197 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2023
    1. AI turns semantic relationships into geometric relationships
      • for: key idea, key idea - language research , AI - language research - semantic to geometric
    2. the shape which is say Spanish can't possibly be the same shape as English right if you talk to anthropologists they would say different cultures different cosmologies 00:14:45 different ways of viewing the world different ways of gendering verbs obviously going to be different shapes but you know the AI researchers were like whatever let's just try and they took the shape which is Spanish 00:14:59 and the shape which is English and they literally rotated them on top of each other and the point which his dog ended up in the same spot in both
      • for:AI - language research, AI - language research - semantic invariancy
  2. Jun 2023
    1. Commentators insisted that gossip was the province of women. Originally meaning ‘godparent’, ‘gossip’ shifted its meaning across the early modern period. It became commonplace to accuse women of gossiping and of being gossips, and a set of meanings crystallised around the word that reflected men’s anxiety about what women were saying about them behind their backs.
  3. May 2023
    1. almost all beginners to RDF go through a sort of "identity crisis" phase, where they confuse people with their names, and documents with their titles. For example, it is common to see statements such as:- <http://example.org/> dc:creator "Bob" . However, Bob is just a literal string, so how can a literal string write a document?

      This could be trivially solved by extending the syntax to include some notation that has the semantics of a well-defined reference but the ergonomics of a quoted string. So if the notation used the sigil ~ (for example), then ~"Bob" could denote an implicitly defined entity that is, through some type-/class-specific mechanism associated with the string "Bob".

  4. Apr 2023
    1. These systems provide quite powerful tools for automaticreasoning, but encoding many kinds of knowledge using their rigid formal representations requiressignificant- -and often completely infeasible-amounts of effort.



    1. There are a few obvious objections to this mechanism. The most serious objection is that duplicate information must be maintained consistently in two places. For example, if the conference organizers decide to change the abstracts deadline from 10 August to 15 August, they'll have to make that change both in the META element in the HEAD and in some human-readable area of the BODY.

      Microdata addresses this.

  5. Mar 2023
    1. Auch das grammatische Verhalten eines Wortes nach Flexion und Rektion ist der Sammlung vollständig zu entnehmen. Und schließlich und vor allen Dingen lag hier der Schlüssel zur Bestimmung der Wortbedeutungen. Statt jeweils ad hoc durch Konjekturen einzelne Textstellen spekulativ zu deuten (das Raten, von dem Erman endlich wegkommen wollte), erlaubte es der Vergleich der verschiedenen Zusammenhänge, in denen ein Wort vorkam, seine Bedeutung durch systematische Eingrenzug zu fixieren oder doch wenigstens anzunähern. Auch in dieser Hinsicht hat sich das Zettelarchiv im Sinne seines Erstellungszwecks hervorragend bewährt.

      The benefit of creating such a massive key word in context index for the Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache meant that instead of using an ad hoc translation method (guessing based on limited non-cultural context) for a language, which was passingly familiar, but not their mother tongue, Adolph Erman and others could consult a multitude of contexts for individual words and their various forms to provide more global context for better translations.

      Other dictionaries like the Oxford English Dictionary attempt to help do this as well as provide the semantic shift of words over time because the examples used in creating the dictionary include historical examples from various contexts.

  6. Feb 2023
    1. Lois Hechenblaikner, Andrea Kühbacher, Rolf Zollinger (Hrsg.): «Keine Ostergrüsse mehr! Die geheime Gästekartei des Grandhotel Waldhaus in Vulpera». Edition Patrick Frey, 2021.Der reich bebilderte Band bietet eine spannende Reise in ein Stück Schweizer Tourismusgeschichte: Die Herausgeber haben die 20'000 Karteikarten aus den Jahren 1920-1960 sehr sorgfältig kuratiert, nach Themen gegliedert und in einen grösseren, gesellschaftlichen Zusammenhang gestellt.Die Leserinnen und Leser erfahren viel über die Klientel im Hotel Waldhaus, zum Teil sogar in kleinen biografischen Porträts; und sie können an konkreten Beispielen verfolgen, wie sich der Sprachgebrauch der Concierges im Laufe der Zeit verändert – gerade zum Beispiel im Zusammenhang mit jüdischen Gästen.

      Google Translate:

      Lois Hechenblaikner, Andrea Kühbacher, Rolf Zollinger (editors): «No more Easter greetings! The secret guest file of the Grandhotel Waldhaus in Vulpera". Edition Patrick Frey, 2021.

      The richly illustrated volume offers an exciting journey into a piece of Swiss tourism history: the editors have very carefully curated the 20,000 index cards from the years 1920-1960, structured them by topic and placed them in a larger, social context.

      The readers learn a lot about the clientele in the Hotel Waldhaus, sometimes even in small biographical portraits; and they can use concrete examples to follow how the concierge's use of language has changed over time - especially in connection with Jewish guests, for example.

  7. Jan 2023
    1. Semantic leadership   Extent to which word usage by one entity is subsequently adopted by others. Specifically, Klein measures how often novel semantic usage in a given newspaper is mirrored by other newspapers. When a newspaper is a semantic leader, its semantic usage better predicts the later usage of that word in other newspapers compared to those other newspapers' own, earlier usage of the word.

      How might this leadership happen within the social epidemic view of Malcolm Gladwell's Tipping Point framework?

      • the law of the few,
      • the stickiness factor, and
      • the power of context

      and with respect to mavens, connectors, and salespeople?

    2. Semantic change   Change in a word's meaning over time or other dimensions. Klein measures semantic change for a given word by tracking: 1) the words that appear alongside it (i.e., the word's context), and 2) the year in which the word was published. This approach assumes that semantics, or meaning, of a word can be inferred from the context in which that word appears.
  8. Dec 2022
  9. Aug 2022
    1. Historical Hypermedia: An Alternative History of the Semantic Web and Web 2.0 and Implications for e-Research. .mp3. Berkeley School of Information Regents’ Lecture. UC Berkeley School of Information, 2010. https://archive.org/details/podcast_uc-berkeley-school-informat_historical-hypermedia-an-alte_1000088371512. archive.org.



      headshot of Charles van den Heuvel

      Interface as Thing - book on Paul Otlet (not released, though he said he was working on it)

      • W. Boyd Rayward 1994 expert on Otlet
      • Otlet on annotation, visualization, of text
      • TBL married internet and hypertext (ideas have sex)
      • V. Bush As We May Think - crosslinks between microfilms, not in a computer context
      • Ted Nelson 1965, hypermedia


      • Michael Buckland book about machine developed by Emanuel Goldberg antecedent to memex
      • Emanuel Goldberg and His Knowledge Machine: Information, Invention, and Political Forces (New Directions in Information Management) by Michael Buckland (Libraries Unlimited, (March 31, 2006)
      • Otlet and Goldsmith were precursors as well

      four figures in his research: - Patrick Gattis - biologist, architect, diagrams of knowledge, metaphorical use of architecture; classification - Paul Otlet, Brussels born - Wilhelm Ostwalt - nobel prize in chemistry - Otto Neurath, philosophher, designer of isotype

      Paul Otlet

      Otlet was interested in both the physical as well as the intangible aspects of the Mundaneum including as an idea, an institution, method, body of work, building, and as a network.<br /> (#t=1020)

      Early iPhone diagram?!?

      (roughly) armchair to do the things in the web of life (Nelson quote) (get full quote and source for use) (circa 19:30)

      compares Otlet to TBL

      Michael Buckland 1991 <s>internet of things</s> coinage - did I hear this correctly? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things lists different coinages

      Turns out it was "information as thing"<br /> See: https://hypothes.is/a/kXIjaBaOEe2MEi8Fav6QsA

      sugane brierre and otlet<br /> "everything can be in a document"<br /> importance of evidence

      The idea of evidence implies a passiveness. For evidence to be useful then, one has to actively do something with it, use it for comparison or analysis with other facts, knowledge, or evidence for it to become useful.

      transformation of sound into writing<br /> movement of pieces at will to create a new combination of facts - combinatorial creativity idea here. (circa 27:30 and again at 29:00)<br /> not just efficiency but improvement and purification of humanity

      put things on system cards and put them into new orders<br /> breaking things down into smaller pieces, whether books or index cards....

      Otlet doesn't use the word interfaces, but makes these with language and annotations that existed at the time. (32:00)

      Otlet created diagrams and images to expand his ideas

      Otlet used octagonal index cards to create extra edges to connect them together by topic. This created more complex trees of knowledge beyond the four sides of standard index cards. (diagram referenced, but not contained in the lecture)

      Otlet is interested in the "materialization of knowledge": how to transfer idea into an object. (How does this related to mnemonic devices for daily use? How does it relate to broader material culture?)

      Otlet inspired by work of Herbert Spencer

      space an time are forms of thought, I hold myself that they are forms of things. (get full quote and source) from spencer influence of Plato's forms here?

      Otlet visualization of information (38:20)

      S. R. Ranganathan may have had these ideas about visualization too

      atomization of knowledge; atomist approach 19th century examples:S. R. Ranganathan, Wilson, Otlet, Richardson, (atomic notes are NOT new either...) (39:40)

      Otlet creates interfaces to the world - time with cyclic representation - space - moving cube along time and space axes as well as levels of detail - comparison to Ted Nelson and zoomable screens even though Ted Nelson didn't have screens, but simulated them in paper - globes

      Katie Berner - semantic web; claims that reporting a scholarly result won't be a paper, but a nugget of information that links to other portions of the network of knowledge.<br /> (so not just one's own system, but the global commons system)

      Mention of Open Annotation (Consortium) Collaboration:<br /> - Jane Hunter, University of Australia Brisbane & Queensland<br /> - Tim Cole, University of Urbana Champaign<br /> - Herbert Van de Sompel, Los Alamos National Laboratory annotations of various media<br /> see:<br /> - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311366469_The_Open_Annotation_Collaboration_A_Data_Model_to_Support_Sharing_and_Interoperability_of_Scholarly_Annotations - http://www.openannotation.org/spec/core/20130205/index.html - http://www.openannotation.org/PhaseIII_Team.html

      trust must be put into the system for it to work

      coloration of the provenance of links goes back to Otlet (~52:00)

      Creativity is the friction of the attention space at the moments when the structural blocks are grinding against one another the hardest. —Randall Collins (1998) The sociology of philosophers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (p.76)

  10. Jun 2022
    1. Improving communication and knowledge accessibility well beyond the Wikipedia projects.

      Interesting to see what the ideas for imporved comms and knowledge accesibility beyond the project will be.

  11. Apr 2022
    1. Connected Papers uses the publicly available corpus compiled by Semantic Scholar — a tool set up in 2015 by the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence in Seattle, Washington — amounting to around 200 million articles, including preprints.

      Semantic Scholar is a digital tool created by the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence in Seattle, Washington in 2015. It's corpus is publicly available for search and is used by other tools including Connected Papers.

  12. Feb 2022
    1. Table 8-2. Various manifestations/eras of the Web and their defining characteristics

      Internet bis Web 3.0 (semantic web)

    1. Um dem entgegenzuwirken, werden im Forschungsbereich Corporate Semantic Web innovative Konzepte und Lösungen für die Gewinnung, Verwaltung und Nutzung von Wissen auf Basis von semantischen Technologien mit speziellem Fokus auf den Unternehmenskontext entwickelt.

      Forschungsbereich: Corporate Semantic Web Ziel: Innovative Konzepte und Lösung für die Gewinnung, Verwaltung und Nutzung von Wissen auf Basis von semantischen Technologien im Unternehmenskontext



    1. Während das Semantic Web im Kern auf Standards zur Beschreibung von Prozessen, Dokumenten und Inhalten sowie entsprechenden Metadaten – vorwiegend vom W3C27 vorge-schlagen – aufsetzt, und damit einen Entwurf für das Internet der nächsten Generation darstellt, adressieren semantische Technologien Herausforde-rungen zur Bewältigung komplexer Arbeitsprozesse, Informationsmengen bzw. RetrievalProzessen und Vernetzungs- oder Integrationsaktivitäten, die nicht nur im Internet, sondern auch innerhalb von Organisationsgrenzen in Angriff genommen werden.

      Unterschied zwischen Semantic Web und semantische Technologien

    2. Sauermann L (2003) The Gnowsis-Using Semantic Web Technologies to build a Semantic Desktop. Diplomarbeit


    1. Innerhalb eines Jahres wurde ein neuer Begriff geprägt: Web 3.0, der die Entwicklung des Webs über die 1.0-Ära der HTML-Webseiten und den frühen E-Commerce hinaus in die grelle 2.0-Periode markiert, in der soziale Medien und „benutzergenerierte Inhalte“ geboren wurden. .

      Web 3.0

    1. Eine wesentliche Idee von Linked Data ist es, dass Daten und Informationen un-terschiedlichster Herkunft und Struktur auf Basis von Standards interpretiert, (weiter-)verarbeitet, verknüpft und schließlich dem User in einer Form präsentiert werden können,sodass dieser seine Aufwände zur Informationsgewinnung und -aufbereitung verringernkann

      Leitidee von Linked Data

    2. Zusätzlich bietet die Abfragesprache SPARQL die Möglichkeit,RDF-kodierte semantische Daten strukturiert abzufragen, wobei bereits (beschränkter)Gebrauch der Möglichkeit logischer Schlussfolgerungen gemacht werden kann.

      SPARQL = Abfragesprache von RDF

    3. OWL basiert auf einer speziellen mathematischen Beschreibungslogik (SHROIQ(D)) undstellt ein ausdrucksmächtiges Instrument zur Modellierung von Wissensrepräsentationen(Ontologien) dar [34].

      OWL = Instrument zur Modellierung der Wissensrepräsentationen

    4. Abbildung 2.3 zeigt den vorgeschlagenen SemanticWeb Technologie-Stapel, der das traditionelle World Wide Web ergänzt, und gibt den ak-tuellen Stand der Standardisierung an.
    5. Diese Form von Wissens-repräsentation wird in der Informatik als Ontologie bezeichnet.

      Ontologie = Zieldefiniton von Semantic Web

    6. Die Idee hinter dem Semantic Web liegt darin, die Bedeutung von sprachlichen Be-griffen und anderen bedeutungstragenden Entitäten explizit in einer maschinenlesbarenund vom Computer korrekt interpretierbaren Form anzugeben
    7. Die mit Linked Data beschrittene Lösung macht sich existierende Technologien zu Nut-ze, die vom W3C2 als Semantic Web Technologien standardisiert wurden.
    1. Practical guidance on KR, knowledge graphs, semantic technologies, and KBpedia

      Titel: A knowledge representation practionary Autor: Michael K. Bergman

    1. Make fleeting notes. Always have something at hand to write withto capture every idea that pops into your mind.

      Fleeting notes are similar to the sorts of things one would have traditionally kept in a waste book.

      Francesco Sacchini recommended the use of two notebooks:

      “Not unlike attentive merchants... [who] keep two books, one small, the other large: the first you would call adversaria or a daybook (ephemerides), the second an account book (calendarium) and ledger (codex).” —Francesco Sacchini "Chapter 13". De ratione libros cum profectu legendi libellus. Wurzburg. p. 91. (1614).

      (See also Blair, Ann M. (2004). "Note taking as an art of transmission". Critical Inquiry. 31 (1): 91. doi:10.1086/427303.)

      The root word ephemeral in this context is highly suggestive of the use and function of fleeting notes.

      The Latin word "ephemerides" can also be translated as "newspaper", useful for only a short period of time.

      Recall also that in a general sense Cicero contrasted the short-lived memoranda of the merchant with the more carefully kept account book designed as a permanent record.

      Reference: Cicero (1930). Pro Quinto Roscio comoedo oratio,"The Speeches". Translated by Freese, John Henry. Cambridge, Massachusetts. pp. 278–81.

  13. Jan 2022
    1. my main frustrations are around the lack of the very basic things that computers can do extremely well: data retrieval and search. I'll carry on, just listing some examples. Let's see if any of them resonate with you:
      • 20 years waiting from Semantic Web promises!!!
      • Conclusions:
        • competition vs cooperation (reinventing the wheel again and again)
        • minority interested in knowledge vs majority targeted to consume
    2. youtube videos, even though most of them have subtitles hence allowing for full text search?
    1. the tool I've developed
    2. a more realistic and plausible target: using my digital trace (such as browser history, webpage annotations and my personal wiki) to make up for my limited memory
      • OK: tools for register, but NEED "THE TOOL" for searching and RECOVER these data!
  14. Dec 2021
    1. Advocates of Deep/Machine Learning often dismiss the Semantic Web, claiming that algorithms are much better at constructing knowledge from large amounts of data than are these painstaking efforts to encode knowledge
      • SEE [citation needed]
      • EXPLORE
      • ok! "these painstaking efforts to encode knowledge"
    2. Web documents are databases full of facts and assertions that we are ill-equipped to find
      • not designed for Semantic Web!!!
    3. How will we retrofit the web we already have?
      • "parallel" web???
      • bots??? explore and pass
    4. The semantic web is, of course, another idea that’s been kicking around forever. In that imagined version of the web, documents encode data structures governed by shared schemas. And those islands of data are linked to form archipelagos that can be traversed not only by people but also by machines. That mostly hasn’t happened because we don’t yet know what those schemas need to be, nor how to create writing tools that enable people to easily express schematized information
      • Semantic Web: an utopia???
      • I have been waiting for it for 20 years, and counting...
      • Instead "plain text": "triplets"; properties and wikidata-Qs
    1. there was line of thought among those making native GUIs (see also Sherlock) that future of the web was having more things from web pulled into native GUIs

      The dream is still alive among semweb people (incl. Tim Berners-Lee himself).

      The sad state of current norms re webapps created by professional devs leads to what probably seems like a paradox but isn't, which is that the alternate future outlined in this tweet is closer to the ideal of the Web than the "Modern Web".

  15. Nov 2021
  16. Sep 2021
    1. Bibleref is a simple approach to automatically identifying Bible references that are embedded in blog posts and other web pages. This enables search engines, content aggregators, and other automated tools to correctly label the references so they're more easily searchable. Bibleref is part of a general movement toward markup that expresses more semantic, rather than presentational, element.
    1. I’ve written a few thousand words on why traditional “semantic class names” are the reason CSS is hard to maintain, but the truth is you’re never going to believe me until you actually try it.
    1. My understanding is that the caret is the answer for traditional SemVer, i.e., there will be breaking changes prior to 0.1.0, there may be breaking changes between minor versions prior to 1.0.0, and there may only be breaking changes between major versions above 1.0.0.
  17. Aug 2021
    1. The TypeScript team has made it clear. They do not follow semver. "minor" (X.X) releases can contain breaking changes. Major releases (X) have very little meaning.
  18. Jul 2021
    1. A semantic command dispatch intended for loading external dependencies into the environment.
  19. Jun 2021
  20. Apr 2021
    1. It should be defined inline. If you are using the img tag, that image should have semantic value to the content, which is why the alt attribute is required for validation. If the image is to be part of the layout or template, you should use a tag other than the img tag and assign the image as a CSS background to the element. In this case, the image has no semantic meaning and therefore doesn't require the alt attribute. I'm fairly certain that most screen readers would not even know that a CSS image exists.

      I believed this when I first read it, but changed my mind when I read this good rebuttal: https://hyp.is/f1ndKJ5eEeu_IBtubiLybA/stackoverflow.com/questions/640190/image-width-height-as-an-attribute-or-in-css

  21. Mar 2021
    1. The hierarchical structure of semantic fields can be mostly seen in hyponymy.

      Good explanation about semantic fields.

      I assume the same or an even stronger statement can be made about semantic classes (which to me are like more clear-cut, distinct semantic fields), then? 

    2. A hyponym is a word or phrase whose semantic field is more specific than its hypernym.
    1. Is this topic part of linguistics too? Or only semantics?

    2. A semantic class contains words that share a semantic feature.
    3. For example within nouns there are two sub classes, concrete nouns and abstract nouns.
    4. The concrete nouns include people, plants, animals, materials and objects while the abstract nouns refer to concepts such as qualities, actions, and processes.
    5. Semantic classes may intersect. The intersection of female and young can be girl.

      More examples are given at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_feature:

      • 'female' + 'performer' = 'actress'
    6. (Not answered on this stub article)

      What, precisely, is the distinction/difference between a semantic class and a semantic field? At the very least, you would say that they are themselves both very much within the same semantic field.

      So, is a semantic class distinct from a semantic field in that semantic class is a more well-defined/clear-cut semantic field? And a semantic field is a more fluid, nebulous, not well-defined field (in the same sense as a magnetic field, which has no distinct boundary whatsoever, only a decay as you move further away from its source) ("semantic fields are constantly flowing into each other")?

      If so, could you even say that a semantic class is a kind of (hyponym) of semantic field?

      Maybe I should pose this question on a semantics forum.

    1. Some types exist as descriptions of objects, but not as tangible physical objects. One can show someone a particular bicycle, but cannot show someone, explicitly, the type "bicycle", as in "the bicycle is popular."
    2. The words type, concept, property, quality, feature and attribute (all used in describing things) tend to be used with different verbs. E.g. Suppose a rose bush is defined as a plant that is "thorny", "flowering" and "bushy". You might say a rose bush instantiates these three types, or embodies these three concepts, or exhibits these three properties, or possesses these three qualities, features or attributes.
    1. 'female' + 'performer' = 'actress'
    2. An individual semantic feature constitutes one component of a word's intention, which is the inherent sense or concept evoked.

      Would this be referring, then, to explicit meaning or implicit meaning -- or neither?

    3. The semantic features of a word can be notated using a binary feature notation common to the framework of componential analysis.[11] A semantic property is specified in square brackets and a plus or minus sign indicates the existence or non-existence of that property.
    1. Semantic class
    2. semantic fields are constantly flowing into each other
    3. The English word "man" used to mean "human being" exclusively, while today it predominantly means "adult male," but its semantic field still extends in some uses to the generic "human"
    4. Synonymy requires the sharing of a sememe or seme, but the semantic field is a larger area surrounding those.
    5. A general and intuitive description is that words in a semantic field are not necessarily synonymous, but are all used to talk about the same general phenomenon.
    6. A semantic field denotes a segment of reality symbolized by a set of related words. The words in a semantic field share a common semantic property
    7. grouped semantically (by meaning)
    1. semantic domain or semantic field

      What, then, is the difference between a semantic domain and a semantic field? The way they are used here, it's almost as if they are listing them in order to emphasis that they are synonyms ... but I'm not sure.

      From the later examples of basketball (https://hyp.is/ynKbXI1BEeuEheME3sLYrQ/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_domain) and coffee shop, however, I am pretty certain that semantic domain is quite different from (broader than) semantic field.

    2. For instance English has a domain ‘Rain’, which includes words such as rain, drizzle, downpour, raindrop, puddle.

      "rain" seems more like a semantic field — a group of very related or nearly synonymous words — than a semantic field.

      Esp. when you consider the later example of basketball (https://hyp.is/ynKbXI1BEeuEheME3sLYrQ/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_domain) and coffee shop, which are more like the sense of "field" that means (academic/scientific/etc.) discipline.

    3. For instance, in basketball there are many words that are specific to the sport. Free throw, court, half court, three pointer, and point guard are all terms that are specific to the sport of basketball. These words make very little sense when used outside of the semantic domain of basketball.

      But this example seems so different than the first example they gave, "rain", which seems more like a semantic field — a group of very related or nearly synonymous words.

    4. In lexicography a semantic domain or semantic field is defined as "an area of meaning and the words used to talk about it
    5. Semantic domains are the foundational concept for initial stages of vernacular dictionary building projects.
    1. is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field.
    1. Usually when people are talking about code being semantically correct, they're referring to the code that accurately describes something.
    2. HTML elements have meaning. "Semantically correct" means that your elements mean what they are supposed to.
    3. Semantically correct usage of elements means that you use them for what they are meant to be used for.
    4. It means that you're calling something what it actually is.
    5. Another example: a list (<ul> or <ol>) should generally be used to group similar items (<li>). You could use a div for the group and a <span> for each item, and style each span to be on a separate line with a bullet point, and it might look the way you want. But "this is a list" conveys more information.
    6. The classic example is that if something is a table, it should contain rows and columns of data. To use that for layout is semantically incorrect - you're saying "this is a table" when it's not.
    7. Browsers can correctly apply your CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), describing how each type of content should look. You can offer alternative styles, or users can use their own; as long as you've labeled your elements semantically, rules like "I want headlines to be huge" will be usable.
    8. Screen readers for the blind can help them fill out a form more easily if the logical sections are broken into fieldsets with one legend for each one. A blind user can hear the legend text and decide, "oh, I can skip this section," just as a sighted user might do by reading it.
    9. Mobile phones can switch to a numeric keyboard when they see a form input of type="tel" (for telephone numbers).
    10. Knowing what your elements are lets browsers use sensible defaults for how they should look and behave. This means you have less customization work to do and are more likely to get consistent results in different browsers.
    11. All of this semantic labeling helps machines parse your content, which helps users.
    12. Fits the ideal behind HTML HTML stands for "HyperText Markup Language"; its purpose is to mark up, or label, your content. The more accurately you mark it up, the better. New elements are being introduced in HTML5 to more accurately label common web page parts, such as headers and footers.
  22. Feb 2021
    1. I use <b>s for the decorative portions of the layout because they’re purely decorative elements. There’s no content to strongly emphasize or to boldface, and semantically a <b> isn’t any better or worse than a <span>. It’s just a hook on which to hang some visual effects. And it’s shorter, so it minimizes page bloat (not that a few characters will make all that much of a difference). More to the point, the <b>’s complete lack of semantic meaning instantly flags it in the markup as being intentionally non-semantic. It is, in that meta sense, self-documenting.
  23. Jan 2021
    1. You can style a link to look button-like Perhaps some of the confusion between links and buttons is stuff like this: <img loading="lazy" src="https://i1.wp.com/css-tricks.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Screen-Shot-2020-01-08-at-8.55.49-PM.png?resize=264%2C142&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-301534" width="264" height="142" data-recalc-dims="1" />Very cool “button” style from Katherine Kato. That certainly looks like a button! Everyone would call that a button. Even a design system would likely call that a button and perhaps have a class like .button { }. But! A thing you can click that says “Learn More” is very much a link, not a button. That’s completely fine, it’s just yet another reminder to use the semantically and functionally correct element.
  24. Dec 2020
  25. Nov 2020
    1. I've spent the last 3.5 years building a platform for "information applications". The key observation which prompted this was that hierarchical file systems didn't work well for organising information within an organisation.However, hierarchy itself is still incredibly valuable. People think in terms of hierarchies - it's just that they think in terms of multiple hierarchies and an item will almost always belong in more than one place in those hierarchies.If you allow users to describe items in the way which makes sense to them, and then search and browse by any of the terms they've used, then you've eliminated almost all the frustrations of a file system. In my experience of working with people building complex information applications, you need: * deep hierarchy for classifying things * shallow hierarchy for noting relationships (eg "parent company") * multi-values for every single field * controlled values (in our case by linking to other items wherever possible) Unfortunately, none of this stuff is done well by existing database systems. Which was annoying, because I had to write an object store.

      Impressed by this comment. It foreshadows what Roam would become:

      • People think in terms of items belonging to multiple hierarchies
      • If you allow users to describe items in a way that makes sense to them and allow them to search and browse by any of the terms they've used, you've solved many of the problems of existing file systems

      What you need to build a complex information system is:

      • Deep hierarchies for classifying things (overlapping hierarchies should be possible)
      • Shallow hierarchies for noting relationships (Roam does this with a flat structure)
      • Multi-values for every single field
      • Controlled values (e.g. linking to other items when possible)
    1. Semantically Annotated Content Opens Up Cost-Effective Opportunities: Search beyond keywords; Content aggregation beyond manual sifting through; Relationships discovery beyond human research.

      Benefits of semantic annotation

      1. Search beyond keywords
      2. Content aggregation
      3. Discovering relationships
  26. Oct 2020
  27. Sep 2020
    1. The versions must be compatible, so if a peerDependency is listed as 2.x, you can’t install 1.x or another version. It all follows semantic versioning.
    1. The fully styleable primitives that the web offers (e.g. <div>) are quite powerful, but they lack semantic meaning. This means that accessibility is often missing because assistive technology cannot make sense of the div soup that we use to implement our components.
    1. The benefit of using the <ul> (unordered list) element are plenty: it will stay a list outside the context of our page, for example in Safari Reader mode, it will show as a list when printed with stylesheet turned off, it will show as a list for people who use screenreaders, it is a list (screenreaders can announce things like ‘list, 3 items’).
  28. May 2020
  29. Apr 2020
    1. This graph view is the easiest possible mental model for RDF and is often used in easy-to-understand visual explanations
  30. Feb 2020
    1. The wiki can be used as a semantic networking tool, a way to construct meaningful connections between topics, ideas or concepts. A semantic network is composed of nodes (such as wiki pages ) with meaningful links (hyperlinks) connecting them. A semantic network of wikis can help learners to organize their ideas and to convey that organisation of ideas to others (Jonassen et al, 1999, p.165)

      semantic networking tool: a way to construct meaningful connections between topics, ideas or concepts. A semantic network is composed of nodes (such as wiki pages) with meaningful links (hyperlinks) connecting them. The pages are nodes the hyperlinks are the meaningful links. You can also see how important a concept is by the times it appears in other pages.s

  31. Jan 2020
  32. Dec 2019
    1. broaden the definition of a ‘researcher’ to include a molecular biologist and basic science researcher, and to widen the scope of research ethics

      In order to adapt to new contexts, policy diffusion often triggers such semantic drift of key concepts.

      Would be great to see that linked to the policy learning framework.

  33. Sep 2019
  34. Feb 2019
  35. Dec 2018
    1. A semantic treebank is a collection of natural language sentences annotated with a meaning representation. These resources use a formal representation of each sentence's semantic structure.
  36. Oct 2018
    1. Do neural networks dream of semantics?

      Neural networks in visual analysis, linguistics Knowledge graph applications

      1. Data integration,
      2. Visualization
      3. Exploratory search
      4. Question answering

      Future goals: neuro-symbolic integration (symbolic reasoning and machine learning)

    1. Intelligent agents the vision revisited

      Memex, 1945 (for storing individual memories) License + societal norms + interoperability

    1. Learning Expressive Ontological Concept Descriptions via Neural NetworksMARCO ROSPOCHERTheRoadLessTraveledTransforming a sentence into an axiom

      Building ontology from text: transforming a sentence into an axiom.

  37. Nov 2017