84 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jun 2020
    1. In hisCybernetics(1948),Norbert Wiener, a colleague of Bush at MIT, did notrefer to the memex, but its status is easily handled by his dictum that “informationis information, not matter or energy” (Wiener [1948] 1973, 132; also 11–12 for hiscoining the term “cybernetics” from the Greekkuberne, steersman). On this view, ablind man’s cane is part of the cybernetic system that includes the cane, his mind,and his body. InNatural-Born Cyborgs, Andy Clark elaborates on this by affirmingthat a cyborg mind need not sport electro-chemical implants; rather, the brain canhave systemic dependence on, and interaction with, various kinds of external storagedevices (Clark 2003; see also Clark and Chalmers 1998).10

      distributed and/or extended cognition.

  3. May 2020
  4. Apr 2020
    1. From the eponymous Dunning of the Dunning-Kruger effect

      In our work, we ask survey respondents if they are familiar with certain technical concepts from physics, biology, politics, and geography. A fair number claim familiarity with genuine terms like centripetal force and photon. But interestingly, they also claim some familiarity with concepts that are entirely made up, such as the plates of parallax, ultra-lipid, and cholarine. In one study, roughly 90 percent claimed some knowledge of at least one of the nine fictitious concepts we asked them about. In fact, the more well versed respondents considered themselves in a general topic, the more familiarity they claimed with the meaningless terms associated with it in the survey.

      An ignorant mind is precisely not a spotless, empty vessel, but one that’s filled with the clutter of irrelevant or misleading life experiences, theories, facts, intuitions, strategies, algorithms, heuristics, metaphors, and hunches that regrettably have the look and feel of useful and accurate knowledge. This clutter is an unfortunate by-product of one of our greatest strengths as a species. We are unbridled pattern recognizers and profligate theorizers. Often, our theories are good enough to get us through the day, or at least to an age when we can procreate. But our genius for creative storytelling, combined with our inability to detect our own ignorance, can sometimes lead to situations that are embarrassing, unfortunate, or downright dangerous—especially in a technologically advanced, complex democratic society that occasionally invests mistaken popular beliefs with immense destructive power (See: crisis, financial; war, Iraq). As the humorist Josh Billings once put it, “It ain’t what you don’t know that gets you into trouble. It’s what you know for sure that just ain’t so.”

      The way we traditionally conceive of ignorance—as an absence of knowledge—leads us to think of education as its natural antidote. But education, even when done skillfully, can produce illusory confidence. Here’s a particularly frightful example: Driver’s education courses, particularly those aimed at handling emergency maneuvers, tend to increase, rather than decrease, accident rates. They do so because training people to handle, say, snow and ice leaves them with the lasting impression that they’re permanent experts on the subject. In fact, their skills usually erode rapidly after they leave the course. And so, months or even decades later, they have confidence but little leftover competence when their wheels begin to spin.

      In these Wild West settings, it’s best not to repeat common misbeliefs at all. Telling people that Barack Obama is not a Muslim fails to change many people’s minds, because they frequently remember everything that was said—except for the crucial qualifier “not.” Rather, to successfully eradicate a misbelief requires not only removing the misbelief, but filling the void left behind (“Obama was baptized in 1988 as a member of the United Church of Christ”). If repeating the misbelief is absolutely necessary, researchers have found it helps to provide clear and repeated warnings that the misbelief is false. I repeat, false.

  5. Feb 2020
    1. TABLE 1. Practices to maximize student learning from educational videos

      Table 1. resource for planning/making effective videos

    2. Finally, the utility of video lessons can be maximized by matching modality to content. By using both the audio/verbal channel and the visual/pictorial channel to convey new infor-mation, and by fitting the particular type of information to the most appropriate channel, instructors can enhance the germane cognitive load of a learning experience.

      matching modality to content. So if you want to talk about history, or a book, or just some reflection, it makes less sense to do it over video, but if you want to talk about art history maybe you want to have a video component or be primarily video

    3. Weeding, or the elimination of interesting but extraneous information that does not contribute to the learning goal, can provide further benefits. For example, music, complex back-grounds, or extra features within an animation require the learner to judge whether he or she should be paying attention to them, which increases extraneous load and can reduce learn-ing.

      Weeding + definition, removing flash and bells and whistles that might cause the student to be distracted

    4. The benefits of signaling are complemented by segmenting, or the chunking of information in a video lesson. Segmenting allows learners to engage with small pieces of new information and gives them control over the flow of new information.

      Segmenting or chunking

    5. Signaling, which is also known as cueing (deKoning et al., 2009), is the use of on-screen text or symbols to highlight important information. For example, signaling may be provided by the appearance of two or three key words (Mayer and John-son, 2008; Ibrahim et al., 2012), a change in color or contrast (deKoning et al., 2009), or a symbol that draws attention to a region of a screen (e.g., an arrow; deKoning et al., 2009).

      Signaling definition + examples

    6. The third component of a learning experience is extraneous load, which is cognitive effort that does not help the learner toward the desired learning outcome.

      extraneous load, the fiddling with technology, the finding new content to read, the poorly connected information, etc.

    7. The first of these is intrinsic load, which is inherent to the subject under study and is determined in part by the degrees of connec-tivity within the subject

      how difficult is a concept to understand, word pairing is less difficult than grammar rules.

    8. he second component of any learning experience is germane load, which is the level of cognitive activity necessary to reach the desired learning outcome—for example, to make the comparisons, do the analysis, and elucidate the steps necessary to master the lesson.

      the level of cognitive activity needed to learn the learning outcome (memorize a few words), define terms, recall a history event, draw something.

    9. This processing is a prerequisite for encoding into long-term memory, which has virtually unlimited capacity. Because working memory is very limited, the learner must be selective about what information from sensory mem-ory to pay attention to during the learning process, an observa-tion that has important implications for creating educational materials
    10. Cognitive load theory, initially articulated by Sweller (1988, 1989, 1994), suggests that memory has several components. Sensory memory is tran-sient, collecting information from the environment. Information from sensory memory may be selected for temporary storage and processing in working memory,

      Cognitive load theory

  6. Nov 2019
    1. E-Learning Theory (Mayer, Sweller, Moreno)

      This website outlines key principles of the E-Learning Theory developed by Mayer, Sweller, and Moreno. E-Learning Theory describes how the implementation of educational technology can be combined with key principles of how we learn for better outcomes. This site describes those principles as a guide of more effective instructional design. Users can also find other learning theories under the "Categories" link at the top of the page. Examples include Constructivist theories, Media & Technology theories, and Social Learning theories. Rating: 8/10

  7. Oct 2019
    1. Cet article relie l'imagerie cerebrale à la lecture de fiction. Les parties activées du cerveau pendant la lecture se relient à des actions. Selon les actions lues, les parties pour sentir des odeurs, les parties prémotrices, les parties sociales s'activent. Ainsi, il semble conclure que lire de romans aide aux personnes à avoir plus d'empathie. Les romans serviraient pour faire des simulacres.

    1. BrainHQ, is an online brain-training software also developed by Posit Science. It is the only software available in Greek being used to any portable computing device (tablet, smartphone, etc.) as an application either on Android or on IOS provided in different languages. Undoubtedly, improvement of brain performance can bring multiple benefits to everyday life. Both research studies and the testimonials of users themselves show that BrainHQ offers benefits in improving thinking, memory and hearing, attention and vision, improving reaction speed, safer driving, self-confidence, quality discussion and good mood. BrainHQ includes 29 exercises divided into 6 categories: Attention, Speed, Memory, Skills, Intelligence and Navigation.

      In this conference paper the author is discussing about the different methods to interactively help learn people with disability, how their concentration and enthusiasm/motivation increases, if the right tool is used to teach them

    1. espite the potential of emerging technologies to assist persons with cognitive disabilities,significant practical impediments remain to be overcome in commercialization, consumerabandonment, and in the design and development of useful products. Barriers also exist in terms of the financial and organizational feasibility of specific envisionedproducts, and their limited potential to reach the consumer market. Innovative engineeringapproaches, effective needs analysis, user-centered design, and rapid evolutionary developmentare essential to ensure that technically feasible products meet the real needs of persons withcognitive disabilities. Efforts must be made by advocates, designers and manufacturers to promote betterintegration of future software and hardware systems so that forthcoming iterations of personalsupport technologies and assisted care systems technologies do not quickly become obsolete.They will need to operate seamlessly across multiple real-world environments in the home,school, community, and workplace

      This journal clearly explains the use of technologies with special aid people how a certain group can leverage it, while also touch basing on what are the challenges which special aid people face financially.

  8. Aug 2019
    1. Retrieval practice boosts learning by pulling information out of students’ heads (by responding to a brief writing prompt, for example), rather than cramming information into their heads (by lecturing at students, for example). In the classroom, retrieval practice can take many forms, including a quick no-stakes quiz. When students are asked to retrieve new information, they don’t just show what they know, they solidify and expand it. Feedback boosts learning by revealing to students what they know and what they don’t know. At the same time, this increases students’ metacognition — their understanding about their own learning progress. Spaced practice boosts learning by spreading lessons and retrieval opportunities out over time so that new knowledge and skills are not crammed in all at once. By returning to content every so often, students’ knowledge has time to be consolidated and then refreshed. Interleaving — or practicing a mix of skills (such as doing addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems all in one sitting) — boosts learning by encouraging connections between and discrimination among closely related topics. Interleaving sometimes slows students’ initial learning of a concept, but it leads to greater retention and learning over time.

      How can I build this into my curriculum?

  9. Jul 2019
    1. Cet article relie l'imagerie cerebrale à la lecture de fiction. Les parties activées du cerveau pendant la lecture se relient à des actions. Selon les actions lues, les parties pour sentir des odeurs, les parties prémotrices, les parties sociales s'activent. Ainsi, il semble conclure que lire de romans aide aux personnes à avoir plus d'empathie. Les romans serviraient pour faire des simulacres.

  10. Mar 2019
    1. Overview of Learning Theories

      The Berkeley Graduate Division published an interesting and straightforward table of learning theories. The table compares behaviorism, cognitive constructivism, and social constructivism in four ways: the view of knowledge, view of learning, view of motivation, and implications for teaching. This is an easy-to-read, quick resource for those who would like a side-by-side comparison of common theories. 9/10

    1. This link is to a three-page PDF that describes Gagne's nine events of instruction, largely in in the form of a graphic. Text is minimized and descriptive text is color coded so it is easy to find underneath the graphic at the top. The layout is simple and easy to follow. A general description of Gagne's work is not part of this page. While this particular presentation does not have personal appeal to me, it is included here due to the quality of the page and because the presentation is more user friendly than most. Rating 4/5

    1. Joe understands this and explains that he will do his best to give you the valid conceptual feel that you want—trying to tread the narrow line between being too detailed and losing your over-all view and being too general and not providing you with a solid feel for what goes on.
  11. Feb 2019
    1. they should feel much, and have a mutual sympathy, in whatc;ocvcr affects their fellow creatures.

      One purpose of speaking is to generate affective effects, meaning the feelings and emotions generated in listeners during a speech. Affective effects are equally as important as cognitive and behavioral effects.

  12. Jan 2019
    1. Constructivism and Social Constructivism

      a resource that provides an overview of key ideas to include similarities, differences, even extensions of both cognitive theories. Key theorists in these theories.

      Important points to consider when thinking about technology as a cognitive tool.

  13. Nov 2018
  14. Sep 2018
    1. most commonly creep into the decision-making process.

      I think, that we need to understand, how do our brains work, because it is part of us, which creates ourselves. There is the list of 7 most commonly creep cognitive biases into the decision- making process. " Progress bias

      What it is: Where we give more credit to our good actions even if they’re outweighed by the bad.

      Confirmation bias

      What it is: Where we’re more likely to believe information that confirms opinions we already have.

      Survivorship bias

      What it is: Where we only pay attention to people or things that succeeded and ignore all those who didn’t.

      Dunning-Kruger effect

      What it is: When confidence and experience are mismatched.

      IKEA effect

      What it is: Where we place much higher value on things we’ve personally worked on.

      Planning fallacy

      What it is: Where we underestimate the time we need to complete a task.

      Availability heuristic

      What it is: Where we believe that if something can be recalled it must be important. "

    1. The prevailing approaches to reading instruction in American schools are inconsistent with basic things scientists have discovered about how children learn to read. Many educators don't know the science, and in some cases actively resist it. The resistance is the result of beliefs about reading that have been deeply held in the educational establishment for decades, even though those beliefs have been proven wrong by scientists over and over again.
  15. Aug 2018
  16. Mar 2018
  17. Oct 2017
  18. May 2017
    1. A cognitive signature™ encodes the exact structure of a graph.●It is a lossless encoding, similar to a Gödel numbering. *●For unlabeled graphs, integers are sufficient for a cognitive signature.●For example, 0 maps to and from an empty graph with no nodes or arcs.●1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 can be mapped to and from the following graphs:●To encode the structure of conceptual graphs in Cognitive Memory, the cognitive signatures are based on generalized combinatorial maps. **By contrast, a word vector encodes labels, but not structure.●A word vector is a “bag of labels” that ignores the graph connections.●Word vectors are often used for measuring the similarity of documents.●But they discard the structural information necessary for reasoning, question answering, and language understanding.

      Comparing Kyndi's Cognitive Signature to word vectors. Word vectors as bags of labels whereas a cognitive signature captures structure as well as ontology

  19. Feb 2017
    1. mental and psychological health.

      His vocabulary is severely impoverished. With constant repetition of simple meaningless words, e.g., very, very, very, great, great, great. Much of what he said at the presser with PM Abe was senseless blather. He's covering up for a serious cognitive deficit.

  20. Sep 2016
    1. Activities such as time spent on task and discussion board interactions are at the forefront of research.

      Really? These aren’t uncontroversial, to say the least. For instance, discussion board interactions often call for careful, mixed-method work with an eye to preventing instructor effect and confirmation bias. “Time on task” is almost a codeword for distinctions between models of learning. Research in cognitive science gives very nuanced value to “time spent on task” while the Malcolm Gladwells of the world usurp some research results. A major insight behind Competency-Based Education is that it can allow for some variance in terms of “time on task”. So it’s kind of surprising that this summary puts those two things to the fore.

  21. Jul 2016
  22. www.rainer-rilling.de www.rainer-rilling.de
    1. Ihavetriedtosuggestthatthethreehistoricalstagesofcapitalhave eachgeneratedatypeofspaceuniquetoit,eventhoughthesethreestagesofcapitalistspaceareob-viouslyfarmore profoundlyinterrelatedthanarethespacesofothermodesofproduction.

      3 stages of capital, each with its own space.

  23. Jun 2016
    1. A few cognitive scientists – notably Anthony Chemero of the University of Cincinnati, the author of Radical Embodied Cognitive Science (2009) – now completely reject the view that the human brain works like a computer. The mainstream view is that we, like computers, make sense of the world by performing computations on mental representations of it, but Chemero and others describe another way of understanding intelligent behaviour – as a direct interaction between organisms and their world.

      http://psychsciencenotes.blogspot.com/p/about-us.html<br> Psychologists Andrew Wilson and Sabrina Golonka

    2. Misleading headlines notwithstanding, no one really has the slightest idea how the brain changes after we have learned to sing a song or recite a poem. But neither the song nor the poem has been ‘stored’ in it. The brain has simply changed in an orderly way that now allows us to sing the song or recite the poem under certain conditions. When called on to perform, neither the song nor the poem is in any sense ‘retrieved’ from anywhere in the brain, any more than my finger movements are ‘retrieved’ when I tap my finger on my desk. We simply sing or recite – no retrieval necessary.
  24. Dec 2015
    1. Agreementis the good stuff in science; it’s the high fives.But it is easy to think we’re in agreement, when really we’re not. Modeling ourthoughts on heuristics and pictures may be convenient for quick travel down the road,but we’re liable to miss our turnoff at the first mile. The danger is in mistaking ourconvenient conceptualizations for what’s actually there. It is imperative that we havethe ability at any time to ground out in reality.
  25. Oct 2015
    1. “If I could take German property without sitting down with them for even a minute but go in with jeeps and machine guns,” said David Ben-Gurion, “I would do that.

      Why is it that humans tend to turn to violence to get what they want? Is this a primal instinct still influencing our interpersonal communications with others? Or is it something taught to us as we grow up and witness what is effective in our world? Is violence an effective way of getting what one wants?

  26. May 2015
    1. That is, the human annotators are likely to assign different relevance labels to a document, depending on the quality of the last document they had judged for the same query. In addi- tion to manually assigned labels, we further show that the implicit relevance labels inferred from click logs can also be affected by an- choring bias. Our experiments over the query logs of a commercial search engine suggested that searchers’ interaction with a document can be highly affected by the documents visited immediately be- forehand.
  27. Oct 2014
    1. A few different people said that when a tip is low, they assume the customer is cheap or hurting for money, but when it’s high, they assume it’s because they did a great job serving the customer or because they’re likable (not that the customer is generous).
  28. Oct 2013
    1. For if a man be not moved by the force of truth

      Truth is perception. Cognitively, we perceive opinions and subjective ideas of truth.