- Oct 2018
SWS was generally not affected. It is concluded that beta 1 neurotransmission is directly involved in the regulation of PS.
Full text summary: Beta 1 but not beta 2 is involved in REM sleep generation. High dose propranolol (which is not selective) practically obliterated REM sleep. Selective beta 1 agonism restored REM, while selective beta 2 agonism did not.
- Oct 2017
Beta blockers have long been associated with sleep disturbances such as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and insomnia. They have been shown to reduce the production of melatonin via specific inhibition of beta-1 adrenergic receptors. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in the brain, and helps in maintaining normal circadian rhythms.6,20-21 People with hypertension already have a lower melatonin production rate than those with normal blood pressure.22
The question becomes, then, do beta blockers impair sleep when exogenous melatonin is administered concurrently?
- beta blocker antagonist adrenaline adrenergic blood pressure hypertension heart rate
- melatonin deep sleep quality architecture circadian rythm zeitgeber chronobiology