186 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. then two different listeners/renderers switching magically between each other based on the header being present or not, without the end user being informed or clear about this
  2. Aug 2022
    1. Its account of how Heft made his flag closely resembled the standard story, but instead of any assertion that it became the basis for the official design, it merely said that it was “considered Lancaster’s first.”

      I'm having trouble parsing this.

    1. "It's difficult because we can't tell people exactly what's allowed and not allowed," said Chris Castelli, a manager for the Department of State Lands. "It's even tougher for law enforcement that gets called out to very heated disputes and doesn't have strict laws they can apply." 
  3. Jul 2022
    1. Pre and post commands with matching names will be run for those as well (e.g. premyscript, myscript, postmyscript)

      Could potentially be confusing behavior if running a script does something extra and you don't know why. They might look at the definition of myscript and not see the additional commands and wonder how/why they are running. The premyscript might be lost in a lost unsorted script list.

    2. Since npm@1.1.71, the npm CLI has run the prepublish script for both npm publish and npm install, because it's a convenient way to prepare a package for use (some common use cases are described in the section below). It has also turned out to be, in practice, very confusing. As of npm@4.0.0, a new event has been introduced, prepare, that preserves this existing behavior. A new event, prepublishOnly has been added as a transitional strategy to allow users to avoid the confusing behavior of existing npm versions and only run on npm publish (for instance, running the tests one last time to ensure they're in good shape).
    1. It's important to note that there is no relationship between the microdata and the content of the document where the microdata is marked up.

      Wait, really? That's unfortunate. It seems plainly useful to be able in e.g. the datetime example to correlate the text content of the element with the datetime property with the datetime value.

  4. May 2022
  5. Apr 2022
    1. I'm concerned that supporting certain parts of the svelte javascript semantics in module scripts—that have so far been restricted to the instance script—could lead users to believe that everything is supported. Supporting store shorthand syntax but not reactive assignments and declarations could be confusing.

      could lead users to believe ... - could lead users to believe that everything is supported.

  6. Mar 2022
    1. The last note is that when binding commands to keyboard shortcuts it is often necessary to only have one command, not two commands connected with a pipe like we use above. You can accomplish this by invoking your piped command as a command string argumetn to a new shell like this:
    1. The reason for the new name is that the "dist-upgrade" name was itself extremely confusing for many users: while it was named that because it was something you needed when upgrading between distribution releases, it sounded too much as though it was only for use in that circumstance, whereas in fact it's much more broadly applicable.
  7. Jan 2022
    1. Code that is per-component instance should go into a second <script> tag.

      But this seems to conflict with https://hyp.is/NO4vMmzVEeylBfOiPbtB2w/kit.svelte.dev/docs

      The load function is reactive, and will re-run when its parameters change, but only if they are used in the function.

      which seems to imply that load is not just run once for the component statically, but rather, since it can be reactive to:

      url, params, fetch, session and stuff

      may be sufficiently like a per-instance callback, that it could be used instead of onMount?

  8. Nov 2021
    1. It might be confusing that a union of types appears to have the intersection of those types’ properties.
  9. Oct 2021
  10. www.digitalhermeneutics.com www.digitalhermeneutics.com
    1. The hermeneutic claim that ourknowledge is always relative to a certain context and personal viewpointwould only be relativism if we actually were isolated selves, unformed byhistory or language.

      Does the author mean that the major difference btw hermeneutics and relativism lies in whether or not humans are believed to engaged and influenced by history or language?

  11. Sep 2021
    1. Therefore, Firefox already contains the code to look in the hosts file, but it does things in the wrong order: 1. Look up the URL in the DNS server if not found: 2. Send the URL to the default search engine as a search term if not found: 3. Look in the hosts file

      incorrect behavior

    1. I think it's very confusing to overload common executables, such as yarn, in the /bin directory as I often put that bin directory first in my path. Thus, I'd unexpectedly get the bin/yarn rather than my system yarn, which I manage with yvm.
    1. Cut a dado groove with a 3/4” diameter router bit and you’ll almost certainly have a too-loose joint when you try to plug some 3/4” plywood in place. Under the guise of metrification, sheet material thicknesses have all shrank enough to cause problems with joinery if you rely on the old, Imperial thickness designations. And besides, material thickness varies enough from sheet to sheet that it can make a difference when it comes to prominent joinery. This is even true in the USA that still uses Imperial more or less exclusively. Sheet goods remain thinner than their name specifies.
    1. I am being told my Login Keyring Password "no longer matches" my login. I am confused - I provided a password as I was setting this up, and so I don't know what this is about and how I can fix it. Thanks for the help.
  12. Aug 2021
    1. Some areas in British Coloumbia, including Creston, Fort Nelson, Fort St. John, and Dawson Creek use Mountain Standard Time all year.
    1. Here is one of the most confusing cases: def foo(x, **kwargs) p [x, kwargs] end def bar(x=1, **kwargs) p [x, kwargs] end foo({}) #=> [{}, {}] bar({}) #=> [1, {}] bar({}, **{}) #=> expected: [{}, {}], actual: [1, {}]
    2. The automatic conversion not only confuses people but also makes the method less extensible. See [Feature #14183] for more details about the reasons for the change in behavior, and why certain implementation choices were made.
  13. Jun 2021
    1. In Material Design, the selected and activated states apply in different, mutually-exclusive situations:
    1. The first argument to shared_context (the shared group name) is superfluous. It feels a bit like "what's this argument for again?" (Note that you could still use it with include_context to include the group manually, but it's a bit odd to mix-and-match the approaches).
    1. In the context of git, the word "master" is not used in the same way as "master/slave". I've never known about branches referred to as "slaves" or anything similar. On existing projects, consider the global effort to change from origin/master to origin/main. The cost of being different than git convention and every book, tutorial, and blog post. Is the cost of change and being different worth it? PS. My 3 projects were using your lib and got broken thanks to the renaming. PS. PS. I'm glad I never got a master's degree in college!
  14. May 2021
    1. The self-signed certificate which represents the DST Root CA X3 keypair is expiring. But browser and OS root stores don’t contain certificates per se, they contain “trust anchors”, and the standards for verifying certificates allow implementations to choose whether or not to use fields on trust anchors. Android has intentionally chosen not to use the notAfter field of trust anchors. Just as our ISRG Root X1 hasn’t been added to older Android trust stores, DST Root CA X3 hasn’t been removed. So it can issue a cross-sign whose validity extends beyond the expiration of its own self-signed certificate without any issues.

      innovative solution

  15. Apr 2021
    1. Obviously there are practical reasons for using px for images. However keeping images in px would seem to negate the argument for not using them.
    1. If you'd like to read more about the game's arguments, click here. 

      I'm not familiar with this term "arguments" used like this. Isn't this more referring to the motivation for this game?

    1. At first you feel confused because usual pipe constructions such as: $ echo luser && echo TopSecret | telnet foo.bar.com fail you and the problem which seemed so plain on the face of it grows into “mission impossible”.
    1. In many computing contexts, "TTY" has become the name for any text terminal, such as an external console device, a user dialing into the system on a modem on a serial port device, a printing or graphical computer terminal on a computer's serial port or the RS-232 port on a USB-to-RS-232 converter attached to a computer's USB port, or even a terminal emulator application in the window system using a pseudoterminal device.

      It's still confusing, but this at least helps/tries to clarify.

    1. https://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/183284/factory-funner/versions

      And now there are two versions with the nickname "Second edition": 2018 https://boardgamegeek.com/boardgameversion/404596/second-edition 2021 https://boardgamegeek.com/boardgameversion/556765/second-edition

      and a 3rd edition published prior to the current/new 2nd edition: 2019 https://boardgamegeek.com/boardgameversion/486693/third-edition

      Confusing all around.

      But I think the bottom line is that the 2021 version is in fact the same game and the newest rules tweaks:

      1. Added a sixth player
      2. Official variant to play without the quick grab element.
    1. A modified timestamp signifies the last time the contents of a file were modified. A program or process either edited or manipulated the file. “Modified” means something inside the file was amended or deleted, or new data was added. Changed timestamps aren’t referring to changes made to the contents of a file. Rather, it’s the time at which the metadata related to the file was changed. File permission changes, for example, will update the changed timestamp.

      They shouldn't use synonyms for this (modified = changed).

      It would be clearer if the word that differed between the terms indicated what changed:

      • "content modified" time (cctime)?
      • "meta modified" time (cmtime)?
    1. However, some users didn’t know that they could interact with and click on the text field. It looked like an empty box. The line affordance under the old text fields was not clear to some users. The line was confused with a divider.
    2. The label and input were confused with body text, especially in dense compositions.
    1. In my opinion, the W3C definition is unnecessarily confusing and restrictive. The dictionary definition of aside is "a temporary departure from a main theme or topic", and the spec should just stick to that, rather than introducing subtle distinctions.
    1. why do you guys think have_css matcher is named the way it is? I mean, it sure deals with css identifiers, but have_css gives(at least to me) the impression that the page has certain stylesheet loading.
  16. Mar 2021
    1. Not to be confused with tree (graph theory), a specific type of mathematical object.

      Confusing: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_(data_structure) says

      Not to be confused with tree (graph theory) "Tree (graph theory)"), a specific type of mathematical object. but https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_(graph_theory) redirects to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_structure and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_structure is in category Trees (data structures) So is one a subtype/hyponym of the other ... or what?? How are they related? Skimming the articles a bit, esp. the first paragraph which clearly states as much ( :) ), I believe the answer is: a tree (data structure) is an implementation (in a programming language) of / or a "type that simulates" a hierarchical tree structure. a tree (data structure) is the computer science analogue/dual to tree structure in mathematics

    1. For instance English has a domain ‘Rain’, which includes words such as rain, drizzle, downpour, raindrop, puddle.

      "rain" seems more like a semantic field — a group of very related or nearly synonymous words — than a semantic field.

      Esp. when you consider the later example of basketball (https://hyp.is/ynKbXI1BEeuEheME3sLYrQ/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_domain) and coffee shop, which are more like the sense of "field" that means (academic/scientific/etc.) discipline.

    1. Basic semantic properties include being meaningful or meaningless – for example, whether a given word is part of a language's lexicon with a generally understood meaning

      The "for example" being where it is, is confusing, and I believe should be left out.

      I think this would have been better written as:

      Basic semantic properties include, for example, being meaningful or meaningless (that is, whether a given word is part of a language's lexicon with a generally understood meaning); polysemy, ..

    1. If you want to compile youself you can pass the --with-features=huge to the configure script. Note, however, this does not enable the different language bindings because those are mostly optional and also the various GUIs need to enabled specifically, because you can have only one gui.

      This explains why the standard vim package on ubuntu doesn't have GUI support (I was going to say because it wouldn't know which GUI you needed, but I think it would based on the Ubuntu variant: GNOME, KDE, etc.) (maybe because it wouldn't know whether you wanted GUI support at all)

      I was going to say because it wouldn't know which GUI you needed, but I think it would based on the Ubuntu variant: GNOME, KDE, etc.

      found answer to that: https://hyp.is/NyJRxIgqEeuNmWuaScborw/askubuntu.com/questions/345593/how-to-build-vim-with-gui-option-from-sources

      so you have to install a different package with GUI support, like vim-gtk or vim-athena

    2. I have VIM on Mac & CentOS. So, I see people are writing about -xterm_clipboard, -lua, ... Is there an simple way to install it all? or we have to enable options one-by-one and compile/recompile it?

      I had similar question... how to get --servername support.

    1. Including the vim package, there appear to be at least six "vim-variants" (not including available documentation, or plugin packages) as well as the main vim package in both the main and universe repositories.
    1. If I do gnome-open foo.desktop it simply opens foo.desktop as a text file. If I make it executable and then run it in bash it simply fails (which is expected, it's clearly not bash script). EDIT: Doing exec /fullpath/foo.desktop gives me a Permission denied message, even if I change ownership to myself. If I make executable and do the same command, the terminal tab I'm using simply closes (I'm guessing it crashes). Finally, if I do sudo exec /fullpath/foo.desktop, I get an error reporting sudo: exec: command not found.
    1. The question, 'What is library and information science?' does not elicit responses of the same internal conceptual coherence as similar inquiries as to the nature of other fields, e.g., 'What is chemistry?', 'What is economics?', 'What is medicine?' Each of those fields, though broad in scope, has clear ties to basic concerns of their field. [...] Neither LIS theory nor practice is perceived to be monolithic nor unified by a common literature or set of professional skills. Occasionally, LIS scholars (many of whom do not self-identify as members of an interreading LIS community, or prefer names other than LIS), attempt, but are unable, to find core concepts in common
  17. Feb 2021
    1. Using Track() with a new track semantic only makes sense when using the [:magnetic_to option] on other tasks.
    2. Defaults names are given to steps without the :id options, but these might be awkward sometimes.

      Why would those default names ever be awkward?

      If you the default name is whatever comes after step:

      step :default_name
      

      then why can't you just change that name to whatever you want?

      To answer my own question: I think you can do that, as long as the name is the 1st argument to step. But below I noticed an example where a Subprocess was the 1st argument instead, and so it needs a name in this case:

      step Subprocess(DeleteAssets), id: :delete_assets
      

      Why are they inconsistent about calling it name or id? Which one is it? I guess it's an id since that's what the key is called, and since there's an Id() helper to reference a task by its id.

    1. Another thing I don’t like is the name of the config file manifest.js. Internally Sprockets has the concept of a manifest already Sprockets::Manifest, but the two aren’t directly coupled. We also already have a “manifest” JSON file that gets generated in public/assets/ and has manifest in the name .Sprockets-manifest-140998229eec5a9a5802b31d0ef6ed25.json. I know one is a JS file and one is a JSON file, but it’s a bit confusing to talk about.

      When I first heard of app/assets/config/manifest.js, I was a bit confused too, and assumed/wondered if it was related to the manifest it generates under public.

    1. There are two definitions of ‘Enterprise’ 1 - Enterprise as a business. In fact, in French, ‘enterprise’ literally means ‘business’ 2- Enterprise as a large business. This is the most common use of the term in business, differentiating between small, medium, and large businesses. In this context, there is no official rule, however it is generally accepted for enterprise to mean companies with over 1,000 employees and/or $1B in revenue
    1. If ActiveModel deals with your nouns, then ActiveInteraction handles your verbs.

      It's a good analogy, but I think it's misleading/confusing/unclear/incorrect, because parts of ActiveInteraction are ActiveModel, so I guess ActiveInteraction deals with your nouns too?

    1. Another problem I found with Reform is the synchronisation with models. The object you passed in argument to reform does not have the same value than the form.
  18. Jan 2021
    1. You can style a link to look button-like Perhaps some of the confusion between links and buttons is stuff like this: <img loading="lazy" src="https://i1.wp.com/css-tricks.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Screen-Shot-2020-01-08-at-8.55.49-PM.png?resize=264%2C142&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-301534" width="264" height="142" data-recalc-dims="1" />Very cool “button” style from Katherine Kato. That certainly looks like a button! Everyone would call that a button. Even a design system would likely call that a button and perhaps have a class like .button { }. But! A thing you can click that says “Learn More” is very much a link, not a button. That’s completely fine, it’s just yet another reminder to use the semantically and functionally correct element.
  19. Dec 2020
    1. Slots can already be pretty confusing to comprehend, I think it is better to stick to what people (may) already know.
    2. In fact, even <svelte:slot /> feels a bit confusing because it introduces a new kind of slot, where the concept is already a bit crowded (there the <slot /> in the parent component, and the target slot="name" for the slot content).

      tag?: crowded (how do we disambiguate, make it not ambiguous?)

    3. Also agree that <svelte:slot> is perhaps a little confusing since it replaces the slot attribute rather than the slot element, so <svelte:fragment> would make more sense
  20. Nov 2020
    1. However, those descriptors gave a bit too much flexibility/dynamism to the class shape in order to be efficiently optimizable.

      I think this:

      However, those descriptors gave a bit too much flexibility/dynamism to the class shape in order to be efficiently optimizable.

      means:

      However, because those descriptors were gave so much too much flexibility/dynamism to the class shape, it could not be be efficiently optimized.

      rather than:

      In order to be efficiently optimizable, those descriptors gave much flexibility/dynamism to the class shape.

      In other words that flexibility/dynamism hindered optimization; it wasn't for the purpose of optimization (as "in order to be" could be interpreted as).

      The "too much" wording also contributed to the confusion for me.

      But maybe just dropping "in order" would have been enough for me:

      However, those descriptors gave a bit too much flexibility/dynamism to the class shape to be efficiently optimizable. or However, those descriptors gave a bit too much flexibility/dynamism to the class shape for them to be efficiently optimizable.

  21. Oct 2020
    1. There are contradicting definitions: "dependence: one that is relied on", "dependency: something that is dependent on something else", "dependent: one that is dependent" which also says "archaic : DEPENDENCY" which is certainly the inverse of what is usually meant in technology... is it more correct to install the "dependences"? (wiktionary gives it as the plural)
    2. In the software industry we use "dependency" to refer to the relationship between two objects. We say "looking for dependents" for relationships to dependent things and "looking for dependencies" for relationships to prerequisite things, so it gets that connotation, but the literal meaning is the relationship itself, not the object. Finding a better word is exactly the point of the question
    1. When using a method in a top-level object to modify its state, such object isn't updated either.
    2. There have been a number of issues opened about this, and a good deal of confusion. The docs indicate that if you mutate an object without there being a = involved, this doesn't trigger an update. But there's no mention that only assignments to certain variables trigger updates.
    1. And then, if you’re not yet completely confused, it also says…My emphasis.Each URI begins with a scheme name
    1. Informative data about objects that are considered prototypes for the role. Base concept is similar to type, but without inheritance of limitations and properties. Base concepts are designed as a substitute for inheritance for external concepts. A base concept is like a related concept except that the base concept is almost identical to the role definition.
    1. As such, curry is more suitably defined as an operation which, in many theoretical cases, is often applied recursively, but which is theoretically indistinguishable (when considered as an operation) from a partial application.
    1. _.debounce creates a function that debounces the function that's passed into it. What your s.search function is doing is calling _.debounce all over again every time s.search is called. This creates a whole new function every time, so there's nothing to debounce.
    1. Wait what? No runtime. How does that work? Well, obviously JavaScript executes at runtime, so was he saying he doesn't reuse any code? Well as it turns out the message here has changed. I looked and sure enough there was a runtime. Of course there was.
  22. Sep 2020
    1. This is likely not desired for ES module dependencies: Here require should usually return the namespace to be compatible with how bundled modules are handled. If you set esmExternals to true, this plugins assumes that all external dependencies are ES modules and will adhere to the requireReturnsDefault option. If that option is not set, they will be rendered as namespace imports.
    1. Basically, the idea is that a train tried to start with the caboose brakes stuck on. After releasing the caboose, the train still could not start. The problem was that when the train attempted to start with the caboose brake on, it stretched all the inter-car couplings so that the whole train was just like one big car. At this point, the friction from the engine train wheels was not enough to get the whole thing going. Instead, you need to just get one car moving at a time - this is why there is space between the couplings.
    1. The main reason using classes isn't a great solution is that it completely breaks encapsulation in a confusing way, the paren't shouldn't be dictating anything, the component itself should. The parent can pass things and the child can choose to use them or not but that is different: control is still in the hands of the component itself, not an arbitrary parent.
    1. Svelte offers an immutable way — but it’s just a mask to hide “assignment”, because assignment triggers an update, but not immutability. So it’s enough to write todos=todos, after that Svelte triggers an update.
  23. Aug 2020
    1. Lie: I felt sick, so I lay down.Here’s where it can get a bit tricky. The past tense of lie is lay, but not because there is any overlap between the two verbs. So when you say, “I lay down for a nap,” you’re actually using the verb lie, not lay, despite the way it sounds.
    1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK), since 1922 comprises four countries: England, Scotland, and Wales (which collectively make up Great Britain) and Northern Ireland[1][2] (which is variously described as a country, province, or region).

      A country that contains 4 countries. It's almost a paradox. It never ceases to amuse me.

    1. I had the same confusing experience here too!
    2. I'm just trying out the "Reply to comment" button here. Well, it seems like it doesn't quote the text... that's really the feature I'd like to exposed. When responding to a large message (email or otherwise), I like to quote various parts and respond in line.
  24. Jul 2020
  25. Jun 2020
    1. higher when Ericksen conflict was present (Figure 2A)

      Yeah, in single neurons you can show the detection of general conflict this way, and it was not partitionable into different responses...

    2. G)

      Very clear effect! suspicious? how exactly did they even select the pseudo-populations, its not clear exactly from the methods to me

    3. pseudotrial vector x

      one trial for all different neurons in the current pseudopopulation matrix?

    4. X is the trials by neurons pseudopopulation matrix of firing rates

      So these pseudopopulations were random agglomerates of single neurons that were recorded, so many fits for random groups, and the best were kept?

    5. Within each neuron, 719 we calculated the expected firing rate for each task condition, marginalizing over 720 distractors, and for each distractor, marginalizing over tasks.

      Distractor = specific stimulus / location (e.g. '1' or 'left')?

      Task = conflict condition (e.g. Simon or Ericksen)?

    6. condition-averaged within neurons (9 data points per 691 neuron, reflecting all combinations of the 3 correct response, 3 Ericksen distractors, and 3 692 Simon distractors)

      How do all combinations of 3 responses lead to only 9 data points per neuron? 3x2x2 = 12.

    1. In addition, if the option, An administrator must always approve the comment, is set in Administration > Settings > Discussion, this e-mail address will receive notification that the comment is being held for moderation. Please note this is different than the address you supplied for the admin user account; the admin account e-mail address is sent an e-mail only when someone submits a comment to a post by admin.

      They're trying to make a distinction between "administrator" address and "admin" (short for administrator) account. Hmm. Maybe they should have called them different words. Anyway, this could be made less confusing.

    1. transaction calls can be nested. By default, this makes all database statements in the nested transaction block become part of the parent transaction. For example, the following behavior may be surprising: User.transaction do User.create(username: 'Kotori') User.transaction do User.create(username: 'Nemu') raise ActiveRecord::Rollback end end creates both “Kotori” and “Nemu”. Reason is the ActiveRecord::Rollback exception in the nested block does not issue a ROLLBACK. Since these exceptions are captured in transaction blocks, the parent block does not see it and the real transaction is committed.

      How is this okay??

      When would it ever be the desired/intended behavior for a raise ActiveRecord::Rollback to have absolutely no effect? What good is the transaction then??

      What happened to the principle of least surprise?

      Is there any reason we shouldn't just always use requires_new: true?

      If, like they say, the inner transaction "become[s] part of the parent transaction", then if anything, it should roll back the parent transaction too — not roll back nothing.

  26. May 2020
    1. of, relating to, or being a grammatical case or form expressing means or agency

      I really need an example of this!

      It seems unusual that they specifically mention "a grammatical case or form". I've never seen a definition before that is anything like this one.

      How is this different from definition 1?

    1. Many also question how the average user with little knowledge of the GDPR will react to being asked so many questions regarding consent. Will they be confused? Probably at first. It will be up to each business to create a consent form that is easy to understand, while being at the same time comprehensive and informative
    1. These options have almost deceptively similar wordings, with only subtle difference that is too hard to spot at a glance (takes detailed comparison, which is fatiguing for a user):

      1. can use your browser’s information for providing advertising services for this website and for their own purposes.
      2. cannot use your browser’s information for purposes other than providing advertising services for this website.

      If you rewrite them to use consistent, easy-to-compare wording, then you can see the difference a little easier:

      1. can use your browser’s information for providing advertising services for this website and for their own purposes.
      2. can use your browser’s information for providing advertising services for this website <del>and for their own purposes</del>.

      Standard Advertising Settings

      This means our ad partners can use your browser’s information for providing advertising services for this website and for their own purposes.

      Do Not Share My Information other than for ads on this website

      This means that our ad partners cannot use your browser’s information for purposes other than providing advertising services for this website.

    1. to bypass work

      What does "work" mean here? I think maybe they mean to bypass profiling?

    1. This topic is not a support question

      This is hard to answer because I don't know what they classify as a "support question". For example, are bugs classified as a support question? So if it's a bug, should I check this or no?

      What is the purpose of this checkbox? If you could describe that, it would make it much easier to answer the question.

    1. Supports session-less consent policies which will become persistent once the user signs in or signs up

      Why does it need to be session-less? You can have sessions (using technical/necessary cookies) without the user needing to be signed in.

    1. P ⇒ Q

      It may be confusing for a newcomer (or on first read-through) that the variable/predicate/condition that represents the "necessary condition" in this statement P ⇒ Q is the Q.

      One might be forgiven for incorrectly assuming that the P represents the necessary condition. That is because most of the time when one states a statement/relation/implication/etc. about a subject, the sentence/statement begins with the subject. For example, if we're explaining about a "less than" relationship, and we give x < y as an example, one would correctly assume that x is the subject here and x is the thing that is less than.

      So it may be a bit surprising to a newcomer (on first read-through) that the subject of this section — the necessary condition — is represented by the Q and not be the P.

      (Made even more confusing by the fact that the very same implication P ⇒ Q is also used to express the opposite sufficiency relationship in the very next section. I would argue that Q ⇒ P should have been used instead in exactly one of these sections to make it clearer that the subject is different and/or the relation is different, depending how you look at it.)

      Is there any reason we couldn't rewrite this to express the logical relation between P and Q with the subject first? If we let P be the subject (that is, "necessary condition" that we're illustrating/explaining), could we not rewrite this as P ⇐ Q?

      In fact, that is exactly how this relation was expressed below, in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Necessity_and_sufficiency#Simultaneous_necessity_and_sufficiency !:

      that P is necessary for Q, P ⇐ Q, and that P is sufficient for Q, P ⇒ Q

    2. The logical relation is, as before, expressed as "if P, then Q" or "P ⇒ Q"

      It is confusing on first read-through that the exact same logical relation between P and Q is stated for both necessity and sufficiency. Since they are dual of each other, it seems like, in order to allow the same P and Q to be used in both examples (in other words, in order to allow their variable scope to be the entire article instead of just the "Necessity" and "Sufficiency" section's local scope), that P and Q should be reversed in this section.

    3. In algebra, for some set S together with an operation ⋆ {\displaystyle \star } to form a group, it is necessary that ⋆ {\displaystyle \star } be associative.

      Seems like a simpler example (of individually necessary and jointly sufficient) that is easier to follow could be found.

    1. If you’re a controller based outside of the EU, you’re transferring personal data outside of the EU each time you collect data of users based within the EU. Please make sure you do so according to one of the legal bases for transfer.

      Here they equate collection of personal data with transfer of personal data. But this is not very intuitive: I usually think of collection of data and transfer of data as rather different activities. It would be if we collected the data on a server in EU and then transferred all that data (via some internal process) to a server in US.

      But I guess when you collect the data over the Internet from a user in a different country, the data is technically being transferred directly to your server in the US. But who is doing the transfer? I would argue that it is not me who is transferring it; it is the user who transmitted/sent the data to my app. I'm collecting it from them, but not transferring it. Collecting seems like more of a passive activity, while transfer seems like a more active activity (maybe not if it's all automated).

      So if these terms are equivalent, then they should replace all instances of "transfer" with "collect". That would make it much clearer and harder to mistakenly assume this doesn't apply to oneself. Or if there is a nuanced difference between the two activities, then the differences should be explained, such as examples of when collection may occur without transfer occurring.

    1. Records must be kept in writing. Most organisations will benefit from maintaining their records electronically.

      Isn't "kept in writing" different from "maintaining their records electronically"? How can digital data be kept in writing? Is that meant figuratively then? Why would they use figurative language here? What do they mean by "kept in writing"??

  27. Apr 2020
    1. The common law—so named because it was "common" to all the king's courts across England—originated in the practices of the courts of the English kings in the centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066.[10] The British Empire spread the English legal system to its colonies, many of which retain the common law system today. These "common law systems" are legal systems that give great weight to judicial precedent, and to the style of reasoning inherited from the English legal system.
    2. the body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The defining characteristic of “common law” is that it arises as precedent.

      The way "common law" sounds and is used, I would have thought it meant law that is common (in common between) many countries, laws that can be found on the books in all of these many places. (Kind of like commonwealth.)

      But, although it is common to many countries, that is not its defining characteristic. Its defining characteristic is actually something quite different.

      Since the term is so far removed from what it actually means, I would even go so far as to say it is a mild euphemism.

      Much better names for this exist: judicial precedent or judge-made law are the clearest options. But even "case law" is a better term.

    1. This way, personal data is more effectively protected allowing individuals to focus on the risk involved in granting authorization for the use of their personal data and to take appropriate decisions based on the risk assessment. Consequently, the burden and confusion generated by systematic consent forms is constrained.

      Speaking of confusing, this paragraph is confusing and unclear.

      I think what they're basically saying is, don't ask for consent for every single little thing; only ask for consent when there is a real risk involved, so that people don't get desensitized to you asking for consent for every little thing, even things that they probably don't care about.

      Key word:

      systematic consents