees,” Judge Mercuri said. In determining the penalties, Judge Mercuri also pointed out that Mr Yuan had been running the stores for over twelve years, had a background in finance, banking and project management and had access to significant training and support from the 7‑Eleven head office. In addition, her Honour noted the Fair Work Ombudsman had previously issued Vipper and Mr Yuan with a letter of caution in 2013 after an investigation found that workers at the Adelaide Street store were not being paid applicable weekend and public holiday penalty rates. At the time, the Fair Work Ombudsman advised Mr Yuan about his obligations to pay penalty rates as stipulated under the Award. Judge Mercuri found this “continued failure to ensure compliance with the Award following the issuing of a letter of caution to Vipper Pty Ltd” to be a relevant factor in determining the penalties for Vipper and Mr Yuan. Acting Fair Work Ombudsman Kristen Hannah says that the regulator takes a particularly dim view of employers who continue to breach workplace laws after being explicitly advised of their obligations. “Employers must recognise that significant consequences will follow when they knowingly flout the law,” Ms Hannah says. “There is no excuse for continued non-compliance by a business when it has been placed on notice and we will not hesitate to pursue serious enforcement action when this occurs. “We have no patience for business operators who fail to respect the law and ignore our advice, and the penalties handed down in this case reflect the seriousness with which such matters will be dealt.” Ms Hannah says that the Fair Work Ombudsman takes the exploitation of young workers and visa holders particularly seriously. “We know that these cohorts face specific vulnerabilities in the workplace due to a lack of awareness of workplace laws and a reluctance to speak up if something is wrong,” Ms Hannah says. “There is no place for the deliberate exploitation of vulnerable workers in Australian workplaces.” Ms Hannah says the commencement of the Fair Work Amendment (Protecting Vulnerable Workers) Act 2017 has increased the maximum penalties for employers who knowingly exploit workers. “Businesses should be aware that serious breaches of workplace laws have increased ten-fold and can now attract penalties of up to $630,000 per contravention for companies and $126,000 for an individual,” Ms Hannah says. 7-Eleven entered into a Proactive Compliance Deed with the Fair Work Ombudsman in late 2016, committing to a range of measures designed to ensure all its workers receive their lawful entitlements through strong accountability for all operators across its franchise network and supervision by the Fair Work Ombudsman. Employers and employees seeking assistance can visit www.fairwork.gov.au or call the Fair Work Infoline on 13 13 94. An interpreter service is available on 13 14 50. Information on the website can be translated into 40 languages other than English. NOTE: Vipper Pty Ltd and Viplus Pty Ltd no longer own or operate the Adelaide Street or George Street 7-Eleven stores in Brisbane. The Fair Work Ombudsman makes no allegations against the current operators.
    1. For the uninitiated, Granny Smith was Maria Ann Smith, a resident of the area who in 1868 "accidentally" grew the first batch of green apples that now bear her name.

      Yes, good thinking. Throw in a truthful fact or two. Impressive!

    2. Each year the winner is crowned with great fanfare at Eastwood Shopping Centre, which is owned by Yuhu Group, the company founded by billionaire property developer and political donor Huang Xiangmo.

      A suggestive paragraph that may have had currency at the time you put together the story - but really, pretty much irrelevant.

      With all this unnecessary detail - it's no wonder you never got round to the teeny weeny task of counterbalancing the grand crusade of George Simon to put an end to to the event, with the fact that it failed. Spectacularly!

      And if you had just a bit more time, you probably would have been able to also include there was another similar attempt prior to his, from one of his factional colleagues, that was also punted by council.

    3. Labor councillors are suspicious about Mr Booth's pageant. In 2014, then councillor George Simon - now assistant general secretary of NSW Labor - called for the "archaic" event to be killed off.

      This is a great example of the risks involved in using background paragraphs from incomplete coverage. George Simon will no doubt be over the moon that you've given him a plug, along with his courageous but failed efforts to kill off the event.

      It's likely you found your re-used paragraph in the story previewing George Simon's courageous failure. Unfortunately, The Hasbeen was MIA when the motion was shot down in flames.

      But your competitor - and also TWT competitor - News Ltd's (NDT) report on failed attempt to ban Queen Questl was there at the meeting in which the motion suffered a humiliating defeat.

      Even a niche womens issues publication, Womens Agenda, noted George Simon was branded a wanker for his bungled efforts..

      Nevermind, you're not expected to get everything right as a work experience student, but you'll be relieved to know someone in the former Fairfax - now Nine - publishing empire did.

      Watch and learn how the pros like Peter Munro do it. In his 'Six Degrees' column he mentioned Simon was chastised for his fruitless cruisade by Yellow Wiggle Emma Watkins.

      That was a report, of course, before Simon ended up with egg on his face, as was the earlier one selectively regurgitated.

      But surely you could have also regurgitated these John Booth pearlers from the same story:

      Mr Booth said contestants were judged on responses to questions about local knowledge, ambition and involvement in the community: "Beauty doesn't come into it - but we don't penalise them for being beautiful either.

      "They're trying to make it out as disparaging to women but it's politically correct rubbish. There's no swimsuit competition and most judges are women," Mr Booth said. "Two women's libbers [councillors] tried to [cut support for the contest] a few years ago but they got voted down 10-2."

      And on Simon's spectacular failure - one of many:

      "That nitwit?" Mr Booth said. "I'm thinking about mocking him up in a dress and Orphan Annie wig in our next edition. I haven't decided yet".

    4. At first blush

      Work experience student from The Shrinking Morbid Hasbeen (SMH) kicks off with a crusty cliche. Journalists back at the office he's been supporting with coffee runs impressed they've been matched for mediocrity.

    1. An upper mantle location for the high-3He/4He reservoir has also been suggested on the basis of seismic anomalies, heterogeneities sampled by small degrees of melt, and modeled low–U-Th/3He domains formed through melt depletion (1, 12–17)

      Conventionally, a high 3-He/4-He ratio is known to originate from the lower mantle region of the Earth. However, studies show that this is not always true. A new model proposed by scientists analyzed the seemingly inconsistent results and hypothesized that the high 3-He/4-He content may also arise from the upper mantle region.

    2. Diamonds are physically and chemically robust, allowing retention of He isotope signatures that reflect their formation environment (18–20).

      Multiple investigations have been performed to study the distributions and compositions of helium in a group of well-characterized diamonds. Studies during the 1980s made the scientists aware of the unusually high helium-3/helium-4 ratio within individual diamond. More recent explorations indicate that these diamonds are sources of radiogenic helium-4 and are generally found underneath the Earth’s mantle.

    1. 70% async using Twist, Github, Paper25% sync using something like Zoom, Appear.in, or Google Meet5% physical meetings, e.g., annual company or team retreats

      Currently applied work structure at Doist

    2. According to the Harvard Business Review article “Collaborative Overload”, the time employees spend on collaboration has increased by 50% over the past two decades. Researchers found it was not uncommon for workers to spend a full 80% of their workdays communicating with colleagues in the form of email (on which workers’ spend an average of six hours a day); meetings (which fill up 15 percent of a company’s time, on average); and more recently instant messaging apps (the average Slack user sends an average of 200 messages a day, though 1,000-message power users are “not the exception”)

      Time spent in the office

    3. we think the async culture is one of the core reasons why most of the people we’ve hired at Doist the past 5 years have stayed with us. Our employee retention is 90%+ — much higher than the overall tech industry. For example, even a company like Google — with its legendary campuses full of perks from free meals to free haircuts — has a median tenure of just 1.1 years. Freedom to work from anywhere at any time beats fun vanity perks any day, and it costs our company $0 to provide

      Employee retention rate at Doist vs Google

    1. Discriminative models try to draw boundaries in the data space, while generative models try to model how data is placed throughout the space.

      GAN - Discriminative and Generative network work

  6. Sep 2019
  7. Aug 2019
    1. I'm working full time on Material-UI since 2019. I was working on it during my free time before that. I hope that I can leverage my full-time involvement in the library to make it really awesome. You are right, the project is well-funded. We hope we can fund the time of more than 1 person full time in the future, with the current growth rate, it should soon be possible. We have 3 people working part-time on the project (Matt, Sebastian and Josh), plus the community behind us (+1,000 code contributors).
    1. That is approximately $10,739 per person.

      That is expensiveness for a middle class family

    2. ObamaCare, is the product of a Conservative Think-Tank. 60% of citizens get private insurance from their employers, 15% receive Medicare (65 and older), and the federal gov’t funds Medicaid for low-income families (the allocation to this fund has been declining).

      Lucky, Trump removed that

    3. Switzerland has mandatory health insurance that covers all residents.

      Almost like the U.S.

    4. France has a mandatory health insurance system that covers 75% of health care spending.

      Even France covers there people health insurance but more than Canada

    5. Canada pays for services provided by a private delivery system. The gov’t pays for 70% of the care.

      Canada pay for the most of there peoples insurance

    6. Countries that Provide Universal Healthcare 32 out of 33 developed countries in the world have universal health care.

      As far as health care the united state is the worse at it.

    1. To him it was chiefly the diurnal and annual variations of the temperature that were lessened by this circumstance.

      The amount of incoming energy from the sun changes drastically between night and day, and varies throughout the year, yet these variations don't affect Earth's surface temperatures as much as would be expected. Tyndall linked the ability of the atmosphere to absorb infrared radiation to this dampening of temperature variation.

  8. Jul 2019
  9. May 2019
    1. This is spot on. An idea on its own does nothing. Execution and actually doing the hard work are the most important thing in any creative endeavour.

      This blog is very good, high signal and low noise. The dense version of this idea that has stuck with me is that the thing we're aiming for (productivity, make-world-better-stuff, doing good) is a multiplicative-product of both hustle (physical work, pressing buttons, saying words that other people hear) and the thinking part. That is, long term goal completion is hustle (doing stuff) * thought (knowing what to do)

      I may technically disagree with the "most important thing" part, but it needs some sort of strong emphasis. Hustle modifies ideas in a times-ish (multiplying) way, so if you've got zero hustle, you don't really have anything

      One way to do world-bettering is to just have enough hustle to outsource the hustle (get other people to act on your ideas), or alternately if you have tons of hustle, then you can take good ideas which aren't going anywhere.

      Knowing the difference between bad and good ideas is one of the core problems with the super-connected society/net we're in. The solution to the problem is too large for this margin.

    1. not-yetness is the space that allows for emergence

      Collaboration requires a space where the answer isn't yet decided, doesn't it?

  10. Apr 2019
    1. The fact that many of them are working long hours at outside jobs only exacerbates the problem.

      This is poor writing. The sentence doesn't relate to the bullet point. The fact that today's students are more likely to be worrying about food and housing insecurity doesn't mean they don't "value the opportunity of learning in our classes." It only means that there are other legitimate demands on their time and our notions of what the college experience should be have failed to adapt.

    1. Almost every social network of note had an early signature proof of work hurdle. For Facebook it was posting some witty text-based status update. For Instagram, it was posting an interesting square photo. For Vine, an entertaining 6-second video. For Twitter, it was writing an amusing bit of text of 140 characters or fewer. Pinterest? Pinning a compelling photo. You can likely derive the proof of work for other networks like Quora and Reddit and Twitch and so on. Successful social networks don't pose trick questions at the start, it’s usually clear what they want from you.

      And this is likely the reason that the longer form blogs never went out of style in areas of higher education where people are still posting long form content. This "proof of work" is something they ultimately end up using in other areas.

      Jessifer example of three part post written for a journal that was later put back into long form for publication.

    1. “Those who can stick to a 996 schedule are those who have found their passion beyond monetary gains,” Ma wrote.

      This is what capitalists, especially those who make far more money than others below them in their company, want you to believe.

    1. The music we listen to highly impacts our decision making, especially as adolescents. Adolescents are extremely impressionable, and the music they listen to has a great impact on how they decide to live their day to day lives. Popular musicians are seen as role models by the people who idolize them, and adolescents may try to represents the songs in which they favor through their actions every day.

      Recent studies have found that adolescents who listen to music that supports substance abuse and violence have a greater chance to act upon what they listen to. What young adults and teenagers listen to through music and popular media will affect their decision making process. Specifically with substance abuse, and there is a direct uptake in use of illegal substances by adolescents who listen to music that promotes such activities. This can cause a whole societal problem considering most of todays popular music among adolescents touches upon substance abuse and violence. Adolescents are extremely impressionable and the music they listen can shape how a person tries to act, or represent themselves.

  11. Mar 2019
    1. When Instagram found out that users missed out on 70% of the posts on their feed, they announced a new algorithm. An algorithm that promised to let you see the posts that you care about the most. But the workings of the algorithm remained a burning question until recently when the Facebook-owned company revealed how does the Instagram algorithm work. When the Instagram feed was tweaked from chronological to algorithmic, people anticipated a drop in engagement levels. However, people have now started seeing 90% of their feed since the algorithm was instituted. Read on to find out everything you need to know about the Instagram feed algorithm.

      When Instagram found out that users missed out on 70% of the posts on their feed, they announced a new algorithm. An algorithm that promised to let you see the posts that you care about the most.

  12. Feb 2019
    1. It also provides the interviewer with an opportunity to feel smart and validate that “they’ve still got it” and that they aren’t themselves an imposter, by critically examining the work of an outsider who wants in.

      That's the point. How can one interviewer assume to be more competent than the interviewed or assume to be able to judge objectively some other's work?

      Interviewers should start from a place of humbleness and understand they can't spot a person quickly.

      Getting to know and trust somebody is a process that requires time; that's true for any kind of human relationship. It can just start with faith, plus a trial period. There's no shortcut that can keep the same judging reliability of a judgment during time.

    1. Reviving Work Ethic in America

      From the title of the article it's apparent that in the opinion of the author there is need for reviving work ethic in America.

  13. Jan 2019
    1. For Fasting and Football, a Dedicated Game Plan

      We're at it again friends. This time, as you annotate, concentrate on the moves you see--even if you can't name them--and how they work to produce an effect on you the reader.

    1. The urgency of time may make it too onerous forthe extra effort of articulating actions as they are beingperformed, yet most emergency response requires somecommunication.

      Interaction of time (tempo/pace) and breakdowns in articulation work.

    2. Explicitly articulated narratives mayalso make clearer that multiple sequences of actions maybe occurring simultaneously, thus resolving role conflictsby allowing multiple ways to accomplish a task

      Evokes Schmidt and Bannon's articulation work in CSCW.

    1. Experimentation, the third affordance, refers to theuse of technology to encourage participants to try outnovel ideas.

      Definition of experimentation.

      Describes the use of comment/feedback boxes, ratings, polls, etc. to generate ideas for new coordination workflows, design ideas, workarounds, etc.

    2. Recombinability refers to forms of technology-enabled action where individual contributors build oneach others’ contributions.

      Definition of recombinability.

      Cites Lessig in describing recombinability "as both a technology design issue and a community governance principle" for reusing/remixing/recombining knowledge

    3. Reviewability refers to the enactment of technology-enabled new forms of working in which participantsare better able to view and manage the content offront and back narratives over time (West and Lakhani2008). By allowing participants to easily and collab-oratively review a range of ideas, technology-affordedreviewability helps the community respond to tensionsin disembodied ideas, because the reviews can provideimportant contextual information for building on others’ideas.

      Definition of reviewability.

      Faraj et al offer the example of Wikipedia edit log to track changes.

    4. Technology platforms used by OCs can providea number of affordances for knowledge collabora-tion, three of which we mention here: reviewability,recombinability, and experimentation. These affordancesevolve as new participants provide new ways to use thetechnologies, new social norms are developed around thetechnology affordances, and new needs for fresh affor-dances are identified.

      Ways that technology affordances can influence/motivate change in social coordination practices.

    5. Given the fluid nature of OCsand their rapidly evolving technology platforms, and inline with calls to avoid dualistic thinking about tech-nology (Leonardi and Barley 2008, Markus and Silver2008, Orlikowski and Scott 2008), we suggest technol-ogy affordance as a generative response, one that viewstechnology, action, and roles as emergent, inseparable,and coevolving. Technology affordances offer a relationalperspective on human action, where neither the technol-ogy nor the actor is dominant in the sense that the tech-nology does not define what is possible for the actor todo, nor is the actor free from the limitations of the tech-nological environment. Instead, possibilities for actionemerge from the reciprocal interaction between actor andartifact (Gibson 1979, Zammuto et al. 2007). Thus, anaffordance perspective focuses on the organizing actionsthat are afforded by technology artifacts.

      Interesting perspective on how technology affordances are a generative response to coordination tensions.

    6. third response to manage tensions is to promoteknowledge collaboration by enacting dynamic bound-aries. In social sciences, although boundaries divide anddisintegrate collectives, they also coordinate and inte-grate social action (Bowker and Star 1999, Lamont andMolnár 2002). Fluidity brings the need for flexible andpermeable boundaries, but it is not only the propertiesof the boundaries but also their dynamicity that helpmanage tensions.

      Cites Bowker and Star

      Good examples of how boundaries co-evolve and take on new meanings follow this paragraph.

    7. We have observed in OCs that no single narrative isable to keep participants informed about the current stateof the OC with respect to each tension. These commu-nities seem to develop two different types of narratives.Borrowing from Goffman (1959), we label the two nar-ratives the “front” and the “back” narratives.

      Cites Goffman and the performative vs invisible aspects of social coordination work.

    8. Based on our collective research on to date, we haveidentified that as tensions ebb and flow, OCs use (or,more precisely, participants engage in) any of the fourtypes of responses that seem to help the OC be gen-erative. The first generative response is labeledEngen-dering Roles in the Moment. In this response, membersenact specific roles that help turn the potentially negativeconsequences of a tension into positive consequences.The second generative response is labeledChannelingParticipation. In this response, members create a nar-rative that helps keep fluid participants informed ofthe state of the knowledge, with this narrative havinga necessary duality between a front narrative for gen-eral public consumption and a back narrative to airthe differences and emotions created by the tensions.The third generative response is labeledDynamicallyChanging Boundaries. In this response, OCs changetheir boundaries in ways that discourage or encouragecertain resources into and out of the communities at cer-tain times, depending on the nature of the tension. Thefourth generative response is labeledEvolving Technol-ogy Affordances. In this response, OCs iteratively evolvetheir technologies in use in ways that are embedded by,and become embedded into, iteratively enhanced socialnorms. These iterations help the OC to socially and tech-nically automate responses to tensions so that the com-munity does not unravel.

      Productive responses to experienced tensions.

      Evokes boundary objects (dynamically changing boundaries) and design affordances/heuristics (evolving technology affordances)

    9. Tension 5: Positive and Negative Consequences ofTemporary ConvergenceThe classic models of knowledge collaboration in groupsgive particular weight to the need for convergence. Con-vergence around a single goal, direction, criterion, pro-cess, or solution helps counterbalance the forces ofdivergence, allowing diverse ideas to be framed, ana-lyzed, and coalesced into a single solution (Couger 1996,Isaksen and Treffinger 1985, Osborn 1953, Woodmanet al. 1993). In fluid OCs, convergence is still likelyto exist during knowledge collaboration, but the conver-gence is likely to be temporary and incomplete, oftenimplicit, and is situated among subsets of actors in thecommunity rather than the entire community.

      Positive consequences: The temporary nature can advance creative uses of the knowledge without hewing to structures, norms or histories of online collaboration.

      Negative consequences: Lack of P2P feedback may lead to withdrawal from the group. Pace of knowledge building can be slow and frustrating due to temporary, fleeting convergence dynamics of the group.

    10. ension 2: Positive and Negative Consequencesof TimeA second tension is between the positive and negativeconsequences of the time that people spend contribut-ing to the OC. Knowledge collaboration requires thatindividuals spend time contributing to the OC’s virtualworkspace (Fleming and Waguespack 2007, Lakhani andvon Hippel 2003, Rafaeli and Ariel 2008). Time has apositive consequence for knowledge collaboration. Themore time people spend evolving others’ contributedideas and responding to others’ comments on thoseideas, the more the ideas can evolve

      Positive consequences: Attention helps to advance the reuse/remix/recombination of knowledge

      Negative consequences: "Old-timers" crowd out newcomers

      Tension can lead to "unpredictable fluctuations in the collaborative process" such as labor shortages, lack of fresh ideas, in-balance between positive/negative consequences that catalyzes healthy fluidity

      Need to consider other possibilities for time/temporal consequences. These examples seem lacking.

    11. We argue that it is the fluidity, the tensions that flu-idity creates, and the dynamics in how the OC respondsto these tensions that make knowledge collaboration inOCs fundamentally different from knowledge collabora-tion in teams or other traditional organization structures.

      Faraj et al identify 5 tensions that have received little attention in the literature (doesn't mean these are the only tensions):

      passion, time, socially ambiguous identities, social disembodiment of ideas, and temporary convergence.

    12. As fluctuations in resource endowments arise overtime because of the fluidity in the OC, these fluctua-tions in resources create fluctuations in tensions, makingsimple structural tactics for managing tensions such ascross-functional teams or divergent opinions (Sheremata2000) inadequate for fostering knowledge collaboration.As complex as these tension fluctuations are for the com-munity, it is precisely these tensions that provide thecatalyst for knowledge collaboration. Communities thatthen respond to these tensions generatively (rather thanin restrictive ways) will be able to realize this potential.Thus, it is not the simple presence of resources that fos-ter knowledge collaboration, but rather the presence ofongoing dynamic tensions within the OC that spur thecollaboration. We describe these tensions in the follow-ing section

      Tension as a catalyst for knowledge work/collaboration

    13. Fluidity requires us to look at the dynamics—i.e., thecontinuous and rapid changes in resources—rather thanthe presence or the structural form of the resources.Resources may flow from outside the OC (e.g., pas-sion) or be internally generated (e.g., convergence), sub-sequently influencing and influenced by action (Feldman2004). Resources come with the baggage of having bothpositive and negative consequences for knowledge col-laboration, creating a tension within the community inhow to manage the positive and negative consequencesin a manner similar to the one faced by ambidextrousorganizations (O’Reilly and Tushman 2004).

      Fluidity vs material resources

    14. However, failure to examine the critical roleof even the inactive participants in the functioning of thecommunity is to ignore that passive (and invisible) par-ticipation may be a step toward greater participation, aswhen individuals use passivity as a way to learn aboutthe collective in a form of peripheral legitimate partici-pation (Lave and Wenger 1991, Yeow et al. 2006).

      Evokes LPP

    15. Fluidity recognizes the highly flexible or permeableboundaries of OCs, where it is hard to figure out whois in the community and who is outside (Preece et al.2004) at any point in time, let alone over time. Theyare adaptive in that they change as the attention, actions,and interests of the collective of participants change overtime. Many individuals in an OC are at various stagesof exit and entry that change fluidly over time.

      Evokes boundary objects and boundary infrastructures.

    16. We argue that fluid-ity is a fundamental characteristic of OCs that makesknowledge collaboration in such settings possible. Assimply depicted in Figure 1, we envision OCs as fluidorganizational objects that are simultaneously morphingand yet retaining a recognizable shape (de Laet and Mol2000, Law 2002, Mol and Law 1994).

      Definition of fluidity: "Fluid OCs are ones where boundaries, norms, participants, artifacts, interactions, and foci continually change over time..."

      Faraj et al argue that OCs extend the definition of fluid objects in the existing literature.

    17. a growing consensus on factors that moti-vate people to make contributions to these communities,including motivational factors based on self-interest (e.g.,Lakhani and von Hippel 2003, Lerner and Tirole 2002,von Hippel and von Krogh 2003), identity (Bagozzi andDholakia 2006, Blanchard and Markus 2004, Ma andAgarwal 2007, Ren et al. 2007, Stewart and Gosain2006), social capital (Nambisan and Baron 2010; Waskoand Faraj 2000, 2005; Wasko et al. 2009), and socialexchange (Faraj and Johnson 2011).

      Motivations include: self-interest, identity, social capital, and social exchange, per org studies researchers.

      Strange that Benkler, Kittur, Kraut and others' work is not cited here.

    18. For instance, knowledge collaboration in OCscan occur without the structural mechanisms tradition-ally associated with knowledge collaboration in orga-nizational teams: stable membership, convergence afterdivergence, repeated people-to-people interactions, goal-sharing, and feelings of interdependence among groupmembers (Boland et al. 1994, Carlile 2002, Dougherty1992, Schrage 1995, Tsoukas 2009).

      Differences between offline and online knowledge work

      Online communities operate with fewer constraints from "social conventions, ownership, and hierarchies." Further, the ability to remix/reuse/recombine information into new, innovative forms of knowledge are easier to generate through collaborative technologies and ICT.

    19. Knowledge collaboration is defined broadly as thesharing, transfer, accumulation, transformation, andcocreation of knowledge. In an OC, knowledge collab-oration involves individual acts of offering knowledgeto others as well as adding to, recombining, modify-ing, and integrating knowledge that others have con-tributed. Knowledge collaboration is a critical elementof the sustainability of OCs as individuals share andcombine their knowledge in ways that benefit them per-sonally, while contributing to the community’s greaterworth (Blanchard and Markus 2004, Jeppesen andFredericksen 2006, Murray and O’Mahoney 2007, vonHippel and von Krogh 2006, Wasko and Faraj 2000).

      Definition of knowledge work

    20. Online communities (OCs) are open collectives of dis-persed individuals with members who are not necessarilyknown or identifiable and who share common inter-ests, and these communities attend to both their indi-vidual and their collective welfare (Sproull and Arriaga2007).

      Definition of online communities

    1. The situated and emergent nature of coordinationdoes not imply that practices are completely uniqueand novel. On the one hand, they vary accordingto the logic of the situation and the actors present.On the other hand, as seen in our categorizationof dialogic coordination, they follow a recognizablelogic and are only partially improvised. This tensionbetween familiarity and uniqueness of response is atthe core of a practice view of work (Orlikowski 2002).

      This is an important and relevant point for SBTF/DHN work. Each activation is situated and emergent but there are similarities -- even though the workflows tend to change for reasons unknown.

      Cites Orlikowski

    2. Recently, Brown and Duguid (2001, p. 208) sug-gested that coordination of organizational knowledgeis likely to be more challenging than coordination ofroutine work, principally because the “elements to becoordinated are not just individuals but communitiesand the practices they foster.” As we found in ourinvestigation of coordination at the boundary, signif-icant epistemic differences exist and must be recog-nized. As the dialogic practices enacted in responseto problematic trajectories show, the epistemic dif-ferences reflect different perspectives or prioritiesand cannot be bridged through better knowledge

      Need to think more about how subgroups in SBTF (Core Team/Coords, GIS, locals/diaspora, experienced vols, new vols, etc.) act as communities of practice. How does this influence sensemaking, epistemic decisions, synchronization, contention, negotiation around boundaries, etc.?

    3. nature point to the limitations of a structuralist viewof coordination. In the same way that an organi-zational routine may unfold differently each timebecause it cannot be fully specified (Feldman andPentland 2003), coordination will vary each time.Independent of embraced rules and programs, therewill always be an element of bricolage reflecting thenecessity of patching together working solutions withthe knowledge and resources at hand (Weick 1993).Actors and the generative schemes that propel theiractions under pressure make up an important com-ponent of coordination’s modus operandi (Bourdieu1990, Emirbayer and Mische 1998).

      Evokes the improvisation of synchronization efforts found in coordination of knowledge work in a pluritemporal setting

    4. These practices are highly situated, emer-gent, and contextualized and thus cannot be prespec-ified the way traditional coordination mechanismscan be. Thus, recent efforts based on an information-processing view to develop typologies of coordina-tion mechanisms (e.g., Malone et al. 1999) may be tooformal to allow organizations to mount an effectiveresponse to events characterized by urgency, novelty,surprise, and different interpretations.

      More design challenges

    5. Our findings also point to a broader divide in coor-dination research. Much of the power of traditionalcoordination models resides in their information-processing basis and their focus on the design issuessurrounding work unit differentiation and integra-tion. This design-centric view with its emphasis onrules,structures,andmodalitiesofcoordinationislessuseful for studying knowledge work.

      The high-tempo, non-routine, highly situated knowledge work of SBTF definitely falls into this category. Design systems/workarounds is challenging.

    6. Boundarywork requires the ability to see perspectives devel-oped by people immersed in a different commu-nity of knowing (Boland and Tenkasi 1995, Star andGriesemer 1989). Often, particular disciplinary focilead to differences in opinion regarding what stepsto take next in treating the patient.

      Differences in boundary work can lead to contentiousness.

    7. The termdialogic—as opposed to monologic—recognizes dif-ferences and emphasizes the existence of epistemicboundaries, different understandings of events, andthe existence of boundary objects (e.g., the diagnosisor the treatment plan). A dialogic approach to coordi-nation is the recognition that action, communication,and cognition are essentially relational and highlysituated. We use the concept of trajectory (Bourdieu1990, Strauss 1993) to recognize that treatment pro-gressions are not always linear or positive.

      Cites Star (boundary objects) and Strauss, Bourdieu (trajectory)

    8. A dialogic coordination practice differs from moregeneral expertise coordination processes in that itis highly situated in the specifics of the unfoldingevent, is urgent and high-staked, and occurs at theboundary between communities of practice. Becausecognition is distributed, responsibility is shared, andepistemic differences are present, interactions can becontentious and conflict laden.

      Differences between expertise and dialogic coordination processes.

    9. xpertisecoordination refers to processes that manage knowl-edge and skill interdependencies

    10. we describe two categories ofcoordination practices that ensure effective work out-comes. The first category, which we callexpertise coor-dination practices, represents processes that make itpossible to manage knowledge and skill interdepen-dencies. These processes bring about fast response,superior reconfiguration, efficient knowledge shar-ing, and expertise vetting. Second, because of therapidlyunfoldingtempooftreatmentandthestochas-tic nature of the treatment trajectory,dialogic coordina-tion practicesare used as contextually and temporallysituated responses to occasional trajectory deviation,errors, and general threats to the patient. These dia-logic coordination practices are crucial for ensuringeffective coordination but often require contentiousinteractions across communities of practice. Figure 1presents a coordination-focused model of patienttreatment and describes the circumstances underwhich dialogic coordination practices are called for.

    11. We found that coordination in a trauma settingentails two specific practices.

      "1. expertise coordination practices"

      "2. dialogic coordination practices"

      What would be the SBTF equivalent here?

    12. Based on a practice view, we suggest the followingdefinition ofcoordination: a temporally unfolding andcontextualized process of input regulation and inter-action articulation to realize a collective performance.

      Faraj and Xiao offer two important points: Context and trajectories "First, the definition emphasizes the temporal unfolding and contextually situated nature of work processes. It recognizes that coordinated actions are enacted within a specific context, among a specific set of actors, and following a history of previous actions and interactions that necessarily constrain future action."

      "Second, following Strauss (1993), we emphasize trajectories to describe sequences of actions toward a goal with an emphasis on contingencies and interactions among actors. Trajectories differ from routines in their emphasis on progression toward a goal and attention to deviation from that goal. Routines merely emphasize sequences of steps and, thus, are difficult to specify in work situations characterized by novelty, unpredictability, and ever-changing combinations of tasks, actors, and resources. Trajectories emphasize both the unfolding of action as well as the interactions that shape it. A trajectory-centric view of coordination recognizes the stochastic aspect of unfolding events and the possibility that combinations of inputs or interactions can lead to trajectories with dreadful outcomes—the Apollo 13 “Houston, we have a problem” scenario. In such moments, coordination is more about dealing with the “situation” than about formal organizational arrangements."

    13. Theprimarygoalispatientstabilizationandini-tiating atreatment trajectory—a temporally unfolding

      Full quote (page break)

      "The primary goal is patient stabilization and initiating a treatment trajectory—a temporally unfolding sequence of events, actions, and interactions—aimed at ensuring patient medical recovery"

      Knowledge trajectory is a good description of SBTF's work product/goal

    14. rauma centersare representative of organizational entities that arefaced with unpredictable environmental demands,complexsetsoftechnologies,highcoordinationloads,and the paradoxical need to achieve high reliabilitywhile maintaining efficient operations.

      Also a good description of digital humanitarian work

    15. We sug-gest that for environments where knowledge work isinterdisciplinary and highly contextualized, the rele-vant lens is one of practice. Practices emerge from anongoing stream of activities and are enacted throughthe contextualized actions of individuals (Orlikowski2000). These practices are driven by a practical logic,thatis,arecognitionofnoveltaskdemands,emergentsituations,andtheunpredictabilityofevolvingaction.Bourdieu (1990, p. 12) definespracticesas generativeformulas reflecting the modus operandi (manner ofworking) in contrast to the opus operatum (finishedwork).

      Definition and background on practice.

      Cites Bourdieu

    16. In knowledge work, several related factors sug-gest the need to reconceptualize coordination.

      Complex knowledge work coordination demands attention to how coordination is managed, as well as what (content) and when (temporality).

      "This distinction becomes increasingly important in complex knowledge work where there is less reliance on formal structure, interdependence is changing, and work is primarily performed in teams."

      Traditional theories of coordination are not entirely relevant to fast-response teams who are more flexible, less formally configured and use more improvised decision making mechanisms.

      These more flexible groups also are more multi-disciplinary communities of practice with different epistemic standards, work practices, and contexts.

      "Thus, because of differences in perspectives and interests, it becomes necessary to provide support for cross-boundary knowledge transformation (Carlile 2002)."

      Evokes boundary objects/boundary infrastructure issues.

    17. Usinga practice lens (Brown and Duguid 2001, Orlikowski2000), we suggest that in settings where work iscontextualized and nonroutine, traditional models ofcoordination are insufficient to explain coordinationas it occurs in practice. First, because expertise is dis-tributed and work highly contextualized, expertisecoordination is required to manage knowledge andskill interdependencies. Second, to avoid error andto ensure that the patient remains on a recoveringtrajectory, fast-response cross-boundary coordinationpractices are enacted. Because of the epistemic dis-tance between specialists organized in communitiesofpractice,theselattercoordinationpracticesmagnifyknowledge differences and are partly contentious.

      Faraj and Xiao contend that coordination practices of fast-response organizations differ from typical groups' structures, decision-making processes and cultures.

      1) Expertise is distributed 2) Coordination practices are cross-boundary 3) Knowledge differences are magnified

    18. In this paper, we focus on the collective perfor-manceaspectofcoordinationandemphasizethetem-poral unfolding and situated nature of coordinativeaction. We address how knowledge work is coor-dinated in organizations where decisions must bemade rapidly and where errors can be fatal.

      Summary of paper focus

    1. In other words, the articulation work [24], which had to be made explicit previously, became in part implicit by being embedded in the document and in the actions taken upon the document.

      Evokes Schmidt and Bannon's articulation work

    1. By ignoring the diversity and discord of the ‘goals’ of theparticipants involved, the differentiation of strategies, and the incongruence of theconceptual frames of reference within a cooperating ensemble, much of the currentCSCW research evades the problem of how to provide computer support for peoplecooperating through the establishment of a common information space.

      Has this design challege been adequately addressed in CSCW (and CHI, for that matter) in the last 30-ish years?

    2. On the one hand, the visibility requirement is amplified by this divergence. Thatis, knowledge of the identity of the originator and the situational context motivat-ing the production and dissemination of the information is required so as to enableany user of the information to interpret the likely motives of the originator. On theother hand, however, the visibility requirement is moderated by the divergence ofinterests and motives. A certain degree of opaqueness is required for discretionarydecision making to be conducted in an environment charged with colliding inter-ests. Hence,visibility must be bounded.

      What role does system meta data (version control, user history, etc.) play in bounding the visibility of decision making?

      This also seems to be an area ripe for more collaborative design approaches (participatory, reflective, feminist, etc.)

    3. Thus, a computer-basedsystem supporting cooperative work involving decision making should enhancethe ability of cooperating workers to interrelate their partial and parochial domainknowledge and facilitate the expression and communication of alternative perspec-tives on a given problem. This requires a representation of the problem domainas a whole as well as a representation, in some form, of the mappings betweenperspectives on that problem domain.

      This seems to still be a major challenge in information system design as well as collaborative workflow. Even if the information/meta context is made available, do people use it?

    4. If the decision making process (1) involves a large and indefinite number of peo-ple, (2) requires the integration of a number of different perspectives or domains,and (3) continues for a protracted period of time or even indefinitely, the interpreta-tion of the objects in a common database and hence the construction of a commoninformation space is hampered by the fact that the other originators and recipientsare not co-present.

      Ways to better integrate people engaged in distributed work are needed.

      Is this still true some 27 years later?

      Three particular information quality problems are raised by Schmidt and Bannon:

      1) provenance (originator) of the information and his/her/its reliability

      2) context of the information

      3) politics of the information

    5. The fact that information produced by discretionary decision making cannotbe conveyed anonymously has important implications for CSCW systems design.Naturally, such information must be accompanied by the identity of the source.But how to represent and present the identity of the source?

      This dilemma also applies to the complexity of representing time in information systems.

    6. In cooperative work settings involving discretionary decision making, the exer-cise of mutual critique of the decisions arrived at by colleagues is required for allparticipants. Therefore, in order to be able to assess information generated by dis-cretionary decision making, each participant must be able to access the identity ofthe originator of a given unit of information.

      Source credibility is a complex problem for SBTF. it is not always clear how/why a person on social media has certain information, how they interpret it, and how they summarize it.

    7. At the level of the objects themselves, shareabilitymay not be a problem, but in terms of their interpretation, the actors must attempt tojointly construct a common information space which goes beyond their individualpersonal information spaces. A nice example of how this is a problem has been givenby Savage (1987, p. 6): ‘each functional department has its own set of meaningsfor key terms. [...] Key terms such aspart, project, subassembly, toleranceareunderstood differently in different parts of the company.’

      This would be good to explore with SBTF in the interviews. Particularly, whether there are different meanings to time modes, time meta data, etc., applied by Core Team, Coordinators, GIS Team, experienced volunteers, new volunteers, etc.

      Is this part of the problem with articulating the information extracted from social media and entering it in the Google Sheet in order to become an artifact?

    8. Their importance lies in the interpretation human actors place on themeaning of the representational object. The distinction between the material carrierof information—the object—and its meaning is crucial. The material representationof information in the common space (e.g., a letter, memo, drawing, file) exists asan objective phenomenon and can be manipulated as an artifact. The semantics ofthe information carried by the artifact, however, is, put crudely, ‘in the mind’ of thebeholder, and the acquisition of information conveyed by the artifacts requires aninterpretive activity on the part of the recipient. Thus, a common information spaceencompasses the artifacts that are accessible to a cooperative ensembleas well asthe meaning attributed to these artifacts by the actors.

      Here Schmidt and Bannon describe the basis for articulation work in a common information space -- which encompasses interactions and breakdowns between information, metaphors, sensemaking, and artifacts.

      From a time mode perspective, this gets at what I describe as synchronization.

    9. Cooperative work is not facilitated simply by the provision of a shared database, butrequires the active construction by the participants of a common information spacewhere the meanings of the shared objects are debated and resolved, at least locallyand temporarily. Objects must thus be interpreted and assigned meaning, meaningsthat are achieved by specific actors on specific occasions of use. Computer supportfor this aspect of cooperative work raises a host of interesting and difficult issues.

      Pretty much a nutshell of the SBTF time study challenges.

    10. These protocols, formal structures, plans, procedures, and schemes can be con-ceived of asmechanismsin the sense that they (1) are objectified in some way(explicitly stated, represented in material form), and (2) are deterministic or at leastgive reasonably predictable results if applied properly. And they aremechanisms ofinteractionin the sense that they reduce the complexity of articulating cooperativework.

      People apply "mechanisms of interaction" to reduce the complexity of the articulation work.

      Schmidt and Bannon use these examples:

      • Formal and informal organizational structures • Planning and scheduling • Standard operating procedures (see Suchman's work on situated action) • Indexes and classifications for organizational and retrieval (see Bowker and Star on boundary objects/infrastructures)

    11. Therefore, instead of pursuing the elusive aim of devising organizational modelsthat are not limited abstractions and thus in principle brittle when confronted withthe inexhaustible multiplicity of reality, organizational models in CSCW applica-tions should be conceived of asresourcesfor competent and responsible workers.

      Schmidt and Bannon posit that organizational models in CSCW should be flexible enough to support new interpretations/evaluations of the model (contingent on circumstances), as well as capture decisions to "adapt, circumvent, execute, modify, etc. the underlying model".

    12. In this section of the paper we broach two aspects of this articulation issue, onefocusing on the management of workflow, the other on the construction and manage-ment of what we term a ‘common information space’. The former concept has beenthe subject of discussion for some time, in the guise of such terms as office automa-tion and more recently, workflow automation. The latter concept has, in our view,been somewhat neglected, despite its critical importance for the accomplishmentof many distributed work activities

      A quick scan of ACM library papers that tag "articulation work" seems to indicate the "common information space" problem still has not attracted a lot of study. This could be a good entry point for my work with CSCW because time cuts across both workflow and information space.

      Nicely bundles boundary infrastructure, sense-making and distributed work

    13. Articulation work

      Definition of articulation work: "Articulation work arises as a integral part of cooperative work as a set of activities required to manage the distributed nature of cooperative work. In the words of Strauss (1985, p. 8), articulation work is ‘a kind of supra-type of work in any division of labor, done by the various actors’:

    14. However, in general cooperative workin real world settings has a number of characteristics that must be taken into accountif CSCW systems are to be acceptable to users and, hence, commercially viable:

      Characteristics of cooperative work:

      (Taken verbatim from the paper)

      "Cooperative ensembles are either large, or they are embedded within larger ensembles."

      "Cooperative ensembles are often transient formations, emerging to handle a particular situation after which they dissolve again".

      "Membership of cooperative ensembles is not stable and often even non-determinable. Cooperative ensembles typically intersect."

      "The pattern of interaction in cooperative work changes dynamically with the requirements and constraints of the situation."

      "Cooperative work is distributed physically, in time and space."

      "Cooperative work is distributed logically, in terms of control, in the sense that agents are semi-autonomous in their partial work."

      "Cooperative work involves incommensurate perspectives (professions, specialties, work functions, responsibilities) as well as incongruent strategies and discordant motives."

      "There are no omniscient agents in cooperative work in natural settings."

    15. A cooperative work arrangement arises simply because there is no omniscientand omnipotent agent. Specifically, a cooperative work arrangement may emerge inresponse to different requirements (Schmidt,1990):

      cooperative work arrangements include:

      (verbatim from paper) • "augment the mechanical and information processing capacities of human individuals"

      "combine the specialized activities of multiple workers"

      • "application of multiple problem solving strategies and heuristics to a given problem"

      "application of multiple perspectives and conceptions on a given problem"

    16. The Rich Diversity of Cooperative Work

      Three many take-aways from cooperative work:

      1. It involves people doing work with specific characteristics, e.g., distributed, formed as ensembles, etc.

      2. Cooperative work occurs to produce a product or service together because of "technical necessities or economic requirements"

      3. is not limited by specific forms of interaction between workers

    17. As a research effort that involves a large number of established disciplines,research areas, and communities, CSCW is an arena of discordant views, incom-mensurate perspectives, and incompatible agendas. However, in the conception ofCSCW proposed here—as a research area devoted to exploring and meeting the sup-port requirements of cooperative work arrangements, CSCW is basically adesignoriented research area. This is the common ground. Enter, and you must change.

      Circa 1992 this description of CSCW as a design-oriented research area made sense to find some common ground between the CS groupware faction and the org studies, designers, social science, etc. Does this still hold up today?

    18. CSCW should be conceived of asan endeavor to understand the nature andrequirements of cooperative work with the objective of designing computer-basedtechnologies for cooperative work arrangements.

      Definition of CSCW (per Schmidt and Bannon). This is contested.

      Schmidt and Bannon argue later (pg 49) that "If CSCW is to be taken seriously, the basic approach of CSCW research should not be descriptive but constructive."

  14. Dec 2018
    1. which demands a genial age on the Southern hemisphere at the same time as an ice age on the Northern and vice versá

      Croll's work made important contributions to the understanding of Earth's climate. However, one problem with his theory was that it led to the conclusion that glacial periods occurred at different times in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

      We now know this is not correct; ice ages are global. But at the time Arrhenius wrote this paper, the geological record of the ice ages was not understood well enough to rule out this possibility of separate glacial periods in the hemispheres.

    1. Marine reserves can clearly enhance exploited coral reef species that have relatively sedentary adult life-stages, in which some individuals live almost exclusively within reserve boundaries

      A study in 2 June 2009 conducted by Philip P. Molloy explored the relations with the age of the marine reserves and of the recovery of different species of fish. The studies showed that older marine reserves (15 years and older) were more effective than younger ones. They harbored more fish.

    1. hard work and exploration are valued over always knowing the right answer.

      The open program does this, to an extent. How can this be improved upon?

  15. Oct 2018
    1. It has been recognized for over 60 years that aerosol particles influence the earth's radiative balance directly by backscattering and absorption of shortwave (solar) radiation (1)
    1. more.

      The speaker regrets her past relationships and realizes they were so meaningless that she does not even remember them. She wishes she could have stayed with the one person she truly did love

  16. Sep 2018
    1. The result of this is easy to see: Those specifically requesting a lighter workload, who were disproportionately women, suffered in their performance reviews; those who took a lighter workload more discreetly didn’t suffer. The maxim of “ask forgiveness, not permission” seemed to apply.
    1. these systems were very slow, had a low assembly or operation yield, or were unable to exert appreciable forces against external loading.

      The authors recognize the significant achievement and potential of what others have done, but also note the ways in which the previous work can be improved. The goal of this paper is to build upon others' results and to develop new ideas to try to improve upon what has been done.

  17. Aug 2018
    1. "Protestant" life of wealth and risk over the "Catholic" path of poverty and security.[8]

      Is this simply a restatement of the idea that most of "the interesting things" happen at the border or edge of chaos? The Catholic ethic is firmly inside the stable arena while that of the Protestant ethic is pushing the boundaries.

    1. Then I noticed, each of the records in his queue had a set of codes in the Salutation field. He explained that there wasn't a way to see the current status from this view of their system. So, to avoid having to open each record, he used the Salutation field (which wasn't really used in the system) to store his own personal status codes.

      Work around for a design fail

    2. Once she finished, there was basically a cross-reference table of items that were actual business aspects and how they translated into the items required to use this system. In short, the last system that was delivered by the IT group required a change in the business process to use the application.

      In other words, the customer/user had to make changes (process, use of fields, etc) due to the defects of the design.

    1. Transformed in this process is the very nature of knowledge:Neoliberalization replaces education aimed at deepening and broadening intelligence and sensibilities, developing historical consciousness and her-meneutic adroitness, acquiring diverse knowledge and literacies, becom-ing theoretically capacious and politically and socially perspicacious, with [forms of] education aimed at honing technically-skilled entrepreneurial actors adept at gaming any system. (p. 123)

      neoliberalism and the transformation of knowledge and knowledge work

    1. The goal of this framework is to envision afuture of crowd work that cansupport more complex, creative, and highly valued work. At the highest level, a platformis needed for managing pools of tasksandworkers. Complex tasks must be decomposed into smaller subtasks, each designed with particular needs and characteristics which must be assignedto appropriate groups of workerswho themselves must be properly motivated, selected(e.g., through reputation), and organized (e.g., through hierarchy). Tasks may be structured through multi-stage workflowsin which workers may collaborateeither synchronously or asynchronously. As part of this, AImay guide (and be guided by) crowd workers. Finally, quality assuranceis needed to ensure each worker’s output is of high quality and fits together.

      Proposed framework to address crowdwork management challenges: shared resources, relationships, and crowd labor.

    2. n human computation, people act as computational components and perform the work that AI systemslack the skillstocomplete

      Human computation definition.

    3. A promising approach that addresses some worker output issues examines the way that workers do their work rather than the output itself, using machine learning and/or visualization to predict the quality of a worker’s output from their behavior [119,120]

      This process improvement idea has some interesting design implications for improving temporal qualities of SBTF data: • How is the volunteer thinking about time? • Where does temporality enter into the data collection workflow? • What metadata do they rely on? • What is their temporal sensemaking approach?

    4. Of the research foci, quality control has arguably received the most attention so far. Approaches for quality control largely fall into two camps: up-front task design and post-hoc result analysis. Task design aimsto design tasks that are resistant to low-quality work.

      Quality control processes is definitely a tension for SBTF.

      A better integrated task design and verification process at the end of activations could be more effectively address information quality concerns.

    5. Many tasks worth completing require cooperation –yet crowdsourcing has largely focused on independent work. Distributed teams have always facedchallenges in cultural differences and coordination[60], but crowd collaboration now must createrapport over much shorter timescales(e.g., one hour) and possibly wider culturalor socioeconomic gaps

      In Kittur's example, synchronous collaboration describes a temporal aspect (timescale and tempo of the work) related to how the collaboration is structured or not.

      "Short periods of intense crowd collaboration call for fast teambuilding and may require the automatic assignment of group members to maximize collective intelligence."

    6. Finally, it will be amajor research undertaking to invent and describe the tasks and techniques that succeed with synchronous collaboration

      Could this be a theme of the SBTF time study?

    7. The two core challenges for realtime crowdsourcing will be 1) scaling upto increased demand for realtime workers, and 2) making workers efficient enough to collectively generateresultsahead of time deadlines.

      One aspect of temporality in Kittur's study is related to "realtime" which they describe as the time need to scale up workers and efficiency speed of workers.

      The other temporal aspect is synchronicity of workers.

    8. Volunteer crowdsourcing platforms have evolved their own hierarchies and decision-making processes [104,156], appropriating techniques from other online communities where appropriate [101]. Most paid approaches have workers make hierarchical decisions collectively: for example, task decomposition and integration[75,80],quality oversight of each others’ contributions[78,100], and leader elections to represent collective opinions[83].

      Examples of hierarchical decision-making by both volunteer and paid crowd workers.

    9. Complex tasks have dependencies, changing requirements, and require multiple types of expertise.

      Characteristics of complex crowd work.

      Later, Kittur refers to complex crowd work as those involving "creativity, brainstorming, essay writing, music composition or civic planning."

      Temporality is definitely a work flow issue for SBTF.

      However, "realtime" is the only temporal attribute noted in this study but it seems to relate only to completion speed and present/immediacy of tasks.

    10. n the sections below, we survey and analyze the 12research focithat comprise our model. First, we consider the future of the work processesand how the workis organized and accomplished. Second, we consider the integration of crowd work and computation, including the symbiosis between human cognition, artificial intelligence(AI), and computationally-enabled crowd platforms. Finally, we consider crowd workers and how we can develop jobs, reputation systems, motivations, and incentives that will benefit them.

      Research foci

      Crowd work processes: Workflow, task assignment, hierarchy, realtime crowd work, synchronous collaboration. quality control

      Crowd computation: Crowds guiding AI, AIs guiding crowds, crowdsourcing platforms

      Crowd worker future: Job design, reputation/credentials, motivation/rewards

    11. Unlike traditional organizations in which workers possess job security and managers can closely supervise and appropriately reward or sanction workers, or distributed computing systems in which processors are usually highly reliable, crowd work poses uniquechallenges for both workers and requestersranging fromjob satisfactiontodirection-setting, coordination, and quality control.

      In the literature, quality tends to be used as an attribute of the output (content, HIT, etc.) but could/should it also refer to the crowd worker experience, as Kittur notes: "job satisfaction, direction-setting, coordination, and quality control"?

      How are these factors incorporated into the process and incentive system?

    12. These same requirements exist in distributed computing, in which tasks need to be scheduled so that they can be completed in the correct sequence and in a timely manner, with data being transferred between computing elements appropriately.

      time factors in crowd work include speed, scheduling, and sequencing

    13. However, crowd work can bea double-edged sword,equally capable of enhancing or diminishing the quality of workers’ lives.We maysee echoes of past labor abuses in globally distributed crowd work: extremely low pay for labor,with marketplaces such as Amazon’s Mechanical

      Crowd work offers flexibility to both workers and requesters to overcome labor shortages, need for expertise, and geographic boundaries.

      However, they are very real concerns about exploitation, piecemeal wages, unethical/dubious work, emphasis on speed over quality, and dehumanizing work conditions.

    14. We focus this paper on paid,onlinecrowd work, which we define here as the performance of tasks online by distributed crowd workers who are financially compensated by requesters(individuals, groups, or organizations). In this sense, crowd work is a socio-technical work systemconstituted through a set of relationships that connect organizations, individuals, technologies and work activities

      Kittur's definition of crowd work:

      "...performance of online tasks by crowd workers who are financially compensated by requesters."

    1. Other foundational accounts, like Moglen (1999) and Weber (2004),attended to the emergence of informal hierarchies and governance arrange-ments within communities.

      Other early work focused on organizational attributes, like how information goods were produced with flat/informal hierarchies, community values/norms, and governance structures.

    2. Peer productioncould, Benkler argued, outperform traditional organizational forms underconditions of widespread access to networked communications technologies,a multitude of motivations driving contributions, and non-rival informationcapable of being broken down into granular, modular, and easy-to-integrate

      Benkler's early work studied "the role of non-exclusive property regimes and more permeable organizational boundaries" for knowledge products.

  18. Jul 2018
    1. While some of this research has been aimed at building technologies to better support multi-tasking, other research has been critical, pointing out the negative consequences of distraction and task-switching [29]. A parallel line of thinking, called ‘presence bleed’ [16], articulates the way that multi-tasking and extended temporal boundaries blur individuals’ professional and personal identities as work bleeds into and throughout multiple spheres

      Maladapative/problematic studies of time include: multitasking, time-switching, presence bleed (work-life convergence), morality, agency and power, individual vs organizational choices, 24/7 availability, etc.

    2. CSCW has been investigating the relationship of time and work practically from its inception as a scholarly fiel

      Classic CSWC literature on time includes: groupware calendaring systems, temporal rhythm, temporal trajectories, temporal ordering, temporal artifacts.

  19. course-computational-literary-analysis.netlify.com course-computational-literary-analysis.netlify.com
    1. beyond any reasonable doubt

      With this key phrase of legal discourse, Cuff's takes on the role of a prosecutor in a courtroom, shouldering the burden of proof in the case at hand. What is the relationship between detective work and legal argumentation? How does the novel's language put various characters on trial, not only before other characters, but also before the novel's jury of readers? A word collocation analysis of words and phrases with legal significance would help us to determine whether or not legal language shapes standards of evidence in The Moonstone.

    2. Here, again, there is a motive under the surface; and, here again, I fancy that I can find it out.

      Once again, we encounter the language of detective work, which often involves the uncovering and probing of underlying motives. What distinguishes Betteredge's "detective fever" from Ezra Jennings's understanding of detection? We could operationalize this comparative question into a word collocation study of target words that are associated with detective work (e.g., "detective," "suspect," "motive," etc.).

    1. Lev Vygotsky’s seminal work asserted that social interaction is a fundamental aspect of learning. And if he were alive today, he would most likely agree with the saying “two minds are better than one.” He might add, “Better yet, how about three or four?”

      Vygotsky- social interaction is fundamental in learning- group work is the perfect way to do this- 2 heads are better than one:)