28 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2019
    1. Magnesium reduces the intensity of addiction to opiates and psychostimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, and others). It also decreases the auto-administration of cocaine and the relapse into cocaine and amphetamine intake, as well as reducing the experimental addiction to morphine, cocaine and other substances in animals. In heroin addicts, alcohol consumers and other drug abusers, the plasma and intracellular magnesium concentration is lower compared to healthy subjects.

      Precisely what I'd expect. However, I was hoping to find a placebo controlled trial. I'm nearly certain that magnesium show benefit. I'm less confident that such studies will use adequate doses of magnesium for the effects to reach statistical significance.

  2. Apr 2019
    1. One reason is that products are often designed in ways that make us act impulsively and against our better judgment. For example, suppose you have a big meeting at work tomorrow. Ideally, you want to spend some time preparing for it in the evening and then get a good night’s rest. But before you can do either, a notification pops up on your phone indicating that a friend tagged you on Facebook. “This will take a minute,” you tell yourself as you click on it. But after logging in, you discover a long feed of posts by friends. A few clicks later, you find yourself watching a YouTube video that one of them shared. As soon as the video ends, YouTube suggests other related and interesting videos. Before you know it, it’s 1:00 a.m., and it’s clear that you will need an all-nighter to get ready for the following morning’s meeting. This has happened to most of us.

      This makes me think about the question of social and moral responsibility- I understand that YouTube and Facebook didn't develop these algorithms with nefarious intent, but it is a very drug-like experience, and I know I'm not the only one who can relate to this experience

  3. Mar 2019
    1. Japan today has some of the harshest drug laws of any advanced democracy. If you are found in possession of cannabis in Japan for personal use you could receive a maximum prison sentence of five years, and if you are caught growing it, you can be sent to prison for up to seven years. Each year, the laws are enforced against 2000 people, who are brutally publicly shamed before, during and after their prison sentence.[2] For example, when the actress Saya Takagi was caught with cannabis, all reruns of the dramas she appeared on – like the popular detective series Aibo - were scrubbed from the TV schedules.[3] She had written the theme song for another TV show: it was immediately ditched. Or to give another example, when a rugby player for Japan’s national team was caught with the drug, he was banned from ever playing again, and the electronics giant Toshiba suspended all sponsorship of his regional team.[4] To be associated with cannabis in Japan is to be destroyed.

      Whoa! To be associated with cannabis in Japan does seem equal to public shaming. This is probably the least helpful way to try and make people not use drugs. Also, addiction is a disease.

  4. Feb 2019
    1. Why are opioids dangerous?

      If opioids are prescribed and overtaken, then your risk of becoming dependent on the drug goes up. Opioids are highly addictive.

  5. Jan 2019
    1. Access to gender-responsive substance use disorder treatment services, especially for pregnant women

      Stigma is particularly high for this group, along with the felt shame that pregnant women bear, which serve as barriers to accessing high quality drug addiction support. Because group therapy is one common form of treatment, retention is lower because the group majority is male. Women who do seek out help do not always feel psychologically safe in these treatment settings. Additionally, they may not appropriately address the unique needs of mothers and expecting mothers. I wonder about regional differences, SES, race/ethnicity...

  6. Oct 2018
    1. Dr. Freed and 200 other psychologists petitioned the American Psychological Association in August to formally condemn the work psychologists are doing with persuasive design for tech platforms that are designed for children.
    2. Technology Is a Huge Social Experiment on ChildrenSome parents, pediatricians and teachers around the country are pushing back. “These companies lied to the schools, and they’re lying to the parents,” said Natasha Burgert, a pediatrician in Kansas City. “We’re all getting duped.”“Our kids, my kids included, we are subjecting them to one of the biggest social experiments we have seen in a long time,” she said. “What happens to my daughter if she can’t communicate over dinner — how is she going to find a spouse? How is she going to interview for a job?”
  7. Sep 2018
    1. In some cases, though, great amounts of time playing video games (or doing any other single thing) can be evidence of something missing in a person's life. In some cases people engage in an activity not just because of their enjoyment of it, but also because it is an escape from something painful in their lives or is the only route available to them to satisfy basic psychological needs. This can occur for adults as well as children. The activity that seems to become obsessive might be video gaming, or it might be something else. For instance, some adults devote far more time to their careers than they otherwise might, because that allows them to avoid an unpleasant family environment. Some kids say they play video games at least partly as a means of escape, and some say they do so because it is the only realm of activity in which they feel free.[5] In an age in which children are often not allowed to play freely outdoors, and in which they are more or less constantly directed by adults, the virtual world of video games is for some the only realm where they are allowed to roam free and explore. If they were allowed more autonomy in the real world, many of them would spend less time at video games. As illustration of this idea, British gaming researcher Richard Wood gives some case examples.[6] One case is that of Martin, an 11-year-old boy whose mother became concerned about the huge amounts of time he was devoting to World of Warcraft and therefore forbade him from playing it or other video games, which made things only worse for Martin. It turned out, according to Wood, that Martin was an only child who was being bullied at school and hated going there, and who was afraid of going outside at home because of repeated bullying. The online video game was his only source of free expression and his only satisfying contact with other people. When this was taken away from him, he was understandably distraught. Another example is that of Helen, a 32-year-old MD who worked in a temporary research position and spent most of her spare time playing the MMORPG Final Fantasy alone in her apartment. It turned out that Helen had recently experienced a bad breakup with a long-term partner, was unhappy with her job, and was severely depressed. Playing Final Fantasy was not cause of her depression, but was her way of coping with it during this difficult time in her life. The online game provided social connections and pleasure at a time when nothing else did. In a study of more than 1300 adult video gamers (age 18 to 43), Andrew Przybylski and his colleagues at the University of Rochester found that a small percentage of them, who played many hours per day, described themselves as obsessively engaged--they felt that they didn't just "want" to play, but "needed" to play.[7] These players, when they stopped a session of playing, did not feel refreshed and energized as other players did, but felt tense and unhappy. The extensive questionnaires used in this study also revealed that these "obsessed" player were, in general, those whose basic psychological needs--their needs for freedom, competence, and social relationships--were not being met in real life. So, if your child or another loved one seems obsessed about video games and unhappy outside of the games, don't jump to the conclusion that the games are cause of the unhappiness. Instead, talk with your loved one and try to find out what might be missing or wrong in other aspects of his or her life and whether or not you can help to solve that problem.
    2. To counteract the stereotype, Langlois points out that video gaming is hard fun, not easy fun. In his words: "This hard fun would not be possible if gamers were truly lazy or apathetic. And the level of detail that many gamers pay attention to is staggering, whether it be leveling a profession to 525 in WoW, unlocking every achievement in Halo 3, or mapping out every detail in the EVE universe. This is not apathy, this is meticulousness." So, Langlois helps gamers by helping them feel good about their gaming rather than bad about it. There is no reason why a dedicated video gamer should feel any worse about his or her hobby than a dedicated chess player or skier. Still, of course, some people let their dedication to video gaming--or to chess, or to skiing, or to anything else--interfere with other aspects of their life, and that can be a problem. Lots of us need to learn time management, especially as we reach adulthood, in order to do what we want to do and still fulfill our obligations to others. My loved ones sometimes remind me that it's not fair for me to spend all of my time reading and writing or going off alone bicycling or skiing. But, let's not stigmatize any of this by calling it an addiction. Let's just call it a time management problem and figure out constructive ways to deal with it.
    1. Video-game designers have also mastered another trick to encourage more play: requiring an unpredictable number of actions in order to earn a reward. Giving one at regular intervals means that a player, having received a reward, will be less motivated to play on knowing that another is a long time coming. In Diablo, Dr Hilgard explains, a player may find a powerful weapon either after the very next monster that is slain, or not until a thousand monsters later. This schedule fosters more frequent engagement. Therefore the structure of reward patterns in different games may cause certain ones to be more addictive (particularly to gamers who are motivated by the prospect of completing goals and accumulating rare items).
    2. Another risk factor is found in players with strong social motivation. Some games involve social obligations, where players have to work together. This can mean a player feels obliged to play along as the rest of the group wants to play. Farmville strives to ensure participation at regular intervals by making gamers dependent on each other for daily allotments of fantasy resources, says Joseph Hilgard, at the University of Missouri-Columbia, and colleagues in a recent paper in Frontiers in Psychology. Putting together role play and social use in one game should yield a highly compelling game. World of Warcraft, a massive multiplayer online role-playing game, fits this description and is, anecdotally, pretty addictive. 
    3. Players are motivated by the extent to which different games fulfill their basic psychological needs; but some factors, more than others, are found in addiction. One risk factor is found in players who are trying to "escape" through fantasy immersion or role play. Indeed, their game use may be a symptom of some other underlying problem, say social phobia or depression. Playing can then generate a vicious cycle that is hard to treat if the game is a way of self-medicating. For example, a child who is unpopular in school, or being bullied, may be important and powerful in a video game. Real life may struggle to compete. 
    4. Human psychology tells us that players should enjoy a game that satisfies the need for control, bestows a sense of one's progress, and fosters relationships with friends and others encountered. Yet gamers differ in their individual needs. Each person has their own "player personality" and this variation has spawned a vast industry designed to meet different motivations. Some may want to release aggression (Call of Duty), escape reality (World of Warcraft) or oversee building projects (Minecraft). Others are more motivated by in-game rewards, or have a high "loss aversion" and so find a challenging game unfair or frustrating (while others find it thrilling). A game like Flappy Birds, will most appeal to those who are attracted by repetitive actions, difficulty and have a low loss aversion. Those who have a high loss aversion, however, will find it infuriating. 
    1. We’ve got lots of telephones already. Can’t you think of anything else for your birthday? Something very special?

      This part of the dialogue creates a good view of how consumerism will be just as prominent as today if not more. when he says we've got a lot of telephones, it might suggest that they are extremely reliant on technology so in a sense the movie had correctly predicted our current addiction and reliance on mobile phones.

  8. Jan 2017
    1. Capsaicin binds to the pain receptor TRPV1, which our brains also use to detect changes in temperature - that's why we think chillies are hot.But after being over-stimulated the neurons stop responding, killing the pain. This process involves the release of endorphins, which can give us a "rush" not dissimilar from the feeling of having exercised well. This may explain why some people believe that hot food is addictive.
    1. Rats given access to high-fat foods showed some of the same characteristics as animals hooked on cocaine or heroin--and found it hard to quit even when given electric shocks
    1. The team noticed that, almost as soon as the salt-depleted mice started drinking salt water, the patterns of gene regulation triggered by the need began to reverse. The rapid response is a surprise, because it means brain changes in the mice occurred before significant amounts of salt had moved from the stomach to the bloodstream. "It was stunning and perplexing to see that just ten minutes of drinking salty water led to a complete change of the whole sophisticated and elaborate genetic program," Duke's Liedtke said.
    2. Salt appetite can be so strong that animals short on sodium will put life and limb at risk to satisfy the hunger. Mountain goats, for instance, are known to cling to sheer cliffs to access a salt lick, even when a misstep means certain death.
  9. Dec 2016
    1. ‘In the past, if you were an alcohol distiller, you could throw up your hands and say, look, I don’t know who’s an alcoholic,’ he said. ‘Today, Facebook knows how much you’re checking Facebook. Twitter knows how much you’re checking Twitter. Gaming companies know how much you’re using their free-to-play games. If these companies wanted to do something, they could.’
    2. But she argues that, when it comes to machine design, it’s not exactly about giving people what they do or do not want. What matters, Schüll says, is ‘the accentuating, accelerating and elaborating that happens between the wanting and the giving’.
  10. Jan 2016
    1. addictive but unrewarding pastimes

      Playing video games, watching porn, reading blog posts etc.

  11. Jul 2015
    1. Excessive use of computer games among young people in China appears to be taking an alarming turn and may have particular relevance for American parents whose children spend many hours a day focused on electronic screens. The documentary “Web Junkie,” to be shown next Monday on PBS, highlights the tragic effects on teenagers who become hooked on video games, playing for dozens of hours at a time often without breaks to eat, sleep or even use the bathroom. Many come to view the real world as fake.
  12. Jun 2015
    1. Things like how you don't pick your passions, they pick you

      "Everyone thinks that they know what they want; sometimes your drug chooses you." -- k.d. lang, "My Last Cigarette"

      https://youtu.be/CCvalE8SClU

  13. May 2015
    1. habits [are pleasurable]; for the habitual has already become, as it were, natural; for habit is something like nature

      Interesting juxtaposition of habit with compulsion: habits are pleasurable, compulsions are not, "unless they become habitual"...

    1. Rather, it is a question of dosage

      Avital Ronell writes in Crack Wars (1992): "It is all more or less a question of dosage" (61). Again the invocation of addiction, critique as a habit that requires management.

    2. Habit is an acquired automatic self-r egulation. It resides in the flesh

      This surprised me. Because of Infinite Jest, habit always makes me think of addiction, though the addictive kind of habit would do some violence to Massumi's claim here, it seems.

  14. Feb 2014
    1. Where I differ from Peter is in my belief that if you regard alcoholics and drug addicts not as bad people but as sick people then we can help them to get better.
    2. Drugs and alcohol are not my problem, reality is my problem, drugs and alcohol are my solution.

      So much wisdom here.