- Apr 2021
- Subject lines: Simple, No-nonsense
- Preheaders (i.e., the snippet that shows up in the inbox view) need to clearly state the purpose of the email
- Use alt text for images (even for logos, "unimportant" information. Blind and low-vision folks don't want to "miss out" on information. If you've decided it's important enough to include in your email, it's important enough for alt text)
- Buttons should be large, bold color, obvious, and should have ARIA labels
- Software like Salesforce, Constant Contact, and Mailchimp allow you to paste HTML code, which allows you to add ARIA roles, alt text, etc
- Will continue to use A, AA, and AAA to indicate 1st priority, 2nd priority, and 3rd priority
- 2.2 Guidelines will be more technically prescriptive, but will offer multiple ways to meet guidelines so designers still have control over look and feel of content
- New AA requirement: All functionality that uses dragging movement can be operated by a single pointer without dragging, unless dragging is essential (might have implications for creating highlights/annotations?)
- Requirement that users can find help for completing tasks (having a "Contact us" link meets this requirement, so Hypothesis will be covered)
- Accessible authentication: don't require users to remember an email/password or complete a CAPTCHA. Allow for social login, or provide "Email a login link" option.
- Mar 2021
After the Audit: Integrating Accessibility into the Testing Process
Crystal Preston-Watson, Salesforce
Phases of audit:
- Start with one feature or set of features
- Testing (automated and manual)
- Result report
- Remediation of issues
- Re-testing and validation
- Accessibility conformance report
- Establish a baseline of knowledge
- Play to people's strengths - if someone is already proficient in keyboard-only navigation, they might be a good candidate to own screenreader testing
- Upskill whole org instead of making 1 or 2 people responsible
- Budget time for learning. Screenreaders are time consuming to learn
- Checklists are helpful but will need to be adapted for each feature / part of application.
- 20-40% issues are found with automated testing, which is why manual testing is needed
- bulk of automation should be unit tests. integration and UI tests should be less automated
- dedicate most of your resources to UI tests because that is the "human" portion - your users' experience is paramount
Improving PDF Accessibility with AI and Liquid Mode
Robert Haverty, Adobe, Senior Product Manager, Document Cloud Accessibility
Rick Treitman, Adobe, Entrepreneur in Residence
Matthew Hardy, Adobe, Senior Engineering Manager, Document Cloud
Jamila Keba, Adobe, Frontend Developer for Acrobat’s Liquid Mode
- Reflows content to fit on small screens
- Takes headings to create an outline. Click on heading to go to that section of document
- Sections are collapsible
- font size, character spacing, and line height can be changed
- developed to be compatible with screenreader
- future areas of improvement: tables and images (using machine learning to create alt text when images don't have one)
- Currently available for mobile devices and Chromebooks where Android app can be loaded
Impact on readability
- allows users to increase text spacing, font size, etc
- student with 3rd grade school children with varying levels of fluency: one kid increased his speed by 27 words per minute, was able to read with inflection + meaning. even the fastest student jumped 27 words per minute.
- helps people who struggle to read, but also increases efficiency for proficient readers
- font, size, character spacing, line height, and character stretch seem to be the key factors in increasing efficiency.
Built in highlighter
- Used as a "ruler" to guide reader through document, not necessarily to make highlights/annotations to refer to later
- 4 ways of highlighting: mouse, underline, lightbox, and grey line
- No 1 solution worked better for the group as a whole - it was individual to the reader
Don’t Believe The Type!
Gareth Ford Williams, BBC
David Bailey, BBC
Bruno Maag, Typeface designer
- Is it appealing? Technical and functional aspects are meaningless if no one wants to use your product/tool
- Typeface = "visual tone of voice" and has a large bearing on emotional a11y
Readability group survey
- looking at series of fonts to see which they find most readable (also had people remove reading glasses if they use them)
- cognitive bias: we might find fonts used in system UIs and commonly used fonts easier to read just because we're used to seeing them
- 2022 user sessions, every font viewed 16,800 times
- Segments for participants: confident readers, glasses for reading, pinch-to-zoom user, larger font, colored text, farsightedness, dyslexia & similar characteristics
Font selection rate: all participants
- Open dyslexic, Comic Sans, Times new Roman selected least frequently
- Helvetica, Ubuntu, Roboto slab, etc did moderately well
- SF Pr, Segoe UI, BBC Reith Sans, Verdana selected most often
- But none of the fonts scored more than 70%
- How do we know people are choosing for readability and not aesthetics? We'd probably see no difference b/t those with dyslexia and those who don't have it
Font selection rate: Dyslexic traits
- Open Dyslexic, Dyslexie, Comic Sans MS performed better among dyslexic folks but they were still selected least frequently
- Helvetica, Roboto, Segoe UI, and SF Pro selected less often (5-10%) among dyslexic people
Poor near vision group
- Times New Roman and Helvetica see largest drop
Letter combos used to find issues
- "rn"in words like kernel, furnished, surname
Why some typefaces work better than other
- Top 4 performers: San Francisco Pro, Segoe UI, Verdana, BBC Reith Sans
- All sans serif, either grotesque or humanist
- Grotesque: closed character shapes - stroke terminal loops back into character
- Humanist: open character shapes - more akin to movement of handwriting (more distinction b/t shapes like c, e, and o)
- Why does Helvetica not perform well? Probably because of tight letter spacing
- Why does Ubuntu fall short even though it has hallmarks of humanist design? Font weight is stronger than other similar fonts, maybe just outside acceptable parameters. Or maybe it looks too modern.
- Why do dyslexic-specific fonts perform poorly? The irregularity claims to be beneficial to dyslexic people but maybe is too much, affecting smoothness of reading and emotional appeal
- Why does Comic Sans perform poorly, even though it's most used font and thought to be helpful to learning readers? No data to back up this claim, but it's possible the childish appearance is more appealing to young readers. But on the other hand, it could have performed poorly because it's trendy to hate Comic Sans.
- Is there an unconscious bias toward serif designs? Reading on a computer is more commonplace, and perhaps we associate sans serif with screens and serif with print.
- Times New Roman has some characteristics of fonts that perform well, but letter spacing is tight.
- Lower-case g: modern g is not necessarily more accessible, or we'd expect Roboto to perform better
- x-height impacts perceived size, even at same font-size. Smaller x-height is perceived as "less readable"
Yes, Virginia, PMs Are Responsible for Accessibility
Angela Hooker, Microsoft
Why build in a11y from the start?
- Much easier / less "expensive" than adding it after the fact.
- PMs are expected to set expectations and manage scope. Set the expectation from the beginning that team delivers accessible product.
- Consider budget, timeline, people, & other resources. The design phase is "too late."
Getting support from leadership
- Talk about ROI & $8+ trillion in disposable income that people with disabilities have worldwide
- Helps the org be more competitive
- Show them how inaccessible content hurts. Demo use of product with a screenreader with no visuals, ask them to navigate with keyboard only. If possible, have a person with access needs do that demo.
Include multiple accessibility reviews in your timeline
- Team should check their work as they go along
Choose the standards and level of compliance you'll achieve
- Compliance and accessibility are not the same. You can conform to WCAG 100% but be unusable for people with certain disabilities
- If project is used globally, consider laws worldwide. Some countries require specific documentation & standards will vary
Put accessibility requirements in contracts with outside vendors
- Be specific about the standards they need to meet
- Ask for proof they can produce accessible work
Carefully choose the tech you'll use to build your project
- If you don't have a choice in what tech you'll use, see if team can fix those a11y issues. If it would expand scope or timeline to do so, flag as risk for leaderships
Document all your team's work
- Good to have on hand for showing "good faith effort" to be accessible
- Prepare a general statement about project's a11y status.
- Document known a11y issues and create a roadmap for resolving
Get training for your team
- Pointing toward info on the web is risky, as there is lots of misinformation. Start with info from W3C a11y curriculum.
How do you coach your team and oversee their work?
- Don't make it about any one person. Discourage things like "if we can't make you happy, we can't move forward." It's not about you being happy, it's about putting out the most usable and successful product you can!
- Publicly praise team members as a way to motivate them to prioritize a11y in the long run
Written content comes first
- This is the easiest to remediate, so get this out of the way.
- Ask people with cognitive impairments to read through with you to find out where things might not be clear
Working with designers
- Annotate design docs to indicate to engineering where they'll need to consider a11y
- Review mockups & wireframes for missing a11y considerations so eng can raise concerns or questions
- Start with user personas based on people with disabilities
- Invest in usability testing at several points during project build
What if you're updating a legacy project?
- Start small
- Have an auditor review for a11y and create a plan to give team "quick wins." Create roadmap for remaining items.
- Talk to team responsible for product to find out what questions/concerns they have
- Get training & other needed resources for team
From Nothing to Something: How A Team of 2 Kickstarted an Accessibility Program
Alexis Lucio, Splunk, Accessibility and Inclusive Design Lead
Simarjeet (Sim) Kaur Splunk, Software Accessibility Engineer
Splunk: a tool to help devs monitor, secure, and troubleshoot dev environments.
- First step is to learn the product and map out current state of a11y. Review available VPATs, evaluate test cases for a11y and improve where necessary, gather existing bug reports for a11y issues.
- Find mentors in the a11y space
- Pass info to rest of company in a digestible format. Alexis started a program called "A11y Hour" where colleagues were invited to come learn about disability and accessibility topics
- Prioritize customer-generated issues
- Work with developers to test for a11y during development, not after
- Evaluate how you're doing: how many a11y issues are opened vs closed? And set goals for improvement from there.
- Form a network within the company, and pool together your external networks
- Advocate for a11y-specific headcount
- Tailor the business case for a11y based on who you're talking to. When speaking to designers, "the right thing to do, ethically" is effective. But for other stakeholders, consider angles like financial, legal, tech debt, sales/competition, industry regulation, SEO...
- Provide specific examples of a11y done well for inspiration (where possible, use NVDA/JAWS and take away visuals so sighted folks get same experience as Blind folks)
- Put together a detailed proposal, so all leadership has to do is "Say yes"
- Open a communication channel for the company to use: Slack channel worked well at Splunk. Helps to "democratize knowledge" - if a Q is asked more than once, pin it as part of an FAQ.
- Create resources to share with rest of org: for example, learning session that can be part of new employee bootcamp
- Advocate for company-wide OKR for a11y
The Landscape of Digital Accessibility in Higher Education
Charles Collick Jr, Rutgers
Pat Kogos, University of Chicago
Nate Evans, Michigan State University
Handling legacy applications
- Involve students! Paid or volunteer. They can edit captions, add alt text, etc, and have first-hand perspective on student needs & experience
- Use a priority-based approach to determine how you can make the biggest impact on faculty and students
- If anything can be sunset, retire it rather than allocating resources toward overhauling
- Anything that has high usage and directly impacts learning & research activities should be hi-pri
Securing budget for a11y & promoting culture
- Focus on storytelling and "sell" the need for a11y as much as possible. Start with the "why" before trying to secure cash
- Focus on the benefits rather than threatening with negative consequences
- Diversity, Equity & Inclusion gaining traction in the higher ed world right now. Those are likely the ideal folks to partner with.
- Student experience also a more popular topic these days - tie to a11y.
- "Get in trouble" - call attention to things that aren't accessible, taking to Twitter/public forums when appropriate
- While the speakers on this panel don't participate in buying consortiums, lots of info sharing (if one school reviews a tool for a11y they might share the results of those audits across the consortium)
- To watch: Big 10 Alliance: Library E-Resource Accessibility
Tools used to evaluate a11y and share results back to content owners
- Enterprise tools allow for more robust reporting than free tools
- Using built-in a11y tools in Canvas, Blackboard Ally
- Axe & Deque are popular tools
Getting Faculty buy-in
- Teaching & Learning with Tech groups help with outreach
- Make a11y part of conversation about course design & pedagogy
What initiatives are you excited about for 2021? And If you could recommend ONE change to improve web a11y in higher ed, what would that be?
- Rutgers: Initiatives: New procurement process, Ally rollout, and mandatory training for IT. The one recommended change: awareness.
- U Chicago: Initiatives: Scaling up use of enterprise tool, training for IT staff & faculty. 1 Recommended change: integrating a11y into processes from beginning.
- U Mich: launching a11y audit team, including hiring students. 1 recommended change: don't think you have to be perfect to get started or make progress.
Building Accessibility Success within Smaller Enterprise Companies
Ted Drake, Intuit
- Assess company's needs: regulatory environment? resource-strapped startup? are you about to go public & concerned with PR?
- Build goodwill with leadership and keep communication lines open (CEO, CTO, product leaders, etc)
1, 3, and 5 year goals
- 1 year: get to know all products/aspect of product intimately
- 2 year: documentation
- 3 year: "low-hanging fruit" and basic compliance
- 4 year: work with customers and contributors to get real user feedback from disabled customers
- 5 year: Set goals for metrics that will be used in perpetuity with regular testing
Tips for Success
- Build support within the org - idea: "Accessibility Champions" program. Have devs set up their computers for keyboard only testing, install certain browser plugins, etc.
- Develop empathy: record and share customer interviews, create personas, empathy exercises (put on a mask & use your product with a screenreader)
- Include developers and designers in customer research
- Transparency: blog posts, internal comms
ROI of Accessibility
Greg Williams, Deque Systems
4 main business cases (eCommerce case study):
- Increasing market share
- Controlling operational costs
- Managing risk profile
- Aligning digital presence with company core values
Increasing market share
- after-tax income for working-age people with disabilities in the US: $490 billion
- 20 million (35% of all people with disabilities) are US working age adults, age 16-64
- If you're not accessible and your competitor is, you lose that market share
- Vision, Hearing, Ambulatory, and Cognitive are most common disabilities
- Inaccessible e-commerce retailers losing out on $6.9B annually
Controlling operational costs
- "Click-in" payment costs much lower than call-in, mail-in, and walk-in (brick & mortar). Pushing to digital channel cuts costs - up to $14m. Can't push disabled customers to digital if experience is inaccessible.
- Blind users call company's customer service department 1x/week on average because of website inaccessibility. They call multiple times even when they have abandoned the transaction. Save time & $ on customer service calls.
- approx 10k ADA lawsuits per year. CA, NY, and FL are where lawsuits are most prevalent
- potential cost of complaints: blended rate of $120/hr when you consider support personnel, compliance/regulatory personnel, product management, devs, QA, testing, etc
- calculating proactive vs reactive fix loss, assuming 100 complaints annually, upwards of $1m per year cost for "reactive" fixes
- lawsuits: blended rate of $225/hr assuming company leadership, legal council, external SMEs, etc are involved
- DOJ could levy fine of $96,834 for first action while still requiring website to become accessible
Alignment with core values
- If mission or motto is to be inclusive, customer-centric, etc, are you really meeting that mission if you don't include a11y in priorities?
- Customers increasingly want to purchase from companies that share their view
- Consumers who have a negative or positive experience re: a11y tend to share with family and friends
otras técnicas, sujetos, formatos y lugares desde los cuales la publicación puede ocurrir y cómo esta visibiliza y da cuenta de otras voces y saberes.
Una forma de romper el aislamiento propio y mejorar los aprendizajes desde lo común, lo compartido; lo que significa de algún modo construir identidades, apropiaciones y formas de resistencia frente a lo establecido.
r/BehSciAsk - Ideas for discussion: Tools for online research curation. (n.d.). Reddit. Retrieved 4 March 2021, from https://www.reddit.com/r/BehSciAsk/comments/jkznkr/ideas_for_discussion_tools_for_online_research/
- Jan 2021
- Oct 2020
También creemos que estas técnicas y maneras de hacer reflejan un espíritu de la época donde está transi-ción está ocurriendo y muestran al libro como proceso colectivo, en lugar de como producto individual.
La invitación a un trabajo colectivo lo hace más interesante y significativo.
Radio educativa Generadora de oyentes proactivos y diversos que serán escritores y lectores proactivos y diversos.
En la actualidad no solo debemos de consumir productos radiales o audios, en la actualidad podemos producirlos, podemos ser prosumidores. Este tipo de herramientas que permiten la rápida modificación de contenidos, adaptándolos a versiones personales o colectivas, cambiando y ampliando sus propósitos y alcances en el saber, en enseñar. Las dificultades para que los jóvenes y el público en general entiendan y lean todos los textos no académicos que se muestran en las redes sociales radica en la falta de herramientas para poder alfabetizarlos. Con este tipo de herramientas multiplataformas, libres, que corran en los dispositivos mas humildes se puede iniciar el cambio en las pedagogías y poder llegar a las mentes de los discentes.
- Radio Educativa enlazada con la escritura colaborativa
- Tener la posibilidad de compartir con otros, tal vez pares académicos en el proceso de lectura de un texto motiva a avanzar sobre el mismo y posibilita conocer y compartir otras perspectivas sobre el mismo en tiempo real. Reconocer el aporte de otros en la lectura y la posibilidad de realizarlo con mis estudiantes significaría un avance en los procesos educativos cobrando significado el compartir con el otro, el diálogo, el aporte y la valoración de tus ideas.
- Jun 2020
I vigenti regimi prudenziali previsti dal regolamento (UE) n. 575/2013 e dalla direttiva 2013/36/UE sono basati in larga misura sulle successive versioni delle norme di regolamentazione internazionali stabilite per i grandi gruppi bancari dal Comitato di Basilea per la vigilanza bancaria, affrontano solo parzialmente i rischi specifici connessi alle diverse attività di un gran numero di imprese di investimento. Le vulnerabilità e i rischi specifici propri di tali imprese di investimento dovrebbero pertanto essere appositamente affrontati tramite meccanismi prudenziali adeguati e proporzionati a livello dell’Unione.
Requisiti prudenziali solidi sono parte integrante delle condizioni regolamentari in base alle quali gli enti finanziari forniscono servizi nell’Unione. Le imprese di investimento, insieme agli enti creditizi, sono soggette al regolamento (UE) n. 575/2013 del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio (4) e alla direttiva 2013/36/UE del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio (5) per quanto riguarda il trattamento e la vigilanza prudenziali, mentre la loro autorizzazione e altri requisiti in materia di organizzazione e di norme di comportamento sono stabiliti dalla direttiva 2014/65/UE del Parlamento e del Consiglio (6).
The Sharing Scientist on Twitter
- Oct 2019
ESSA allows different standards for students with “the most significant cognitive disabilities
Hard for underprivileged districts to make their own, competent instruction
- Nov 2016
De acuerdo con Michael Moore, algunos votantes podrían dar su voto por Trump como una señal de advertencia para el deteriorado sistema político en EE.UU. que se niega a cambiar. "Por el enfado que muchos sienten hacia el sistema político, millones de personas votarán por Trump. No porque estén de acuerdo con él, no porque les guste, sino solo porque pueden hacerlo, solo por enfadar al sistema".
El ideario defendido por Trump durante la campaña ha conectado con una gran parte de la sociedad blanca, que ve con temor como pierde su lugar privilegiado en un país cada vez más diverso. “Haz de America un país grande de nuevo” ha sido el contundente lema de una campaña dirigida a una clase social conservadora a la que le incomoda el país que dibujaba Obama en el que un hombre negro podía llegar a sentarse en el Despacho Oval, las personas del mismo sexo podían contraer matrimonio y millones de inmigrantes ‘sin papeles’ podían legalizar su situación. Habrá que analizar hasta qué punto este resultado electoral es más una derrota del proyecto de Obama que de la candidatura de Clinton.
En el plano internacional, la incertidumbre sería absoluta, lo único que se podría esperar sería que los asesores presidenciales le disuadiesen de tomar decisiones impulsivas, como iniciar una guerra comercial con China o cambiar alianzas estratégicas que desembocasen en un acercamiento a la Rusia de Putin y un alejamiento de sus aliados tradicionales y las políticas de la OTAN.
las recetas proteccionistas para favorecer a las empresas locales y la subida de aranceles a las importaciones, no sólo generarían un guerra comercial con sus socios en Asia y Europa
- Generaría un guerra comercial con sus socios en Asia y Europa
- Asesores presidenciales le disuadiesen de tomar decisiones impulsivas, como iniciar una guerra comercial con China o cambiar alianzas estratégicas
- Dec 2015
Figuring out all subclasses of a class is called Class Hierarchy Analysis, and doing static CHA in a language with dynamic code loading is equivalent to solving the Halting Problem.
Answer to question:
Why can't the Scala compiler give pattern matching warning for nonsealed classes/traits?
one of the goals of Scala is separate compilation and deployment of independent modules, so the compiler simply cannot know whether or not a class is subclass in another module, because it never looks at more than one module.
Example: ??? When I try it, it seems to work, but this may be because everything I need is already loaded in the same compilation context. A subsequent answer seems to confirm this:
It can be done (at least for all classes known at compile time), it's just expensive. You'd completely destroy incremental compilation, because everything that contains a pattern match would effectively have to be recompiled every time any other file changed.
- Jul 2015
FUNCTIONS WITH SIDE EFFECTS SHOULD USE PARENTHESES
It would be good if there was a way to do effect-tracking, similar as in ATS, so you could enforce this rather than making it style only. But, not a huge issue either.
To prevent errors from disrupting your match expression, use a wildcard match-all pattern or else add enough patterns to cover all possible inputs. A wildcard pattern placed as the final pattern in a match expression will match all possible input patterns and prevent a scala.MatchError from occurring.
In ATS you can specify 'case+' to denote an exhaustive pattern match and have it type checked (though here in Scala it would look more like 'match+'). There are other variations.
val pattern(amountText) = input
I find this to be slightly strange syntax and non-functional; it is almost as if pattern is applied as if it were pattern-inverse.