7 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. serotonin has another function: It can act as one of those molecular Post-it notes. Specifically, it can bind to a type of histone known as H3, which controls the genes responsible for transforming human stem cells (the forerunner of all kinds of cells) into serotonin neurons. When serotonin binds to the histone, the DNA unwinds, turning on the genes that dictate the development of a stem cell into a serotonin neuron, while turning off other genes by keeping their DNA tightly wound. (So stem cells that never see serotonin turn into other types of cells, since the genetic program to transform them into neurons is not activated.)

      Serotonin can bind to H3 Histone and cause stem cells to become serotonin neurons.

      This research led the same team to wonder if Dopamine might act in a similar way.

      The serotonin paper is here: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30867594/

    2. To put it plainly, the discovery that monoamine neurotransmitters control epigenetic regulation of genes is transformative for basic science and medicine

      Very bold claim to say that discovering that these neurotransmitters can induce epigenetic changes will transform basic science and medicine.

    3. To test that hypothesis, the researchers genetically modified H3 histones in rats by replacing the amino acid that dopamine attaches to with a different one it doesn’t react with. This stops dopaminylation from occurring. Withdrawal from cocaine is associated with changes in the readout of hundreds of genes involved in rewiring neural circuits and altering synaptic connections, but in the rats whose dopaminylation was prevented, these changes were suppressed. Moreover, neural impulse firing in VTA neurons was reduced, and they released less dopamine, showing that these genetic changes were indeed affecting the brain’s reward circuit operation. This might account for why people with substance use disorder crave drugs that boost dopamine levels in the brain during withdrawal. Finally, in subsequent tests, the genetically modified rats exhibited much less cocaine-seeking behavior

      Rats were genetically modified to decrease dopaminylation (modifying M3 so dopamine couldn't attach). This correlated to the Ventral Tegmental Area firing less (less cocaine impulse) and released less dopamine. This showed that these changes to H3, and subsequently the dopaminylation, did impact brain's reward circuit operation.

    4. dopaminylation. The term refers to the brain chemical dopamine’s ability, in addition to transmitting signals across synapses, to enter a cell’s nucleus and control specific genes

      Dopaminylation - Dopamine's ability to enter a cell's nucleus and control specific genes.

      CRAZY!

    5. they showed that the same enzyme that attaches serotonin to H3 can also catalyze the attachment of dopamine to H3 — a process, I learned, called dopaminylation.

      The same enzyme that helps serotonin bind to H3 can also help dopamine bind to H3.

      Paper found here: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32273471/

  2. Feb 2020
  3. Jan 2020
    1. Look over your list. Do they contain words like published, awarded, graduated, built, founded or created? Or do they contain mostly adjectives like nice, caring, loving, honest and smart? If you’re in the first sentence it’s likely you’re an SC. If the majority of your responses are in the second sentence you are likely an RC.

      The difference is if listing egocentric stuff (I'm impressive and I feel better than others, I feel worthy for myself itself) or listing qualities that influence the surrounding world (I do social work to help refugees, I published a theory to improve the current state of philosophy, I completed a project or a school, I created something that now generates some kind of value).

      The Replication Creators are creative just for themselves, so they get just short-term rewards.

      The Skilled Creators are creative for the sharing with the others, so they get long-term rewards.