51 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2023
    1. Finding the engramSheena A. Josselyn1–4, Stefan Köhler5,6 and Paul W. Frankland1–4Abstract | Many attempts have been made to localize the physical trace of a memory, orengram, in the brain. However, until recently, engrams have remained largely elusive. In thisReview, we develop four defining criteria that enable us to critically assess the recentprogress that has been made towards finding the engram. Recent ‘capture’ studies use novelapproaches to tag populations of neurons that are active during memory encoding, therebyallowing these engram-associated neurons to be manipulated at later times. We proposethat findings from these capture studies represent considerable progress in allowing us toobserve, erase and express the engram

      A 2015 neuroscience paper that gives 4 criteria for what an [[engram]] is, and argues that recent (at the time) developments in certain laboratory mice experiments suggested that engrams do exist.

    1. A paper recommended by Pablo B. which is about the implementation of a software for iterative visualizations. Looks very promising

    2. The resulting system effec-tively models diagram genera-tion as a compilation process,where the compilation targetis a constrained optimizationproblem rather than (say) a bi-nary executable or a static im-age.

      A neat idea of using compilation to target [[constrained optimization problem]] instead of a binary executable or static image.

    1. In contrast to visuospatial attention, language function is widely accepted to lateralize to the (dominant) left hemisphere (Friederici, 2017). Tissue damage to the left temporo-parietal cortex has been reported, for decades, to cause impairments of semantic processing – key to reading and other elaborate forms of language comprehension (Binder et al., 2009; Hartwigsen et al., 2016; Seghier, 2013).

      Suggests the [[left hemisphere of the brain]] is the primary part when using language.

    1. Depending on the researcher, CEN is often referred to as the executive-control network (ECN), or the frontoparietal network (FPN), and is sometimes divided to CEN and the dorsal attention network (DAN) [i.e., Ref. (29)].

      Suggests that - [[central executive network]] - [[executive-control network]] - [[frontoparietal network]] are synonymous.

    1. It has been demonstrated that areas most commonly activated following top-down cues to attend to particular locations, features, or objects are located along the dorsal parts of the parietal cortex. Such areas include inferior parietal lobule (IPL), dorsomedial regions referred to as superior parietal lobule (SPL), as well as more medial regions along the precuneus gyrus (Yantis et al., 2002; Giesbrecht et al., 2003; Liu et al., 2003; Yantis and Serences, 2003; Figure 1). Several top-down tasks have been shows to successfully engage dorsal regions of the parietal cortex, namely those involving spatial (Kastner et al., 1999; Corbetta et al., 2000; Hopfinger et al., 2000; Shomstein and Behrmann, 2006; Chiu and Yantis, 2009; Greenberg et al., 2010) as well as non-spatial shifts of attention (Giesbrecht et al., 2003; Yantis and Serences, 2003; Shomstein and Yantis, 2004b, 2006; Tamber-Rosenau et al., 2011).

      Suggests that [[top-down tasks]] that involve spatial & non-spatial shifts of attention activate:<br /> - [[inferior parietal lobule]] - [[superior parietal lobule]] - medial regions along the [[precuneus gyrus]]

    1. A paper that gives an overview of the different roles that have been proposed for the [[inferior parietal lobule]], and proposes an alternative account.

    1. The frontoparietal control system includes many regions identified as supporting cognitive control and decision-making processes including lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and inferior parietal lobule.

      Suggests the [[frontoparietal control network]] includes: - [[lateral prefrontal cortex]] - [[anterior cingulate cortex]] - [[inferior parietal lobule]]

    1. In brief, each of the networks comprised peak regions that were isolated in a multivariate spatio-temporal PLS (Krishnan et al., 2011) analysis of three tasks: autobiographical planning, visuospatial planning, and counting. The autobiographical planning task involved primarily internally directed cognition, with participants making personal plans in response to cued goals (e.g. freedom from debt). The visuospatial planning task was the Tower of London, which involves primarily externally directed cognition, as participants determine the minimum number of moves to solve a visual puzzle. The counting task involved the sequential counting of vowels in random letter sequences, a low-demand externally directed task.

      The 3 kinds of tasks used:

      • [[autobiographical planning task]]
      • [[visuospatial planning task]]
      • [[counting task]]
    1. Here we report a patient with a lesion of the superior parietal lobe who shows both sensory and motor deficits consistent with an inability to maintain such an internal representation between updates. Our findings suggest that the superior parietal lobe is critical for sensorimotor integration, by maintaining an internal representation of the body's state. <div class="c-nature-box c-nature-box--side " data-component="entitlement-box"> <div class="js-access-button"> <a href="https://wayf.springernature.com?redirect_uri&#x3D;https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nature.com%2Farticles%2Fnn1098_529" class="c-article__button" data-test="ra21" data-track="click" data-track-action="institution access" data-track-label="button"> <svg class="u-icon" width="18" height="18" aria-hidden="true" focusable="false"><use href="#icon-institution"></use></svg> <span class="c-article__button-text">Access through your institution</span> </a> </div> <div class="js-buy-button"> <a href="#access-options" class="c-article__button c-article__button--inverted" data-test="ra21" data-track="click" data-track-action="buy or subscribe" data-track-label="button"> <span>Buy or subscribe</span> </a> </div> </div>

      Suggests the [[superior parietal lobule]] helps maintain an internal model of the body's state.

      Does this imply that it's a part of the [[default mode network]] when doing this modeling?

    1. Superior parietal damage was reliably associated with deficits on tests involving the manipulation and rearrangement of information in working memory, but not on working memory tests requiring only rehearsal and retrieval processes, nor on tests of long-term memory. These results indicate that superior parietal cortex is critically important for the manipulation of information in working memory.

      Suggests the [[superior parietal lobule]] is important for manipulating info in [[working memory]].

    1. Interactivity Fosters Bayesian Reasoning Without Instruction

      A fascinating paper on how students can solve conditional probabilistic problems much easier when given a deck of cards that they can physically manipulate. A good example of the [[distributed cognition]] framework being applied and yielding positive results.

    1. Minimal phenomenal experience: Meditation, tonic alertness, and the phenomenology of “pure” consciousness Articles https://doi.org/10.33735/phimisci.2020.I.46 Published 2020-03-24 Thomas Metzinger

      A paper I found helpful in trying to figure out if there is a distinction between a [[pure consciousness event]] and [[nonduality]]. Has some helpful case studies of people giving verbal descriptions of what their meditative state feels like.

    1. Causal Emergence in Discrete & Continuous DynamicalSystemsThomas F. Varley 1,2March 31, 2020

      I found this paper while looking for ways that [[Eric Hoel]]'s work on a formal structure (via [[information theory]]) for detecting when higher level, lower resolution views would actually provide more [[information]]. I recall being somewhat disappointed by the application to [[cellular automata]] in [[John Conway]]'s [[Game of Life]] since the rules that result in (what appears to us as) emergent complex structures didn't actually map onto the results of applying Hoel's formalism.

  2. Apr 2023
    1. Recommended Resource:

      I recommend adding this doctoral research article on developing open education practices (OEP) in British Columbia, Canada. The scholarly article is released by Open University, a U.K. higher education institution that promotes open education.

      Paskevicius, M. & Irvine, V. (2019). Open Education and Learning Design: Open Pedagogy in Praxis. Open University, 2019(1). DOI: 10.5334/jime.51

      A relevant excerpt from the article reveals the study results that show OEP enhances student learning:

      "Furthermore, participants reflected on how inviting learners to work in the open increased the level of risk and/or potential reward and thereby motivated greater investment in the work. This was articulated by Patricia who suggested “the stakes might feel higher when someone is creating something that’s going to be open and accessible by a wider community” as well as Alice who stated “students will write differently, you know, if they know it’s not just going to their professor.” The practice of encouraging learners to share their work was perceived by Olivia to “add more value to their work,” by showing learners the work they do at university can “have an audience beyond their professors.”"

  3. Jan 2023
    1. A paper recommended in the presentation "William Rowlandson - Image, Imagination And The Imaginal" filmed at Breaking Convention 2017.

      Seems to be a different take on the "imaginal" than John Vervaeke's suggestion that the "imaginal" is using imagination for the sake of training and enhancing sensory awareness.

  4. Nov 2022
    1. Dr. Miho Ohsaki re-examined workshe and her group had previously published and confirmed that the results are indeed meaningless in the sensedescribed in this work (Ohsaki et al., 2002). She has subsequently been able to redefine the clustering subroutine inher work to allow more meaningful pattern discovery (Ohsaki et al., 2003)

      Look into what Dr. Miho Ohsaki changed about the clustering subroutine in her work and how it allowed for "more meaningful pattern discovery"

    1. Quadrants I and II: The average student’s scores on basic skills assessments increase by21 percentiles when engaged in non-interactive, multimodal learning (includes using textwith visuals, text with audio, watching and listening to animations or lectures that effectivelyuse visuals, etc.) in comparison to traditional, single-mode learning. When that situationshifts from non-interactive to interactive, multimedia learning (such as engagement insimulations, modeling, and real-world experiences – most often in collaborative teams orgroups), results are not quite as high, with average gains at 9 percentiles. While notstatistically significant, these results are still positive.

      I think this is was Thomas Frank was referring to in his YT video when he said "direct hands-on experience ... is often not the best way to learn something. And more recent cognitive research has confirmed this and shown that for basic concepts a more abstract learning model is actually better."

      By "more abstract", I guess he meant what this paper calls "non-interactive". However, even though Frank claims this (which is suggested by the percentile increases shown in Quadrants I & II), no variance is given and the authors even state that, in the case of Q II (looking at percentile increase of interactive multimodal learning compared to interactive unimodal learning), the authors state that "results are not quite as high [as the non-interactive comparison], with average gains at 9 percentiles. While not statistically significant, these results are still positive." (emphasis mine)

      Common level of signifcances are \(\alpha =.20,~.10,~.05,~.01\)

  5. Apr 2022
    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2020, November 25). @ToddHorowitz3 @sciam do you mean the specific article is bad, or the wider claim/argument? Because as someone who does research on collective intelligence, I’d say there is some reason to believe it is true that there can be “too much” communication in science. See e.g. The work of Kevin Zollman [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1331672900550725634

  6. Mar 2021
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  8. Oct 2020
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  13. Apr 2020