273 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Some insightful thoughts, but also a good bit of empty rethoric and totalist/black-and-white thinking. If he'd reign that in, much less of his larger sweeping claims would find footing. War-against-war, control is bad acceptance good, etc.

      No dicussion of the parallel and quite striking phenomenon of infodemics. I find his "generous" tolerance of conspiracy theories dangerous and intellectually dishonest.

  2. Mar 2020
    1. Turkey’s government says it is not disclosing the location of cases to prevent the risk of increasing transmission rates by encouraging people to move from areas with high rates to places where there are no or few cases.

      I'm amused as to how many possible reasons governments come up with to not disclose data.

      I do not understand how likely people are to move between areas, do people have more than 1 housing options?

      There is an obvious conflict of interest in a government hiding information that is bound to invite questions or make their performance look poor in contrast to other countries etc.

    1. Bad economic times could lead to deaths of people with low income who are most vulnerable to an economic downturn.

      This is the most likely place that governments and the richer ruling elites are likely to fail their societies. Even the United States is like to do this and one need look no further than their response to the hurricane aftermath in Puerto Rico to see this.

    1. The legal principles employed to sustain state public health police power were sic utere tuo ut alterum non laedas (use that which is yours so as not to injure others) and salus publica suprema lex est (public well-being is the supreme law).12 The principle of sic utere describes the power of the state to prevent or prohibit “the use of private property or the commission of private acts in a manner harmful to others.”15 The principle of salus publica, on the other hand, recognizes police power as a means to “prevent or avoid public harm even if the action has not harmed others.
    2. quarantine was already a well established form of public health regulation, and was considered proper exercise of the police power of the states; the Supreme Court, in its affirmation of this power, noted that the state had the power to quarantine “to provide for the health of the citizens.”10,11 The uncontrollable nature of epidemic diseases moved the Supreme Court to uphold such extreme measures on the basis of the defense of the common good.8
    3. Police powers of the states are an expression of civil authority, i.e., the state's ability to control, regulate, or prohibit non-criminal behavior.6 Health officials may use these powers to compel treatment, prohibit or direct a particular conduct, or detain and isolate in a quasi-criminal nature
    1. Krishna and friends in the forest of Vrindavan The theme of this miniature painting from India is taken from Bhagavata Purana, the most popular and widely read of all Indian scriptures. The artist depicts a carefree and lighthearted Krishna and his friends sporting in the forest of Vrindavan at the end of the rainy season. After the rains, the earth is carpeted with verdant grass, trees are covered with bright foliage and flowers bloom in profusion in every plant and shrub. The abundance and gaiety that the rainy season has bestowed on nature finds a resonance in the hearts of Krishna and his companions who gambol in the forest, while the calves look on placidly. This Pahari painting in Kangra style is a splendid example of the art of miniature painting that flourished in India.
    1. “We ought to have a social compact: If you’re sick, whether you’ve got Covid-19 or not, you should separate yourself from society,” Mr. Gostin said. “That’s your part of the bargain, you’re doing it for your neighbors, your family and your community.”“In exchange,” he said, “we as a nation owe you the right to a humane period of separation, where we meet your essential needs like medicine, health care, food and sick pay.”
    1. Wykazali, iż u szczurów znajdujących się na diecie o niskiej zawartości tłuszczu wolniej dochodzi do niekorzystnych zmian strukturalnych i genetycznych w obrębie poszczególnych tkanek. Gryzonie, które jadły mniej, dłużej zachowywały młodość.

      Low-calorie diet reduces inflammation, delays the onset of old age diseases, and generally prolongs life.

    1. In addition to the results on creativity, caffeine did not significantly affect working memory, but test subjects who took it did report feeling less sad.

      Coffee also:

      .+ happier

    2. While the cognitive benefits of caffeine — increased alertness, improved vigilance, enhanced focus and improved motor performance — are well established, she said, the stimulant’s affect on creativity is less known.

      Coffee: .+ alertness

      .+ vigilance

      .+ focus

      .+ motor performance

      ? creativity

    3. Caffeine increases the ability to focus and problem solve, but a new study by a University of Arkansas researcher indicates it doesn’t stimulate creativity.
    1. Social

      Given the spread of the novel corona virus and COVID-19 as this report is published and it's already demonstrable effects on education (eg, instructional continuity), we might add a health dimension to this list of social trends.

    1. 10-50 minutes in natural spaces was the most effective to improve mood, focus and physiological markers like blood pressure and heart rate. “It’s not that there’s a decline after 50 minutes, but rather that the physiological and self-reported psychological benefits tend to plateau after that,”

      Nature therapy

      • 10 to 50 minutes in nature was found to be most effective to improve mood, focus, blood pressure, and heart rate
      • After 50 minutes the effects tend to plateau
  3. Feb 2020
    1. This ‘evolutionary theory of socialisation’ proposes that children who experience family stresses, including father absence,should experience early puberty, ‘precocious’sexuality and anxiety (in women) or aggression (men),as such a strategy resultsin higher reproductive success in a stressful adult environment where paternal investment was likely to be low, and interpersonal relationships unreliable.

      So would it be reasonable to say that the apparent "dysfunction" is really a mismatch between their childhood environment and adult environment?

    1. Even ignoring quality of life you are looking at a 3-7 fold return on every minute you spend exercising in extended life,[1] perhaps even exceeding that if you are making optimal use of your time. Something just clicked and I was consistent since reading this. Even 1-fold return would worth it: basically you gain free consciousness (quality of thinking is shit when I exercise, but it's better than nothing).

      While exercising, you get additional lifespan, which obviously isn't linear, but still worth the effort

    2. I can't imagine going on a run without my HR monitor, because whatever the benefit exercise has and however exhausting run would be, at least I'll have a data point. learning about routine and trying to optimize routine is also way more fun than doing the actual routine Human body is fragile and needs constant care, but it's still a fascinating mechanism.

      Quantifying self during the run is also my main use. It adds a layer of motivation when I see just the timestamps of all my journeys

    1. quantified self refers both to the cultural phenomenon of self-tracking with technology and to a community of users and makers of self-tracking tools who share an interest in “self-knowledge through numbers.”[1] Quantified Self practices overlap with the practice of lifelogging and other trends that incorporate technology and data acquisition into daily life, often with the goal of improving physical, mental, and/or emotional performance.

      Quantified self relates to all of us managing our life with Mi Bands, Fitbits, etc.

    1. n the end, it didn’t matter if the students walked more than even 15,000 steps; they still gained weight
      • Step-counting experiment tracked caloric intake and weight of 120 participants throughout 24 weeks of walking different amounts of steps a day for 6 days per week.
      • Participants gained 1.5 kg (3.5 lbs) on average during the experiment, even those who walked 15,000 steps a day.
      • While their weight wasn’t affected, they did notice positive changes in their physical activities, and reduced sedentary time.
      • Overall, the more steps we walk, the better.
      • Step-a-day goals are great to get up and get moving, but if you need to lose weight, you must do other things as well.
    1. Scientists at EPFL in Switzerland have shown that you are more likely to initiate a voluntary decision as you exhale.

      We make conscious decisions when we breathe out, says new study involving 52 people pressing a button, monitored with brain, heart and lung sensors.

  4. Jan 2020
    1. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans.

      Negative health effects of repeated exposure to antimony

    1. Europium has no known biological role. Europium salts could be mildly toxic by ingesiton, but its toxicity has not been fully investigated.

      Health and Community Problems

  5. Dec 2019
    1. Here is your ultimate guide which introduces you to the five best food items for which are not only tooth friendly, but help the teeth to gain strength and improve oral health. Also, there are 5 food items which you must start avoiding as they can contribute to tooth decay.

    1. walking, cycling and more green spaces not only cut air pollution but also improved mental health.

      Quick tip: try to omit public transportation when possible, take a walk and influence others

    2. “Although the studies included were from different parts of the world – eg China, the US, Germany – and varied in sample size, study design and measures of depression, the reported associations were very similar.”

      The studies proved that the cultural background did not have a direct impact on the results

    3. The studies analysed took account of many factors that might affect mental health, including home location, income, education, smoking, employment and obesity. But they were not able to separate the potential impact of noise, which often occurs alongside air pollution and is known to have psychological effects.

      During the study behind the effect of air pollution, other factors were taken into the consideration as well

    4. more than 90% of the global population lives with air pollution above WHO-recommended levels

      Devastating news

    5. People exposed to an increase of 10 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) in the level of PM2.5 for a year or more had a 10% higher risk of getting depression.

      Level of air impact

    6. The data analysed in the new research linked depression with air pollution particles smaller than 2.5 micrometres (equivalent to 0.0025 millimetres and known as PM2.5)

      Beware of particles smaller than 2.5 micrometres

    7. Other research indicates that air pollution causes a “huge” reduction in intelligence and is linked to dementia. A comprehensive global review earlier in 2019 concluded that air pollution may be damaging every organ and virtually every cell in the human body.

      Air pollution impacts more than just our mental health

    8. the finest particulates from dirty air can reach the brain via both the bloodstream and the nose, and that air pollution has been implicated in increased [brain] inflammation, damage to nerve cells and to changes in stress hormone production, which have been linked to poor mental health,” Braithwaite said

      How air impacts our mental health

    9. “You could prevent about 15% of depression, assuming there is a causal relationship. It would be a very large impact, because depression is a very common disease and is increasing.” More than 264 million people have depression, according to the WHO.

      Increase of depression rate

    10. Depression and suicide linked to air pollution in new global study Cutting toxic air might prevent millions of people getting depression, research suggests

      Depression linked to air quality

    1. After diagnosis, 40 percent of cancer patients report developing significant distress that can include serious worry, panic attacks, depression, and PTSD, or posttraumatic stress disorder

      I feel like not these should be a more serious concern

    1. But, if you take a supplement containing 1,250 milligrams, your body seems to realize that’s too much—and so, clamps down on absorption at the intestinal lining level, and you end up absorbing less than half.

      (see 45 seconds into video)

      This could be very handy for lowering the pH of the gut (increasing the acidity). As explained in other Greger videos, an acidic gut is desirable because good gut bacteria produce acids and thus are the bacteria that thrive in an acidic environment.

      Currently, I'm taking magnesium citrate. My concern is that the unabsorbed magnesium is alkalinizing my gut. Vitamic C should be able to counteract this (assuming it is indeed an issue). That does make the assumption, however, that the hydrogen ion makes it to the large intestine. That is to say, that the ascorbate does not become a conjugate base.

  • Nov 2019
    1. How Yoga Effects on the Mind: We knew the consequences of yoga were positive ones, but we had no idea they were so far-reaching. If you needed a reason to get started, you’ll get it here.

      Yoga is derived from the Sanskrit “Yuji,” a word meaning union or yoke, yoga is an ancient traditional exercise that brings together body and mind.

      It combines meditation, breathing exercises, and poses intended to promote relaxation and overcome stress.

      Practicing yoga is supposed to occur with many advantages for both physical and mental health, though not all of these advantages have been backed by science.

      Practice a few minutes every day can help you ease out of stresses and worries. If you want to more reap its rewards, include yoga into your regular routine as it is an effectual way to relieve anxiety and cope with every day tensions.

      Effect of Yoga on the Mind: Yoga overcomes the effects of traumatic experiences: There are countless people, who have suffers a state known as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) usually as a result of unpleasant and powerful incidents in their life. Personalities with this mental weakness often experience nightmares and flashbacks. A style of yoga known as Hatha has been proved to be effective in decreasing PTSD symptoms.

      Yoga improves concentration and strengthens memory: At some period in life, we all fight with concentrating on our day-to-day responsibilities. Yoga has proven to be beneficial in developing your concentration and memory.

      There is a member of yoga recognized as Dharana the practice of concentration that is widely popular because it assists us to understand what it intends to clear the mind and calm our senses.

      Yoga deals with depression and anxiety: Depression and anxiety are two dangerous health problems that damage quietly; but, a regular yoga practice can be useful in enhancing mental health. In fact, it's proven that yoga is helpful in reducing depression and anxiety.

      Know more in depth how yoga clothes and yoga mat boost your yoga performance.

      Author Bio:-

      Abhishek Ghode is a freelance writer and editor and the creator of www.mydresskit.com, where his blogs to help new yoga lovers get their quills in the pot, so to speak. Among yoga, mediation, yoga poses, yoga mats, yoga clothes, yoga blocks, yoga towels, his passions include mental and physical health.

    1. It needs to be fully repealed, because the first step out of the gate for Obamacare is a step in the wrong direction and that is for government control over every aspect of health care, so it’s hard to fix the system that they have put in place without ending that premise that government ought to be running and controlling health care.
    1. 5.2 Metformin[edit] Reduced serum levels of vitamin B12 occur in up to 30% of people taking long-term anti-diabetic metformin.[71][72][73] Deficiency does not develop if dietary intake of vitamin B12 is adequate or prophylactic B12 supplementation is given. If the deficiency is detected, metformin can be continued while the deficiency is corrected with B12 supplements.[74]

      Fascinating overlap of two emergent life-extension-enhancement treatments.

    1. How this phenomenon translates into absolute, rather than relative, risk, however, is a bit thorny. A large study published in 2018, for instance, found that among women who had children between 34 and 47, 2.2 percent developed breast cancer within three to seven years after they gave birth (among women who never had children, the rate was 1.9 percent). Over all, according to the American Cancer Society, women between 40 and 49 have a 1.5 percent chance of developing breast cancer.

      The rates here are so low as to be nearly negligible on their face. Why bother reporting it?

    1. The study examines uses of mobile technology, namely cloud computing and self assessment, to improve nursing instruction. The authors evaluate mlearning environments and the potential barriers to their success.

      9/10

  • Oct 2019
    1. and prevailing breezes, and protection from winter storms

      Design for maximum sun, breeze protection, winter protection

    2. Pedestrian/cycle connections

      using the public realm to facilitate pedestrian and cyclist connections wherever possible.

    1. improvement of soil health should be a priority agenda in India’s agricultural policy. We need steps to check wind and water erosion of soils. We need innovative technologies to minimise physical degradation of soils due to waterlogging, flooding and crusting. We need to improve the fertility of saline, acidic, alkaline and toxic soils by reclaiming them
  • Sep 2019
    1. Impact of staffing cap

      The impact of staffing caps has been highlighted by numerous commentators and almost certainly plays a significant role in putting pressure on the planning workforce.

    2. Staffing cap recommendation

      That government review NDIA data to determine if there are staffing issues limiting the number of planners relative to the demand for plans. If this is the case, we argue that government should relax staffing caps.

    1. People who frequently consume artificially sweetened drinks biologically look 5-10 years older compared to those who don’t
    1. If eating more realistic fake meat was about health, the offerings would be far lower in salt content, contain fewer calories and have a bit less dietary fat. None of them do, because the point was never to live up to the marketing of healthier eating. It was to simply act as a smooth replacement for the meat we worried about eating in our day-to-day lives

      Summary of the article. All goes down into marketing and human manipulation

    2. Most of us don't truly understand how to feed ourselves in a way that doesn’t leave us susceptible to life-threatening illnesses

      Knowing what to eat is a great mystery

    3. excessive amount of salt in one's diet has been linked in several different ways to heart disease

      Salt, just like red meat is dangerous for our heart

    4. Heart disease and cases of type 2 diabetes are on the rise, no matter where you look, and research has suggested that cutting red meat and processed meats (like bologna and other deli meats) might help people facing these conditions

      Research suggests that red meat and processed meat are a cause of heart disease and cases of type 2 diabetes

    5. In fact, when you start to compare all of these offerings to their meat-based counterparts, you realize it’s the same story no matter what brands you’re talking about — you might possibly save a few calories or carbs, but you'll probably get way more salt.

      Meatless (plant-based) burgers may have a little less calories, but more salt

  • Aug 2019
    1. In 2017, Canadians were on waiting lists for an estimated 1,040,791 total procedures. Often, wait times are lengthy. For example, the median wait time for arthroplastic surgery (hip, knee, ankle, shoulder) ranges from 20 weeks to 52 weeks. In the British National Health Service, cancelations are common. Last year, the National Health Service canceled 84,827 elective operations in England for nonclinical reasons on the day the patient was due to arrive. The same year, it canceled 4,076 urgent operations in England, including 154 urgent operations canceled two or more times. Times of high illness are a key driver in this problem. For instance, in flu season, the National Health Service canceled 50,000 “non-urgent” surgeries. In Canada, private insurance is outlawed (as it would be under Sanders’ proposal). In 2017, “an estimated 63,459 Canadians received non-emergency medical treatment outside Canada.” In Britain, private insurance is permitted—but it is an additional cost to the taxes that British citizens pay for the National Health Service. Escaping the system is an option for the wealthy, or for those who are willing to forego other expenditures to get the care they want or need.

      A system cannot conduct healing, and refuses to take care of the sick. This has a great deal to do with humanity, and deviations from health care.

    2. A “single-payer” health system is a government-controlled health care system. Government is the “single-payer.” In most versions of single-payer, most private health insurance is either outlawed or restricted, and most public health programs are absorbed into the single, national health insurance program.

      Explain the "Single-payer" system.

    1. ObamaCare, is the product of a Conservative Think-Tank. 60% of citizens get private insurance from their employers, 15% receive Medicare (65 and older), and the federal gov’t funds Medicaid for low-income families (the allocation to this fund has been declining).

      Lucky, Trump removed that

    2. United States and its Health care:      The gov’t has some government-run programs and private insurance.

      U.S. health care system

    3. Health care spending was 12.4% of GDP in 2016. That is approximately $7,919.00 per person. There were 11.6% of people who skipped prescriptions because of cost.

      Switzerland Health Care System

    4. Mandate: The gov’t mandates that everyone buy health insurance, funding comes from payroll taxes.

      3

    5. Health care spending was 11% of GDP in 2016. Approximately $4,600.00 per person. 7.8% of patients skipped prescriptions because of cost. The life expectancy was 85.5 years in 2015.  

      France health care system

    6. 2-Tier: The gov’t pays two-thirds, and the private sector pays one-third.  

      2

    7. Health Care spending was 10.6% of Canada’s GDP in 2016 and 10.5% of patients skipped prescriptions because of cost.

      Canada health care system

    8. Single-Payer: The gov’t taxes its citizens to pay for health care.

      1

    9. Single-Payer, 2-Tier, and Mandate systems.

      three definitive models for Universal Health Care

    1. Research from Chelsea and Westminster Hospital has found that placing art in the NHS trust has helped to improve patient wellbeing, decrease hospital stays and reduce anxiety, depression and pain.
    1. When researchers at Johns Hopkins gave psilocybin to healthy participants with no history of hallucinogen use, nearly eighty percent reported that their experiences "increased their current sense of personal well-being or life satisfaction 'moderately' or 'very much'"—effects that persisted for more than a year.‌
    2. Similarly, while psilocybin has shown potential as a treatment for depression and anxiety, physicians could also prescribe the drug to promote the well-being of healthy individuals.
  • Jul 2019
    1. To find a cure for what ails America, Chetty will need to understand all of this wild variation. Which factors foster opportunity, and which impede it? The next step will be to find local interventions that can address these factors—and to prove, with experimental trials, that the interventions work

      I suspect that racial inequalities like Redlining, school support, and public housing issues (including evictions and predatory lending) will overlay these unmobile areas. cf Scarlet E series from On the Media.

    1. Reporting on a study at Queensborough Community College, also in the CUNY system, Sheila Beck notes that the library’s reserve textbook collection is “heavily used,” however, staffing and other concerns have prompted librarians to consider “less labor intensive and less costly alternatives.“ Beyond textbook reserves, academic librarians can help students to locate required course readings in other ways: older editions of their required textbook, pre- or post-prints of articles in institutional repositories, articles or other texts in databases subscribed to by the library, or readings that may be in the public domain or otherwise available on the open web.

      The basic economics of this system would indicate (especially as classes become larger and larger) that more careful consideration of choice, economics, accessibility, availability, etc. on a larger institutional level creates larger marginal gains for those in the class. If a staff librarian, teacher, or someone else within the system does the leg-work up front and does it well, then the dozens or even hundreds of students in the course don't need to spend (read: waste) their own time re-inventing the proverbial textbook wheel once they're in the class.

      Portions of the situation here make me wonder if we might pull a page from Dr. Peter Pronovost's playbook in the health care space and create a simple checklist of what to do when planning for textbooks and readings. Checklists that include things like:

      • will the texts actually be used?
      • will they be primary to the subject or are they supplementary?
      • What are their prices?
      • Are alternate materials available?
      • Are older editions available?
      • are public domain or open web versions available?
      • are there copies in the library? reserves? pirated versions? pre/post prints?
      • etc.

      Once such a checklist is available, institutions should require that it be available along with syllabi and other course listings.

      cross references:

    1. She's since learned her allergies and asthma are conditions she's had since childhood that have nothing to do with her weight, and her migraines are hormonal. She's now on meds for these conditions.

      Ignoring the fact that 'morbidly obese' by itself is a serious health condition

  • Jun 2019
    1. patients in groups like these have been shown to have significantly better outcomes for an array of conditions, including diabetes and depression, than similar patients not in groups.
    2. healthy community norms are particularly evident in certain places with strong outcome-to-cost ratios, like Sweden
    3. she has concluded that a key motivator for healthy behavior is feeling integrated in a community where that behavior is commonplace
  • May 2019
  • Apr 2019
    1. They had been told that the insulin that their son was supposed to be taking for his Type 1 diabetes was poison, Solis testified. Timothy Morrow, a herbalist based in Torrance, Calif., had instead told them to rub lavender oil on the boy’s spine and prescribed herbal medicine that he claimed would cure Lopez for life.
    1. ​Technology is in constant motion. If we try to ignore the advances being made the world will move forward without us. Instead of trying to escape change, there needs to be an effort to incorporate technology into every aspect of our lives in the most beneficial way possible. If we look at the ways technology can improve our lives, we can see that technology specifically smartphones, have brought more benefits than harm to the academic and social aspects of teenagers lives, which is important because there is a constant pressure to move away from smart devices from older generations. The first aspect people tend to focus on is the effect that technology has on the academic life of a teen. Smartphones and other smart devices are a crucial part of interactive learning in a classroom and can be used as a tool in increasing student interest in a topic. For example, a popular interactive website, Kahoot, is used in many classrooms because it forces students to participate in the online quiz, while teachers can gauge how their students are doing in the class. Furthermore, these interactive tools are crucial for students that thrive under visual learning, since they can directly interact with the material. This can be extended to students with learning disabilities, such as Down Syndrome and Autism,​ research has shown that using specialized and interactive apps on a smart device aids learning more effectively than technology free learning. Picture Picture Another fear regarding technology is the impact it has on the social lives of young adults, but the benefits technology has brought to socializing outweighs any possible consequences. The obvious advantage smartphones have brought to social lives is the ability to easily communicate with people; with social media, texting, and calling all in one portable box there is no longer a struggle to be in contact with family and friends even if they are not in your area. Social media can also be used for much more In recent years, social media has been a key platform in spreading platforms and movements for social change. Because social media websites lower the barrier for communicating to large groups of people, it has been much easier to spread ideas of change across states, countries, or the world. For example, after Hurricane Sandy tore apart the northeastern United States, a movement called "Occupy Sandy" in which people gathered to provide relief for the areas affected was promoted and organized through social media. Other movements that have been possible because of social media include #MeToo, March for Our Lives, #BlackLivesMatter, and the 2017 Women's March. ​

  • Mar 2019
    1. The HMO Act of 1973 changed that premise. It authorized for-profit IPA-HMOs in which HMOs may contract with independent practice associations (IPAs) that, in turn, contract with individual physicians for services and compensation. By the late 1990s, 80 percent of MCOs were for-profit organizations, and only 68 percent or less of insurance premiums went toward medical care.

      The HMO Act of 1973 resulted in for profit health care.

    1. Nixon signed into law, the Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973, in which medical insurance agencies, hospitals, clinics and even doctors, could begin functioning as for-profit business entities instead of the service organizations they were intended to be. 

      In the 1970s health care was allowed to change from a non-profit to a for profit.

    1. a group of teachers created a program through Baylor University Hospital where they would agree to pre-pay for future medical services (up to 21 days in advance). The resulting organization was not-for-profit and only covered hospital services. It was essentially the precursor to Blue Cross.

      Baylor University's teacher's created one of the first "employee insurance companies" which turned into Blue Cross.

    2. Since U.S. businesses were prohibited from offering higher salaries, they began looking for other ways to recruit new employees as well as incentivizing existing ones to stay. Their solution was the foundation of employer-sponsored health insurance as we know it today.

      The result of the Stabilization Act of 1942 was for employers to provide health care benefits to employees.

    1. Because health benefits could be considered part of compensation but did not count as income, workers did not have to pay income tax or payroll taxes on those benefits. Thus, by 1943, employers had an increased incentive to make health insurance arrangements for their workers, and the modern era of employer-sponsored health insurance began

      After WWII companies started providing health insurance to employees. Somewhere along the way this translated into employers co-oping with private insurance companies to provide health insurance as opposed to paying the employees medical bills or providing their own doctors and clinics.

    1. This is a scholarly article about mhealth (mobile health) which is a way to bring about health-related learning via mobile devices (or even wearable devices) in bite-sized ways. I am not qualified to evaluate the article but this does appear to be solid as far as I can tell. rating 4/5

    1. High-quality protein The reason why animal proteins are generally considered “higher quality” when it comes to building muscle is down to the type of amino acids they contain. Amino acids, in particular one called leucine, are thought to be key to driving muscle protein synthesis. In general, animal proteins have a higher proportion (9%-13%) of leucine than plant proteins (6%-8%). Plus, animal-based proteins usually contain all nine essential amino acids whereas most plant-based proteins are missing one or more of these amino acids. There are exceptions such as maize protein, which boasts a 12% leucine content, and quinoa, which has a full complement of all essential amino acids. So it may be that certain plant proteins are just as effective as so-called “higher-quality” animal proteins. We can potentially increase the “quality” of a plant-based proteins by fortifying them with extra leucine, combining different sources to make sure the food has all essential amino acids, or simply increasing the recommended amount of a plant protein source. As a note of caution, the latter option could require as much as 60 grams of certain plant proteins (for example seven large potatoes) – a dose that some people may struggle to consume. The search continues for a more sustainable and environmentally friendly source of protein that can offer similar muscle-building potential to animal proteins. But based on currently available evidence, vegan bodybuilders will have to pay particular attention to their diets to achieve the same results.
    1. An inconvenient truth If you’re keen on your flat whites, yoghurts and cheeses, the truth behind conventional dairy production is not an easy one to face. Most people perhaps are not aware that to produce the milk we desire, cows are kept almost continually pregnant, with calves taken away from their mothers within 24 hours so that milk can be harvested for human consumption – a process that leaves both mother and baby deeply distressed and bellowing for each other for days. Palmer (and animal welfare groups) estimates between 400,000 and 800,000 of male calves (known within the industry as ‘bobby calves’) are sent to slaughter, as is a significant portion of females and while a cow has a natural life expectancy of 20-30 years, most dairy cows are slaughtered around the four-to-five-year-mark once their milk dries up.
    1. Dairy cows add substantial amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In some places they contribute to the conversion of natural habitat to agricultural land due to the increasing demand for feed crops such as corn, alfalfa and soy. Dairy operations can also be significant contributors to water pollution and soil degradation when manure and feed crop production are poorly managed. Farmers can significantly reduce environmental impacts through the use of better management practices and technologies. Climate change Dairy production has a considerable effect on climate change due to emissions of greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide. In the US, the greatest sources of these emissions in milk production include feed production, enteric fermentation and manure management. Air Airborne emissions of ammonia can damage downstream habitats, resulting in the loss of species diversity. The output of particulate matter and odor from on-farm activities can negatively impact air quality. Water Dairy operations can consume large volumes of water to grow feed, water cows, manage manure and process products. Additionally, manure and fertilizer runoff from dairy farms can pollute water resources. The increased nutrients in local waterways contribute to the growth of algae, which reduces oxygen for aquatic plant and animal life. Habitat Currently over two-thirds of the world's agricultural land is used for maintaining livestock, including beef and dairy cows. One-third of the world's land suffers desertification due, in large part, to deforestation, overgrazing and poor agricultural practices. In some circumstances, dairy cows can contribute to healthy habitats through well-managed grazing. Soil Health Livestock farming is one of the main contributors to soil erosion around the world. Turning forests into pasture or feed crop production areas, overgrazing and soil impaction from cattle’s hooves can lead to extreme loss of topsoil and organic matter that could take decades or centuries to replace. On the other hand, well-managed manure application and grazing can improve the soil health of pastures and crop lands. Animal Health and Welfare Improper handling of dairy cows decreases the productivity of cows due to stress and ill health, and leads to increased greenhouse gas emissions. Disease in cattle can limit export options, pose supply risks and contribute to production inefficiencies.
    1. Dairy and EggsIf you eat dairy, eggs or both, your protein options are a lot more extensive. Eggs are said to be among the most bioavailable sources of protein in the human diet. According to a 2004 review in the Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, egg has a biological value of 100, second only to whey, with a value of 104. One large egg has 6 g of protein. Milk, with 8 g of protein per cup, has a biological value of 94, making it another high-quality protein source. Other protein-rich milk products include: Cottage cheese: 15 g per 1/2 cup Yogurt: 10 g per cup Greek yogurt: 22.5 g per cup Including eggs and dairy in your vegetarian diet also offers more protein powder options: Whey: 22 g per 28-g serving Casein: 26 g in a 30-g serving Egg: 24 g per 32-ounce serving
    2. Plant-based protein powders are often more concentrated sources of protein. Using these in smoothies or to stir into oatmeal will help you get more protein than you could from whole foods alone. Some choices you have when choosing a plant-based protein powder include: Pea protein: 21 g per 28-g serving Hemp protein: 12 g per serving Pumpkin seed protein: 18 g per serving Brown rice protein: 22 g per serving Soy protein: 22 g per serving
    3. Seitan (made from wheat gluten): 25 g in 3.5 ounces Tofu (made from soybeans): 9 g in 3.5 ounces Garbanzo beans: 15 g per cup Quinoa: 8 g per cup, cooked Lentils: 18 g per cup, cooked Hempseed: 9.5 g in 3 tablespoons Almonds: 8 g in 1/4 cup
    1. This research supports the idea that the more fruit and veg you eat the better – at least, up to 10 portions (800g) a day.
    1. Many countries - including Germany, the Netherlands and New Zealand - recommend five portions a day. Some others - including Canada and Japan - recommend seven or more. France goes as far as recommending 10 portions of fruit and vegetables a day. In Australia, they say the emphasis should be on eating more vegetables than fruit and recommend five portions of vegetables and two of fruit per day.
    1. In his letter, Sir Tim outlined three specific areas of "dysfunction" that he said were harming the web today: malicious activity such as hacking and harassment problematic system design such as business models that reward clickbait unintended consequences, such as aggressive or polarised discussions

      If this is resolved, I believe that many individuals can be helped to feel a lot better.

    1. is a waterborne bacterial disease, caused by the leptospiro bacteria. It rarely spreads from person to person and can be treated with common antib

      The bacteria is found in the urine of rodents.

    1. Now, as part of my regular practice, I spend about five minutes out of each hour exercising with this package. This almost always reveals things to me that change at least the slant of my approach during the next hour, and often stimulates a relatively significant change in my short-range plans.

      Also starting to think about health/exercise monitoring software here.

  • Feb 2019
  • Jan 2019
    1. I used to be comforted by their cheering words, by the hours they spent at my bedside, and by their conversation.

      Chicken soup for the self-writer's soul? Jk.

      Yet another thing words can do: heal.

    1. So if you are tired during the day, check that you’re giving yourself the opportunity to get 7 to 9 hours.

      This is super helpful. Bold

    2. So if you are tired during the day, check that you’re giving yourself the opportunity to get 7 to 9 hours.

      This is super helpful.

  • Dec 2018
  • Nov 2018
    1. Davis and col-leagues (3) provide useful new data that enhance our un-derstanding of the effects of hospitalists on health sys-tems. In their study of a voluntary hospitalist system at alarge rural nonteaching hospital in Mississippi, theyfound that patients cared for by hospitalists had adjustedhospital stays that were 25% shorter, and costs that were12% less, than patients cared for by nonhospitalist inter-nists. For patients in the highest severity group, these sav-ings were even greater. Annualized, the authors extrapo-late that the hospitalists would have saved $2.5 millionhad they cared for all of the internists’ patients. As withprior studies that found similar reductions in resourceuse (4 –7), these substantial savings were achieved with-out diminishing quality or patient satisfaction. Nor wasthere evidence of cost shifting: hospitalists’ patients wereno less likely to be discharged to home (instead of anotherinstitution such as a skilled nursing facility) than werepatients of primary care internists. We can now state withconsiderable confidence that hospitalists markedly de-crease inpatient costs and lengths of stay with no compro-mise in quality or patient satisfaction.
    1. Meditation can not only provide a welcome counterweight to this work with abstractions, it also cultives 10 qualities of character (Pali: paramis) that are useful during the practice of programming.

      Generosity Morality Renunciation Understanding Effort Patience/tolerance Truthfulness Loving-kindness Equanimity

    1. Polls show that doctors are trusted by the public more than politicians, which means it’s hard for public policy to shape the healthcare system unless medical associations sign off on it.
    1. “It’s about embracing the inscrutable nature of human interactions,” says Chang. Evidence-based medicine was a massive improvement over intuition-based medicine, he says, but it only covers traditionally quantifiable data, or those things that are easy to measure. But we’re now quantifying information that was considered qualitative a generation ago.

      Biggest challenges to redesigning the health care system in a way that would work better for patients and improve health

    2. “Our biggest opportunity is leaning into that. It’s either embracing the qualitative nature of that and designing systems that can act just on the qualitative nature of their experience, or figuring how to quantitate some of those qualitative measures,” says Chang. “That’ll get us much further, because the real value in health care systems is in the human interactions. My relationship with you as a doctor and a patient is far more valuable than the evidence that some trial suggests.”

      Biggest challenges to redesigning the health care system in a way that would work better for patients and improve health

    3. Duffy points to the increase in health care interactions online and adds that he would like to see a pervasive culture of in-person care as last resort. “If every organizational decision, technology decision, process decision — assuming all the payment stuff, that’s kind of ticket of entry, transpires — if you view in-person as last resort, that will help pull systems across the country to a more consumer-forward Uber-like experience,” he says

      Biggest challenges to redesigning the health care system in a way that would work better for patients and improve health

    1. As with other forms of value-based health care, patient-centered care requires a shift in the way provider practices and health systems are designed, managed, and reimbursed. In keeping with the tenets of patient-centeredness, this shift neither happens in a vacuum, it driven by traditional hierarchies in which providers or clinicians are the lone authority. Everyone, from the parking valet and environmental services staff to c-suite members, are engaged in the process, which impacts hiring, training, leadership style, and organizational culture. Patient-centered care also represents a shift in the traditional roles of patients and their families from one of passive “order taker” to one of active “team member.” One of the country’s leading proponents of patient-centered care, Dr. James Rickert, has stated that one of the basic tenets of patient-centered care is that “patients know best how well their health providers are meeting their needs.” To that end, many providers are implementing patient satisfaction surveys, patient and family advisory councils, and focus groups, and using the resulting information to continuously improve the way health care facilities and provider practices are designed, managed, and maintained from both a physical and operational perspective so they become centered more on the individual person than on a checklist of services provided. As the popularity of patient- and family-centered health care increases, it is expected that patients will become more engaged and satisfied with the delivery of their care, and evidence of its clinical efficacy should continue to mount.

      Cultural shift to patient-centered care

    1. Poor health literacy is a silent and ubiquitous health care issue, and the field of neurosurgery is particularly prone to the consequent adverse effects. Failure to address low health literacy has several detrimental health and economic consequences, and numerous policies have been initiated to address these. Better facilitating patient understanding of neurosurgical disease, treatment options, and care surrounding the operative period may have a positive impact on the health care economy and ultimately achieve improved outcomes for patients.

      Certain disciplines are particularly prone to consequent adverse effects of poor health literacy.

    2. Deyo et al. (8) demonstrated a reduction in the adverse impact of inadequate health literacy in the neurosurgical field. The impact of an interactive videodisc program that informs patients of their treatment options for back surgery on patient outcome and surgical choices was evaluated. The program helped facilitate decision making and ensured informed consent. It also reduced surgery rates for patients with herniated disks. The authors of this study also implemented the use of patient-oriented multimedia to augment comprehension and advocated a similar strategy for other clinicians. Further commitment is needed to put health literacy at the forefront of improving health care and reducing health expenditures, especially in neurosurgery.
    3. Paasche-Orlow et al. (18) suggested 3 principles to ameliorate health literacy disparities. The first is to promote productive interactions. Clinicians need to develop better communication abilities and take appropriate measures to ensure adequate comprehension of health information. Educating youth and establishing health literacy standards in the educational system can help improve existing and future health literacy rates. Incorporating health literacy classes as a component of training for health professionals and in studies of preventive services can increase awareness among providers, facilitating better communication and quality of care (19). Additionally, transmitting complex ideas can be aided with the use of technology platforms. Yin et al. (25) investigated the plausibility of a pictogram-based intervention program to reduce medication administration errors. The authors found that when the intervention was used as part of medication counseling, there was a decrease in medication dosage errors compared with standard medication counseling.The second principle is concerned with addressing the organization of health care. Paasche-Orlow et al. advocated patient-centered care, streamlined access to health care, and incentives to promote collaboration to address the needs of the health illiterate population. The U.S. government created and enacted several major policies that address this principle to diminish the adverse effects of poor health literacy. The first is the Affordable Care Act, which stipulates that health plans and insurers must provide understandable and clear health information regarding coverage and benefits (11). Because most Americans receiving coverage through the new legislative act have limited health literacy, standardized information about health care would greatly assist these Americans in making better-informed health decisions (15). Another policy is the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy (22). This is the first plan of its kind to create health literacy goals for the entire country. It intends to provide all Americans with access to accurate health information, deliver patient-focused services, and support learning and skills that improve health. All of these acts and policies have the potential to improve 3 keys to health care: access, quality, and cost.The third principle from the study by Paasche-Orlaw et al. involves establishing an objective and sincere voice for better delivery of health information to the community. Individuals may have appropriate health literacy levels, but other personal or environmental factors can contribute to a lower understanding of vital health information. Ito (9) analyzed Vietnamese refugees who tested positive for inactive tuberculosis and their response to prophylactic tuberculosis treatment. Ito found that the immigrants were more hesitant to complete the medication regimen because the side effects were too “hot.” Instead, the immigrants preferred Asian herbal medications as they were considered “cooling.” Von Goeler et al. (23) investigated diabetes self-management among Puerto Rican adults with type 2 diabetes and found that the participants regularly self-monitored their blood glucose levels. However, they did not use that information to control their diabetes properly because of financial and social barriers such as competing family concerns. Situations such as these call for a voice, a cultural broker, who understands the environmental obstacles to comprehending and using health information fully.

      Ameliorate health literacy disparities

    4. Koh et al. (11) detailed a cycle of crisis care elaborating the nature of high medical costs, possibly resulting from fear and denial. First, an individual is in need of medical help, so he or she goes to a physician's office where the staff asks the individual to fill out a complex and confusing form. The physician examines the patient and explains the condition and treatment options using medical jargon. Numerous prescriptions, laboratory tests, and referrals are given without confirmation of the patient's comprehension. The staff sends the patient home with complicated instructions. Inevitably, the patient may consume medication incorrectly or miss follow-up appointments, and his or her condition worsens. Eventually, the patient presents to the emergency department, and the hospital staff develops a new treatment plan. Again, no one confirms the patient's understanding. When the patient is discharged, he or she is likely to get sick again and repeat the cycle (11)
  • Oct 2018
    1. Silvia’s father went to prison when she was a baby, and served 10 years for selling drugs. Without his support, her mother struggled to provide financially for her and her brother. Her mother also suffered from a mental disorder for which she received SSI. While Silvia was growing up, the family relied on public assistance and ate mostly cheap food such as canned ravioli and Ramen noodles. Silvia remembers being hungry often and recalls that her mother often ignored Silvia and her brother.

      Pienso que esto es Pathway effect en cuanto a que Silvia de alguna manera reprodujo lo que vio en su hogar porque ya tenia un escenario predispuesto. El health behavior que quiero destacar es el comportamiento en cuanto a la dieta ya que eran pobres y comía comida enlatada no saludable y no tenían seguridad alimentaria.

    1. They found that an hour after being released in a room at a relative humidity of 23% or less, 70-77% of viral particles retained their infectious capacity, but when humidity was increased to about 43%, only 14% of the virus particles were capable of infecting cells. Most of this inactivation occurred within the first fifteen minutes of the viral particles being released in the high-humidity condition. The study concludes that maintaining indoor relative humidity at levels greater than 40% can significantly reduce the infectious capacity of aerosolized flu virus.
    1. A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens.
  • Sep 2018
    1. So a weighted blanket it is. “We’re not understanding how to deal with [mental health]. Instead, we’re throwing products at it,” says Beautiful Voyager’s Arthur. “It’s very American.”

      Or: we are making certain tools, which used to be niche and therefore expensive and hard to find, widely available.

    2. So, yes, meditation apps may help us meditate, and meditation may reduce anxiety. Weighted blankets may calm us down long enough to fall and stay asleep, which will help us feel better the next day. And fidget devices can distract us so that instead of ruminating on negative thoughts, we’re expending mental energy on something physical.

      Products that are designed for people with disabilities often have benefits even for those without that disability. That does mean the product cures or treats an underlying condition. It's just a tool.

    3. There are plenty of places to point fingers: your phone, the president, climate change, the recession, FOMO, divorce, social media, student debt, terrorism, the 24-hour news cycle, the economy, “the economy,” living farther from family, toxins in your gut, too many choices, too little sleep, too little sex. Or maybe we’re just overdiagnosing anxiety and actually, everything’s fine.

      Or maybe reduced stigma against mental health combined with wider access to health insurance under the Affordable Care Act has allowed more people to seek help. I don't think anxiety is any more prevalent than it was before; I think more of us are talking about it.