11 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2021
    1. The dopamine reward system has also been shown to bestimulated by most drugs of abuse and plays an important rolein addiction [33]. An important question is whether jhanameditators are subject to addiction and tolerance effects thatcan result from stimulation of the dopamine reward system.

      The question of potential addiction to self-induced states that activate the dopamine (and/or other neurochemical) reward system(s) is important. From a more philosophical angle, should we welcome beneficial addictions that, if cultivated, might significantly improve individual and group quality of life? Isn't this related to our high regard for replacing detrimental with positive habits? Habit formation and maintenance also depends on activation of neural reward systems (see Nir Eyal's book, Hooked).

  2. Aug 2021
    1. Periodic Limb Movements of Sleep measurementsconfirmedthat ULDNallowed equivalent control of limb movements at half the prior dose of D2/3 agonists. Although the naltrexone dosewas 0.15 ug, the effect was retained at 100 ug and 1 mg(Bear and Kessler, 2014a,2014b).Thus, naltrexone proved effective forRLS, putativelyby facilitating sensitization of D2/3 agonists.

      The sources are patents. 2014a and 2014b.

      It is interesting that the benefits were retained over a large dose range. Oddly, full LDN doses (when combined with benzos) can help treat tardive dyskinesia. Thus, it seems plausible that the benefits for RLS are retained at even higher doses. I've not yet checked the sources to see if higher doses were tested. That is, doses over 1 mg. I doubt they were, because it would probably have been mentioned here.

  3. Mar 2021
    1. The next time, when you anticipate getting that new food, having that experience again, dopamine is now released in anticipation.

      Again, the brain has been trained that when you do this thing, you will get a reward. It's also interesting that the brain knows to release dopamine in anticipation of the event.

    2. You remember it. In the case of positive emotional memories, we think that the chemical dopamine is what's involved as marking them as survival enhancing.

      I think this is the first mention of dopamine specifically that I have come across in my research. Dopamine is released, you brain gets a reward, and remembers that this thing or action is good. It makes send that evolution would lead to this, so that survival actions are ingrained into the brain.

  4. Nov 2020
    1. serotonin has another function: It can act as one of those molecular Post-it notes. Specifically, it can bind to a type of histone known as H3, which controls the genes responsible for transforming human stem cells (the forerunner of all kinds of cells) into serotonin neurons. When serotonin binds to the histone, the DNA unwinds, turning on the genes that dictate the development of a stem cell into a serotonin neuron, while turning off other genes by keeping their DNA tightly wound. (So stem cells that never see serotonin turn into other types of cells, since the genetic program to transform them into neurons is not activated.)

      Serotonin can bind to H3 Histone and cause stem cells to become serotonin neurons.

      This research led the same team to wonder if Dopamine might act in a similar way.

      The serotonin paper is here: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30867594/

    2. To put it plainly, the discovery that monoamine neurotransmitters control epigenetic regulation of genes is transformative for basic science and medicine

      Very bold claim to say that discovering that these neurotransmitters can induce epigenetic changes will transform basic science and medicine.

    3. To test that hypothesis, the researchers genetically modified H3 histones in rats by replacing the amino acid that dopamine attaches to with a different one it doesn’t react with. This stops dopaminylation from occurring. Withdrawal from cocaine is associated with changes in the readout of hundreds of genes involved in rewiring neural circuits and altering synaptic connections, but in the rats whose dopaminylation was prevented, these changes were suppressed. Moreover, neural impulse firing in VTA neurons was reduced, and they released less dopamine, showing that these genetic changes were indeed affecting the brain’s reward circuit operation. This might account for why people with substance use disorder crave drugs that boost dopamine levels in the brain during withdrawal. Finally, in subsequent tests, the genetically modified rats exhibited much less cocaine-seeking behavior

      Rats were genetically modified to decrease dopaminylation (modifying M3 so dopamine couldn't attach). This correlated to the Ventral Tegmental Area firing less (less cocaine impulse) and released less dopamine. This showed that these changes to H3, and subsequently the dopaminylation, did impact brain's reward circuit operation.

    4. dopaminylation. The term refers to the brain chemical dopamine’s ability, in addition to transmitting signals across synapses, to enter a cell’s nucleus and control specific genes

      Dopaminylation - Dopamine's ability to enter a cell's nucleus and control specific genes.

      CRAZY!

    5. they showed that the same enzyme that attaches serotonin to H3 can also catalyze the attachment of dopamine to H3 — a process, I learned, called dopaminylation.

      The same enzyme that helps serotonin bind to H3 can also help dopamine bind to H3.

      Paper found here: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32273471/

  5. Feb 2020
  6. Jan 2020
    1. Look over your list. Do they contain words like published, awarded, graduated, built, founded or created? Or do they contain mostly adjectives like nice, caring, loving, honest and smart? If you’re in the first sentence it’s likely you’re an SC. If the majority of your responses are in the second sentence you are likely an RC.

      The difference is if listing egocentric stuff (I'm impressive and I feel better than others, I feel worthy for myself itself) or listing qualities that influence the surrounding world (I do social work to help refugees, I published a theory to improve the current state of philosophy, I completed a project or a school, I created something that now generates some kind of value).

      The Replication Creators are creative just for themselves, so they get just short-term rewards.

      The Skilled Creators are creative for the sharing with the others, so they get long-term rewards.