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  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jun 2024
    1. Save this question. Show activity on this post. I'm from South East Asia, and in here, it's very common to use "kindly" as a written polite request to other people, and I often see it on the internet as well. But I've just discovered that from this website, "kindly" is regarded as a "low-brow, patronizing, and overly sensitive". Other people are recommending that you use the word "kindly". Please, never use the word "kindly" when interacting with Americans. In the view of Americans, only English-speaking Indians use this word. It comes across as low-brow, patronizing, and overly sensitive. Oh wow, I never know that. But coming from a non native western background and culture, I have nobody here I can crosscheck information with. Maybe someone here with the appropriate culture background knowledge can give some insight? Is this a general view, or just a partial view of Americans about this word? Should I stop using this word from now on, or I just overly worried over nothing? Thanks.


      I didn't know that most people (outside of Asia) consider "kindly" to be patronizing. The many quirks of language!

    1. In​ 1880 Britain could with some justification be called the ‘workshop of the world’: it produced more than 20 per cent of global industrial output and about 40 per cent of the world’s manufactured exports. In the nearly half-century since Samuel published his essay of that name, historians have done much to undermine the narrative of an ‘industrial revolution’ bookended by the invention of the spinning jenny in 1764 and the New Poor Law of 1834.

      There's an interesting linkage going on here between the industrial revolution (and thus possibly Capitalism) with the creation and even litigation of "the poor" classes in Britain.

      Did "the poor" exist in the same way they do today prior to the Industrial Revolution? What are the subtle differences? (Compare with Thompson, E. P. “Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism.” Past & Present, no. 38 (1967): 56–97.)

    1. (the) Senior是指年紀很大的長輩,注意S要大寫、有the或省略才是指定用法。

      這不正確。在 the senior〈the + 形容詞〉中的 senior 是形容詞,就跟 the rich(富人)、the poor(窮人)一樣,這些形容詞並不大寫。the senior 泛指年長者。說「S要大寫」,也就是寫成「the Senior」的用法,有何根據?

      美國國會記錄一例: “the senior and their copayments and deductibles" (年長者和他們的[醫療]共同負擔及自付額)


      臉書原po (如果你看不到): https://www.facebook.com/TranslationMattersYi/posts/pfbid0uRtzHmGXNKU2PAoFMFQnSEEotLPLYZoMrcNxrrhqVL7VKmMEeQ7Ptt9cUMJE7Pcil (或:截圖) https://hyp.is/8VoKHC_0Ee-L9htYgJ5ZUQ/www.facebook.com/TranslationMattersYi/posts/pfbid02xyYBCvttDR4uxGQ2XzXCkuUHgEyHt2DTTukhnUeyfQoKNw6Djp4ZuYjcMv5ofrm8l

    1. what life might be that baby could be 00:38:31 born in an era 10,000 years ago and would be coming into its World learning to make sense of the relationships and the way that you 00:38:45 survive in this world

      for - Nora Bateson - response to interview question - Is English language more separating? - Gedanken - Entangled Worlds podcast

      response - Nora Bateson - Entangled Worlds podcast question - Is English more separating than other languages? - yes - Gedanken - Nora responds by posing a Gedaken that shows how culturally relative our worldviews are - Our enculturation plays a major role in shaping our worldviews - Ronald Wright's famous quotation about how the human brain has not substantially changed in the past 50,000 years implies that - between the present and anytime less than 50,000 years ago, - if we were transported back in time, we would simply adapt the same culturally norms at that time

      epiphany - time travel and a clue to the deepest part of nature within human nature - This Gedanken suggests something important, namely that - if the seemingly immovable worldviews we adopt are a consequence of enculturation - then perhaps that which is the most fundamental aspect of our nature is not dependent on culture? - In other words, if we remove our enculturation, what is left is the most profound set of qualities of being human, - one that transcends all relative cultural perspectives

      reference - Ronald Wright computer metaphor on progress traps - Ronald Wright's computer metaphor helps us see how fluid the enculturation of a neonate is - https://hyp.is/6Lb6Uv5NEe2ZerOrftOHfA/www.goodreads.com/work/quotes/321797-a-short-history-of-progress

    2. it's really 00:40:26 important to to to tickle that to loosen it to to start to approach things in really different ways because they you get really different 00:40:40 responses and then things are shifting

      for - Nora Bateson - response to interview question - Is English language more separating? - loosen up!

  3. May 2024
    1. Strictly speaking, a cell (cellular) phone is a mobile phone, but a mobile phone may not necessarily be a cell phone. "Cellular" refers to the network technology


    2. The one clarifying term might be "my phone" - this would guarantee it to be a mobile phone, rather than a landline.
  4. Apr 2024
    1. 艾森豪國際語言  · Spoontdsre85f8c3u11c4699061i8c1f143h78ahi7a0189t53fh3a7784lt  · Shared with Public: 聽說了嗎?那家公司被指控做Uncook the books。: 真的嗎?這太糟糕了,他們的信譽會受到很大損害。《Uncook the book(s)》是「作假帳」,這裡的the book(s)指的是帳本而非書本。做假帳就是在原本帳目上做點手腳,好像煮飯菜的時候要一點想像力,加一些調味料,因此cook the book(s)就是所謂的作假帳。【範例】★He lives his life uncooking the books for criminal organizations.他專門幫犯罪組織查假帳,並靠此維生。★The company was accused of uncooking the books.那家公司被指控做假帳。

      : 聽說了嗎?那家公司被指控做Uncook the books。 : 真的嗎?這太糟糕了,他們的信譽會受到很大損害。 《Uncook the book(s)》 是「作假帳」,這裡的the book(s)指的是帳本而非書本。做假帳就是在原本帳目上做點手腳,好像煮飯菜的時候要一點想像力,加一些調味料,因此cook the book(s)就是所謂的作假帳。 【範例】 ★He lives his life uncooking the books for criminal organizations. 他專門幫犯罪組織查假帳,並靠此維生。 ★The company was accused of uncooking the books. 那家公司被指控做假帳。

      It can't be true that "cook the book" and "UNcook the book" both mean 作假帳.

    1. It means the booth specifically, without any extra bits. By way of example: "Times Square" might often be used to refer to the area around Times Square, but may include things which are not actually part of the Square. To narrow such a usage, one might say "I mean only the actual Times Square" or "I mean Times Square proper."
    1. that made it very easy to highlight passages without abandon

      shouldn't it be "with abandon"? 盡情放縱地

    1. The Mzanzi kids multilingual language learning App was created for children between the ages of 2-6 years in South Africa. It was designed to stimulate visual, speech and language literacy skills at an early age by understanding basic everyday concepts and highlighting the correct pronunciation of speech in six (6) different languages; English, Afrikaans, IsiXhosa, IsiZulu, Sepedi and Setswana. The integration of images and phonetics provides a good foundation for children to learn and speak in their mother tongue or home language with confidence and fluency, but most importantly comprehend and appreciate the diversity of languages used by South Africans. This multilingual App provides a good introduction before entering a schooling environment, and offers a non-threatening, playful and fun way of learning languages using innovative technology.

      This is an app for multilingual language learning. Mine will focus on the mother tongue.

      I tried it out for a bit and found the audio very repetitive, which could be problematic. Minecraft had such good audio - C14 or C11? It is fantastically immersive, and the popularity of the game and audio is irrefutable if you look at longevity (games come and go often, and very few manage to stick and have a continuous impact, Minecraft is a good example of an exception to this, alongside other well adjusted and designed games.

      I had fun learning the clicks in isiXhoso - something I want to practice, but the audio became too much as i hit the image repeatedly.

      There's room for more resources. This application does not speak to all children, and no one application ever will, hence the need for many across a broad range of cultures and diversities.

    1. The students learn and understand at their own pace and engage in all aspects of language learning, including grammar, vocabulary, etc. the software contains over 1000 passages along with exercises in both English and Afrikaans. This software was developed to assist the education imparted through tablets and software in Africa. The teachers can add content and improve the student’s reading, comprehension, and visual memory capacity with this software.

      Agin only egnlish and afrikaans

    1. ◆ a row of ugly, squat houses *一排低矮難看的房子My edit:一排醜陋的違建;一排難看的違建 ★ squat houses 是「違建」,不是低矮的房子。

      蘇老師在此改掉錯誤理解 squat house 為「低矮的房子」,稱正解為「違建」,但我有不同看法如下。



      a row of ugly squat houses

      問題就來了,這樣寫,squat house視爲一個複合名詞(名詞+名詞)的機會更大,這裡名詞squat源自動詞squat(非法占用房屋)的意思,而squat house意思就是:被人非法占用的房屋。

      然而,理解為「違建」則是錯的。違建是建築物本身違法興建起來,但 squat house 本身除非特例,否則當爲合法的建築,只是恰被非法占用、占住,尤其在貧民區裡經常有遊民非法占用空置建築的情形。

      例如,以下找到某書中的 squat house 實際用例:有個人非法占住某間 squat house,被警察趕出。


      結論:a row of ugly, squat houses 的確是「一排低矮難看的房子」,文法上不允許把「squat house」理解為「被占用的房子」,如果更進一步,不僅無視文法且誤解「squat」而誤解爲房子本身「違建」,那就該反省自己是否真的理解這句英文了!

  5. Mar 2024
    1. As soon as he was born, he cried not as other babes use to do, Miez, miez, miez, miez, but with a high, sturdy, and big voice

      Showing the parallel between him and other babies of his age, he describes that he did not shout "Miez, Miez, Miez, Miez", which translates to "no, no, no, no" in old germanic dialects like the other children. But instead, in a polar opposite manor, yelled "high, sturdy and big voice" shouted drink, drink, drink. Showing from an early age leadership, confidence, and "greatness".

    1. History of the United States (1834)

      1834 was also interesting with respect to this thesis as Britain was working at the "principles of 1834" which Beatrice Webb focused on and debunked in English Poor Law Policy (1910).

      see: https://hypothes.is/a/NLJSJAe7Ee2xvIeHyTL7vQ

      Would this 1832 work in Britain have bleed over to a similar set of poverty principles in the United States in the same era? Could this have compounded issues in America leading to greater class divisions in the decades before the Civil War?

  6. Feb 2024
    1. I major in English literature in University I major in interpreting you went to gr for my master degree I think more than 100 people applied and eight students were admit how many people finally passed the final exam two two two wow




    1. All thequotations have one thing in common – they hail from the Brisbane Courier-Mail.
    2. Those times are better captured in the ten volumes, 414,825entries, and 1,827,306 quotations that were finally published in 1928.

      The first edition of the Oxford English dictionary was published in 1928 in 10 volumes containing 414,825 entries and 1,827,306 quotations.

    3. On 3 June 1912 Edward Peacock wrote inshaky handwriting to James Murray from his deathbed: ‘I have been so longill – more than a year and a half, and do not expect ever to recover, that Ihave made up my mind to discontinue The Oxford English Dictionary for thefuture.’ He added in a postscript, ‘I am upwards of eighty years of age.’ Bythen Peacock had been a volunteer for the Dictionary for fifty-four years,making him one of the longest-serving contributors. He had submitted24,806 slips and had given great service to Murray not only as a Reader butas a Subeditor and Specialist too.

      One of the longest serving OED contributors, Edward Peacock wrote 24,806 slips over 54 years which comes to approximately 1.25 notes per day.

    4. reading John Almon’s Anecdotes of the Life of William Pitt (1792), andproduced 600 slips, alongside her social work, in 1879.
    5. An article on the Scriptorium by the classical scholar Basil LanneauGildersleeve, who was a Specialist and had visited Murray in 1880,

      identify and get a copy of this

    6. A quarter of the Americans in the address books were like Gildersleeveand Ernst, Specialists. The rest were Readers. Proportionally, there were halfas many Specialists in America than in Britain, which makes sense because adictionary editor usually wrote to a Specialist for a quick response, whileworking on a particular word, and the delay of the post to America wouldhave proved too slow for Murray and his tight schedule.
    7. Arber also suggests to Murray in this letter that he should use atypewriter. ‘I am quite certain’, he wrote, ‘that the only way to keep down thecost of corrections is to type-write the copy’, suggesting a model called theIdeal Caligraph, no. 2 price £18. Murray did read The Snake Dance of theMoquis of Arizona but he did not buy a typewriter.
    8. A Professor of English at Mason College (later BirminghamUniversity), Edward Arber, kept Murray informed of new American bookswhich might provide Americanisms. He wrote to Murray on Christmas Eve1884, ‘Another book, quite a new one which I would also bring to yourattention is Bourke’s The Snake Dance of the Moquis of Arizona. It is full ofthe latest Americanisms, such as the verb “to noon” for taking the noontiderest, while a male lover is said to “whittle”, what that is, I have no idea. Is itan Americanism for connoodle? It is a most interesting book in itself andwould refresh you, if you read it yourself.’
    9. The Dictionary’s coverage of the leading transcendentalist, HenryDavid Thoreau, is largely due to the monumental efforts of a single woman,Miss Alice Byington of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, who sent in 5,000 slipsfrom books that included several by Thoreau:

      over how long a period?

    10. Surprisingly, the American author who is quoted most in the OED isnot Mark Twain or Emily Dickinson or Edgar Allan Poe, but rather EdwardH. Knight, a patent lawyer and expert in mechanics who wrote the AmericanMechanical Dictionary and The Practical Dictionary of Mechanics. Knight isthe seventy-fourth-most cited author in the Dictionary, quoted morefrequently than Percy Bysshe Shelley, George Eliot or Ralph Waldo Emerson(who comes in at 116, the next-most quoted American).
    11. The American who sent in the most slips was a clergyman in Ionia,Michigan, Job Pierson. A Presbyterian minister, book collector, and librarian,Pierson had the largest private library in Michigan (which included a bookpublished in the earliest days of printing, from Vienna in 1476). Over elevenyears, from 1879 to 1890, Pierson, who had studied at Williams College andattended Auburn Theological Seminary, sent in 43,055 slips from poetry,drama, and religion. His correspondence with Murray shows the breadth ofhis reading, from Chaucer (10,000 slips) to books on anatomy (5,000 slips),and lumbering (1,000 slips).

      Job Pierson 43,055 slips over 11 years<br /> 10.7 notes per day

    12. Francis March was a Professor of English Language and ComparativePhilology at Lafayette College in Easton, Pennsylvania. The study of Englishin higher education was a development of the nineteenth century, and it tooka long time for English studies to gain recognition. March’s appointment as aProfessor of English in 1857 had been the first in the world that had theprestige of a full professorship – Rutgers appointed its first English professorin 1860, Harvard in 1876, and Oxford in 1885.
    13. In this context, Marsh invited members of the American public to helpcreate a radical new dictionary of all English which applied the scientificmethod, was collaborative in its making, and was based on written evidence.They were asked to collect current words and especially to read books fromthe eighteenth century – because literature from earlier centuries was harderto get in America at the time. Marsh ended his appeal with the warning thatAmericans would be paid nothing for their help.
    14. In 1858, the year after the idea of the Dictionary had been mooted by theLondon Philological Society, the New York Times informed American readersof a ‘fresh appeal to scholars, and lovers of learning and philological inquiry,for additions to their vocabulary’.
    15. Some Americans did write directly to Murray, and these – 196 ofthem – are the ones underlined in the address books. They represent 10 percent of all the Dictionary People with addresses and produced a total of238,080 slips that crossed the ocean before coming to rest on Murray’s deskin the Scriptorium.
    16. Maitland co-wrote History of English Law with Frederick Pollock.
    17. Stephen kept sending slips toMurray for twelve years, until 1891

      What was his slip total to give a notes per day calculation?

      (obviously not taking into account his other work...)

    18. Katharine also read her friend John Ruskin’s book The Eagle’s Nest(1872), lectures on the relationship between natural science and art, for theDictionary, writing out 1,000 slips.
    19. Robert Browning was a great favourite and also a greatfriend. Katharine sent in 500 slips from his Dramatic Idyls of 1879, and Amyproduced 300 slips from the same book.
    20. Dr Minor would read a text not for its meaning but for its words. It wasa novel approach to the task – the equivalent of cutting up a book word byword, and then placing each in an alphabetical list which helped the editorsquickly find quotations. Just as Google today ‘reads’ text as a series of wordsor symbols that are searchable and discoverable, so with Dr Minor. A manualundertaking of this kind was laborious – he was basically working as acomputer would work – but it probably resulted in a higher percentage of hisquotations making it to the Dictionary page than those of other contributors.
    21. Over thetwenty-three years that Minor had sent in slips to the Scriptorium, he mainlyread travellers’ tales and medical texts from the sixteenth and seventeenthcenturies. It was the travellers’ tales that interested me because they broughtthousands of words from indigenous languages around the world into theEnglish language.
    22. Ranking below Thomas Austin, who sent in 165,061 slips, and WilliamDouglas, who sent in 151,982, there is a big drop to the third-highestcontributor Dr Thomas Nadauld Brushfield, who sent in 70,277 slips.

      repetition here from before to introduce mental health...

    23. The Indian languages Specialist, Edward Brandreth, had D, D4, and D5beside his name in the address books and spent tireless hours in the BritishMuseum searching for fillers. Murray sent this retired member of the IndianCivil Service a total of 35 lists of desiderata, and Brandreth sent himthousands of quotations in return.

      thousands of slips...

    24. Alexander Beazeley, an engineer who specialized in lighthouses andsent in a total of 38,233 slips, many of which were desiderata and did notrelate to lighthouses.
    25. theRevd William Lees, a vicar outside Reigate who sent in a total of 18,500slips;
    26. Volunteers like Taylor who could fill gaps in quotations and search outdesiderata were invaluable to Murray. They were marked in the addressbooks by numbered D’s when desiderata lists had been sent to them, and by asmall Star of David sign when a third list had been sent.
    27. Murray responded a week later, giving instructions on how to read.This was towards the very end of his life and his instructions to Miss Taylorgive rare insight into Murray’s reading tips, especially instructions for readingfor desiderata, in this case words beginning with S, T, and U–Z: ‘I shouldsuggest looking it through and marking with a pencil dot such words as arementioned in the enclosed note, and any others that strike you as noteworthy,and then go through it copying out from the marked ones those immediatelywanted for the letters at which we are working the better parts of S & T, andsending these as soon as ready; then proceed to those in U to Z, and finallythe earlier words for our Supplement. I hope you will not find it too tedious;and I should be sorry if it were allowed to interfere with other calls.’

      James Murray's instructions to Miss E. Hilda Taylor in 1914 for how to read for excerpting of useful words for the Oxford English Dictionary.

      Compare this with his original instructions from circa 1879.

      Also: https://hypothes.is/a/3S08ysbDEe6Ca5tVAqEABQ

    28. The random selection of words by volunteers often resulted in themchoosing the same words with similar dates, and produced gaps in thequotation paragraphs, which Murray and his assistants had to fill by their ownmanual searching. This must have been like trying to find a needle in ahaystack. It was remarkable how successful Murray’s small team was at fillingthose gaps and finding earliest or latest quotations. Murray told thePhilological Society that this manual trawling for words had to be done forthe majority of words: ‘For more than five-sixths of the words we have tosearch out and find additional quotations in order to complete their historyand illustrate the senses; for every word we have to make a general search todiscover whether any earlier or later quotations, or quotations in other senses,exist.’
    29. two small flaws in the Dictionary’s compilation process

      It is incredibly difficult to plan in advance what to collect for any zettelkasten, even when its scope is tightly defined, like it would have been for the Oxford English Dictionary.

    30. And yet he desperately needed the help of Subeditors because the task wastoo massive to do alone. Two years into the job, Murray had estimated thathe had sent out 817,625 blank slips to Readers. If they returned them withquotations, and if he spent a minimum of 30 seconds reading each one andallocating it to the correct sense of an entry, it would take him three workingyears to get through a third of the materials gathered.

      By the second year into his editing work on the OED, John Murray estimated that he had sent out 817,625 slips to readers.

      At the average price of $0.025 for bulk index cards in 2023, this would have cost $20,440, so one must wonder at the cost of having done it. How much would this have been in March 1879 when Murray tool over editorship?

      How many went out in total? Who cut them all? Surely mass manufacture didn't exist at the time for them?

      Sending them out would have helped to ensure a reasonable facsimile of having cards of equal size coming back.

    31. Murray received a poignant letter in 1906 fromthe wife of William Sykes of South Devon who had been a one-timeassistant, and faithful Reader and Specialist for twenty-two years, sending in atotal of 16,048 slips: ‘My dear husband died last Friday, the day he receivedyour letter, he was able to read it, and wrote your name in one of the books Iam going to send you eight hours before he died. It took him an hour to writeit, but he made up his mind to do it, and did. The last words he ever wrotewere to you.’ A poignant last line from the impoverished widow reads, ‘I shallsend the books when the probate duty has been paid.’

      William Sykes 16,048 slips over 22 years<br /> (approximately 2 notes per day)

    32. From the moment in March 1879 whenMurray signed the contract with Oxford University Press to be the next Editorof the Dictionary, and he took possession of 2 tons of slips at his house, hisfamily was immediately part of the project (whether they liked it or not)sorting out the slips. Their house was a workplace and the family aworkforce.

      Perhaps one of the first sources of counting slips in weight rather than number!

    33. Helwich was the fifth-highest contributor
    34. The most prolific Reader in Europe – we might call him a ‘super-contributor’ – was Hartwig Helwich, a professor at the University of Viennawho wrote out the entire Cursor Mundi onto 46,599 slips. His efforts madethe medieval poem the second-most-frequently cited work in the Dictionaryafter the Bible (though in the current OED, it has dropped to eleventh in thetop sources).

      This practice of writing out everything onto slips sounds like that used later (double check the timing) by the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae in creating their slip corpus for later work.

    35. We think of the OED as a radical dictionary because of its size, itsscholarship, and its methods, and it was radical for English. But if youcompare it with other languages, there was nothing about its creation in themid-nineteenth century that had not been done before in Europe. English wasrelatively late to the table. The English editors were able to pick and choosethe best methods from different European dictionaries. The OEDimplemented European lexicographic practices, and advanced upon them, tocreate something truly revolutionary, something that would in fact end upbeing the envy of Europe.
    36. By the time the OED project commenced, Europe already had majordictionaries under way or completed in German, French, Italian, Russian, andDutch, all of which were taking advantage of the new methodologies ofContinental philology. In Germany, the Brothers Grimm had begun theDeutsches Wörterbuch in 1838. In France, Émile Littré had begun theDictionnaire de la langue française in 1841 (a dictionary of post-1600French). In the Netherlands, Matthias de Vries had begun Woordenboek derNederlandsche Taal in 1852 (a dictionary of post-medieval Dutch).

      Oxford English Dictionary (1857 - )

    37. showing the hundreds of volunteers who corresponded with the brothers; theeditors’ lists of words and statistical counts of entries; the tracing ofetymology using the new scientific philological methods of the day; thegathering of citations from historical, published sources. I had worked in theOED archives for years and the contents of the Grimmwelt Museum lookedidentical.

      They looked exactly like the slips sent into the OED by the Dictionary People. There was a world map

      Lexicographer Sarah Ogilvie, a previous editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, said she "had worked in the OED archives for years and the contents of the Grimmwelt Museum looked identical" to them. She indicated that the similarity of the dictionary projects extended to the hundreds of volunteers, lists of words, counts of entries, etymology work, citations from published sources, and general philological methods used by the editors of the era.

    38. absolutely drew the line with a word which he considered so obscene it had tobe sent to Murray in a small envelope marked PRIVATE, sealed within alarger envelope. Inside the intriguing packaging was a message advising himnot to include the word condom. ‘I am writing on a very obscene subject.There is an article called Cundum ... a contrivance used by fornicators, tosave themselves from a well-deserved clap; also by others who wish to enjoycopulation without the possibility of impregnation’, he wrote to Murray.‘Everything obscene comes from France, and I had supposed this affair wasnamed after the city of Condom, which gives title to a Bishop.’ But he hadfound a quotation from 1705 referring to a ‘Quondam’ which made himrethink his assumption that it was named after the town in France. ‘I supposeCundom or Quondam will be too utterly obscene for the Dictionary’, heconcluded. Murray left it out.

      Each of Murray’s advisers had different notions of what was offensively salacious. His adviser on medical terms, James Dixon, who was a retired surgeon living in Dorking, Surrey, had been all right with including cunt, but

    39. By the time that section of the letter C was published for the OxfordEnglish Dictionary the only cunt that was listed by Murray was cunt-, a cross-reference to the prefixes cont-, count- with no mention whatsoever of thefemale body part. Fuck was also left out. Although these old words had beenin use since the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries respectively, they wouldhave to wait until the 1970s to be included in the OED. Murray did, however,include pudendum, a word derived from Latin for ‘that of which one ought tobe ashamed’, which he defined as ‘the privy parts, the external genital organs’with no reference to a woman or – God forbid – her vulva.


      the shame attached to pudendum has lasted culturally for a terrifically long time in the West.

    40. He had helped Murray with the very firstentry in the Dictionary – A: not only the sound A, ‘the low-back-wide vowelformed with the widest opening of the jaws, pharynx, and lips’, but also themusical sense of A, ‘the 6th note of the diatonic scale of C major’, and finallythe algebraic sense of A, ‘as in a, b, c, early letters of the alphabet used toexpress known quantities, as x, y, z are to express the unknown’. Ellis washappy to see these and other results of his work on the printed page, includingthe words air, alert, algebra.

      He here is A. J. Ellis

    41. the outright winner was a mysterious character called Thomas Austin Jnr whosent Dr Murray an incredible total of 165,061 over the span of a decade.Second place goes to William Douglas of Primrose Hill who sent in 151,982slips over twenty-two years; third place to Dr Thomas Nadauld Brushfield ofDevon, with 70,277 over twenty-eight years; with Dr William Chester Minorof Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum coming in fourth place with 62,720slips.

      Top slip contributors to OED: 1. Thomas Austin Jnr. 165,061 slips over 10 years (45.22 notes per day) 2. William Douglas 151,982 over 22 years (18.92 notes per day) 3. Thomas Nadauld Brushfield 70,277 over 28 years (1.98 notes per day) 4. William Chester Minor 62,720 slips over 23 years (to 1906) (7.5 notes per day)

    42. tensof thousands of books

      Tens of thousands of books were used to draw the quotations used in the OED.

    43. He devised a systemof storage for all the slips in shelves of pigeonholes that lined the walls of theScriptorium.

      The scriptorium for the OED relied on shelves of pigeonholes into which the slips could be sorted and stored.

      There are photos of Murray with these pigeonholes stuffed behind him. Dig one of these up.

      This pigeonhole practice is in marked difference to other projects like the TLL which relied on boxes on shelves.

    44. urray’s house at 78 Banbury Road to receive post (it is still there today).This is now one of the most gentrified areas of Oxford, full of large three-storey, redbrick, Victorian houses, but the houses were brand new whenMurray lived there and considered quite far out of town.

      Considered outside of Oxford at the time, Dr. Murray fashioned the Scriptorium at his house at 78 Banbury Road. Murray received so much mail that the Royal Mail installed a red pillar box just to handle the volume.

    45. Readers received a list of twelve instructions on how to select a word,which included, ‘Give the date of your book (if you can), author, title (short).Give an exact reference, such as seems to you to be the best to enable anyoneto verify your quotations. Make a quotation for every word that strikes you asrare, obsolete, old-fashioned, new, peculiar, or used in a peculiar way.’
    46. A 4 x 6-inch ‘slip’ sent in by one of the most prolific femalecontributors, Edith Thompson of Bath, who sent in 13,259slips. The underlinings and markings were made by Dr Murray.
    47. In addition tobeing Readers, volunteers could help as Subeditors who received bundles ofslips for pre-sorting (chronologically and into senses of meaning

      The slips for the OED were sorted alphabetically and then grouped chronologically and by sense of meanings of the words.

    48. The volunteer ‘Readers’ were instructed to write out the words andsentences on small 4 x 6-inch pieces of paper, known as ‘slips’.

      Volunteer 'Readers' for the Oxford English Dictionary were encouraged to write down interesting headwords along with their appearances in-situ along with the associated bibliographical information. The recommended paper size was 4 x 6-inch pieces of paper which were commonly called 'slips'.

      (Double check this against the historical requests from James Murray.)

    49. Ogilvie, Sarah. The Dictionary People: The Unsung Heroes Who Created the Oxford English Dictionary. 1st ed. New York: Knopf, 2023. https://amzn.to/3Un0sv9.

      Read from 2023-12-04 to 2024-02-01

      Annotation URL: urn:x-pdf:c95483c701c7fc677e89f2c44f98a30b



    1. https://pages.oup.com/ol/cus/1646173949115570121/submit-words-and-evidence-to-the-oed

      The modern day digital version of an OED contribution slip includes database fields for the following:

      • Submission type (new word or sense of a word; information about origin/etymology; other)
      • the word or phrase itself
      • the part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, other)
      • pronunciation (recording, IPA, rhyming words, etc.)
      • the definition or sense number as defined in the OED
      • quotation evidence with full text, and bibliographical references/links)
      • additional notes

      Only the first two fields are mandatory.

  7. Jan 2024
  8. johnhalbrooks.substack.com johnhalbrooks.substack.com
    1. This image resonates with the earliest description of an English poet, which we find in Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People, completed in the year 731. Bede, a prolific monk and scholar from the monastery of Jarrow in Northumbria, provides an account of a certain Caedmon, an illiterate brother at the abbey at Whitby, who is visited by God and taught to sing beautiful poetry. Caedmon remains an oral poet, but his literate brothers write down his poetry for him.
  9. johnhalbrooks.substack.com johnhalbrooks.substack.com
    1. I have left the word wyrd untranslated from the Old English. It means something like “fate” or “doom.” It is the ancestor of the modern English word weird. When Shakespeare refers to the witches in Macbeth as the “weird sisters,” he doesn’t mean that they are strange (though they are), but rather that they have to do with fate. Weird in its modern sense (meaning “strange” or “uncanny”) is probably connected to the mysterious or “weird” nature of fate.
    1. 建築的拱窗高大漆黑,窗旁石磚等距排列,延伸到牆邊。

      Tall dark arched windows, framed with stone bricks, punctuated the front wall, equidistant from each other.

      這裡,punctuate 是句子的及物動詞,動詞的主詞是拱窗,不是石磚。

      是拱窗點綴前牆,不是石磚延伸到牆。 是拱窗彼此間等距,不是石磚等距排列。

      如要描述石磚,punctuated 會寫成 punctuating。

  10. Dec 2023
    1. AbstractThe first description of avian influenza (AI) dates back to 1878 in northern Italy, when Perroncito [Perroncito E. Epizoozia tifoide nei gallinacei. Annali Accad Agri Torino 1878;21:87–126] described a contagious disease of poultry associated with high mortality. The disease, termed “fowl plague”, was initially confused with the acute septicemic form of fowl cholera. However, in 1880, soon after its first description, Rivolta and Delprato [as reported by Stubs EL. Fowl pest, In: Biester HE, Devries L, editors. Diseases of poultry. 1st ed. Ames, IO: Iowa State College Press; 1943. p. 493–502] showed it to be different from fowl cholera, based on clinical and pathological properties, and called it Typhus exudatious gallinarum. In 1901, Centanni and Savunzzi [Centanni E, Savonuzzi E, La peste aviaria I & II, Communicazione fatta all’accademia delle scienze mediche e naturali de Ferrara, 1901] determined that fowl plague was caused by a filterable virus; however, it was not until 1955 that the classical fowl plague virus was shown to be a type A influenza virus based on the presence of type A influenza virus type-specific ribonucleoprotein [Schäfer W. Vergleichender sero-immunologische Untersuchungen über die Viren der Influenza und klassischen Geflügelpest. Z Naturf 1955;10b:81–91]. The term fowl plague was substituted by the more appropriate term highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) at the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza [Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza. Beltsville, MD. 1981, Avian Dis 47 (Special Issue) 2003.] and will be used throughout this review when referring to any previously described fowl plague virus.RésuméLa première référence à la grippe aviaire remonte à 1878 dans le nord de l’Italie, lorsque Perroncito [1] décrit une maladie contagieuse et hautement mortelle affectant la volaille. Cette maladie, appelée « peste aviaire »

      Fowl plague vs. fowl plaque/pox

      In the abstract of this scientific paper on avian flu, there are 5 instances of "fowl plague". The word "plague" is also confirmed by the French abstract: "peste aviaire".

      The funny thing is, in the conclusion of the same research paper, the author says: 'We have come a long way since the first description of “fowl plaque” in 1878.' This time, "plague" became "plaque". I intuitively think it's a historical typo, but this "fowl plaque" has been propagated on the web, in some printed books too. Google Ngrams shows "fowl plague" outweighs "fowl plaque" 20:1. It's also picked up by a government health publication in Taiwan: see here.

      家禽瘟疫 vs. 家禽斑塊/痘

      在這篇有關禽流感的科學論文的摘要中,有5處提到了「fowl plague」。法文摘要也確認了「peste aviaire」,其中的「peste」意指瘟疫。有趣的是,在同一研究論文的結論部分,作者提到:「自1878年首次描述『fowl plaque』(禽斑塊)以來,我們已經取得了長足的進展。」這一次,「plague」變成了「plaque」。病毒的確可以造成明顯可見的斑塊,或 pox(痘),所以或許plague、plaque/pox都說的通,但意思不同。「fowl plaque」的用法在網路上和一些印刷書籍中也流傳下來。Google Ngrams 顯示「fowl plague」的使用頻率比「fowl plaque」高出20倍。台灣疾管局的某份出版物中也採用了plaque用法。(#gptTrgWithRevision)

    1. 台式英語: Could you kindly reply by Tuesday? (可以請你周二前回信給我嗎?) 道地英語: Could you reply by Tuesday? Or, if you want to be very polite: Would you be able to reply by Tuesday? 用法: 很多台灣人在書信往來中常常會寫 "please kindly" ,以為這樣更客氣,但其實kindly,一點也不kind。在英文的用法中,加上kindly代表一種警告,例如 “Please kindly refrain from smoking on the premises (請不要在這裡抽菸)”  若你想要禮貌一點,只需要用 "please" 或是用 "Could you 或 Would you be able to"


  11. Nov 2023
    1. logIntoMicrosoft

      I think logInToMicrosoft would be slightly better, but this is surely much better than the completely incorrect loginToMicrosoft

    2. loginTo

      Incorrect. Should be logInTo or logInto, same as it is in the other functions, logIntoMicrosoft, ...

    1. 剛剛 在 一英英字典裡 看到 這個例句, 我很是納悶.We're dealing wiht decades of bad decisions that are coming back to roost now.一般來說, 若我要翻譯, 看到of我會由後往前翻, 但這裡的 decades of bad decisions 若這樣翻, 會很奇怪. 所以 來請教大家.

      這應該是填鴨式教育(rote learning)的遺害吧?看到「of」就自動由後往前翻,分明就是不問理由,只被教導要這樣做、這樣解題,我彷彿可以聽到某某國中英語老師或某補習班名師如此耳提面命:

      看到 A of B,意思就是 (屬於)B 的 A B 要先翻出來 不要問爲什麼,老師是教你如何秒殺 OF 介系詞。

      This is a doozy of an example of rote learning. 這是最棒的一個填鴨式教育的範例。

    1. Learning English American Way

      唉,一個教「道地」英文的粉專,英文名 Learning English American Way 大剌剌少了一個重要的定冠詞 THE (應作 Learning English the American Way,真的「道地」不起來啊。

  12. Oct 2023
    1. Usage seems to us peculiarly a matter of ear. Everyone has his own set of rules, his own list of horribles.
    2. "Usage is trendy, arbitrary, and above all, constantly changing, like all other fashions--in clothing, music, or automobiles. Grammar is the rationale of a language; usage is the etiquette."​ 
    3. In this book, grammar refers to the manner in which the language functions, the ways that the blocks of speech and writing are put together. Usage refers to using specific words in a manner that will be thought of as either acceptable or unacceptable. The question of whether or not to split an infinitive is a consideration of grammar; the question of whether one should use literally in a nonliteral sense is one of usage."
    1. Murray edited the OED from his grandly named ‘Scriptorium’, which was in fact a large corrugated iron shed, built first in the grounds of Mill Hill School, where he taught, and then in his garden at 78 Banbury Road.
    2. Hay, Daisy. Review of Rare, Obsolete, New, Peculiar, by Sarah Ogilvie. London Review of Books, October 19, 2023. https://www.lrb.co.uk/the-paper/v45/n20/daisy-hay/rare-obsolete-new-peculiar.

    3. The numbers are giddying – millions of slips in the Scriptorium, thousands of contributors,

      are there specific numbers?

    4. Dixon’s standards were variable: he was happy for Murray to include ‘cunt’ but drew the line at ‘cundum ... a contrivance used by fornicators, to save themselves from a well-deserved clap; also by others who wish to enjoy copulation without the possibility of impregnation’.
    5. To the outside world Mary Pringle was the model of a Victorian wife and mother, but every morning, after she had waved her husband off to work at the War Office, she went into her garden to measure the night’s rainfall via an eclectic range of homemade gauges. She then returned indoors to collect quotations for the dictionary from 17th-century biblical commentaries. (She appears in a chapter called ‘R for Rain Collectors’.) Her enthusiasms, recorded in Murray’s address book, provide a glimpse of the way clever Victorian women, barred from the worlds of education and work, sought alternative expressions of endeavour and community in work for the OED. Pringle’s story also reveals, in the sudden silence of its ending, other forms of female experience. In 1884 her son died, and overnight she stopped collecting both rain and words, fading back into history.

      loss of the quotidien as the result of grief

    6. The famous OED slips – 4 x 6 inch pieces of paper, some pre-filled with title and publication details – were to be completed by readers, whose task was to write down instances and examples of words in need of definition.
    7. Gilliver suggests that the dictionary with the strongest claim to have influenced the OED is not Johnson’s but the fourth edition of Franz Passow’s Handwörterbuch der griechischen Sprache, published in 1831.

      Presumably compiled by zettelkasten as well?

  13. Sep 2023
    1. "Surrendering" by Ocean Vuong

      1. He moved into United State when he was age of five. He first came to United State when he started kindergarten. Seven of them live in the apartment one bedroom and bathroom to share the whole. He learned ABC song and alphabet. He knows the ABC that he forgot the letter is M comes before N.

      2. He went to the library since he was on the recess. He was in the library hiding from the bully. The bully just came in the library doing the slight frame and soft voice in front of the kid where he sit. He left the library, he walked to the middle of the schoolyard started calling him the pansy and fairy. He knows the American flag that he recognize on the microphone against the backdrop.

  14. Aug 2023
  15. Jul 2023
    1. But in almost all English sentences containing »there is«, these words do not mean »in this place is« but »it exists«. But the German words »da ist« do not have the meaning »it exists«. They only mean »in this place is«.
  16. Jun 2023
    1. There are now about 22,000 contributorsto the site, which charges between $1 and $5 per basic image

      This reminds me of the article "Wikipedia and the Death of an Expert" how there are also so many volunteers running the wikipedia page. I inserted an article that mentions how many active editors there are on wikipedia so we can really compare the similarities in contributors.

  17. May 2023
  18. Apr 2023
  19. Mar 2023
    1. Auch das grammatische Verhalten eines Wortes nach Flexion und Rektion ist der Sammlung vollständig zu entnehmen. Und schließlich und vor allen Dingen lag hier der Schlüssel zur Bestimmung der Wortbedeutungen. Statt jeweils ad hoc durch Konjekturen einzelne Textstellen spekulativ zu deuten (das Raten, von dem Erman endlich wegkommen wollte), erlaubte es der Vergleich der verschiedenen Zusammenhänge, in denen ein Wort vorkam, seine Bedeutung durch systematische Eingrenzug zu fixieren oder doch wenigstens anzunähern. Auch in dieser Hinsicht hat sich das Zettelarchiv im Sinne seines Erstellungszwecks hervorragend bewährt.

      The benefit of creating such a massive key word in context index for the Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache meant that instead of using an ad hoc translation method (guessing based on limited non-cultural context) for a language, which was passingly familiar, but not their mother tongue, Adolph Erman and others could consult a multitude of contexts for individual words and their various forms to provide more global context for better translations.

      Other dictionaries like the Oxford English Dictionary attempt to help do this as well as provide the semantic shift of words over time because the examples used in creating the dictionary include historical examples from various contexts.

    1. "Built in to" appears when you use the phrasal verb "build in" followed by an infinitive, but that is not what you are trying to do in your sentence.There's an electronic switch built in to stop all data transfers.
    1. Altfranzösisches etymologisches Wörterbuch : AGATE

      I recall that the Oxford English Dictionary was also compiled using a slip box method of sorts, and more interestingly it was a group effort.

      Similarly Wordnik is using Hypothes.is to recreate these sorts of patterns for collecting words in context on digital cards.

      Many encyclopedias followed this pattern as did Adler's Syntopicon.

    1. When I looked it up in the OED (the Oxford English Dictionary), I discovered to my surprise that it wasn't even in the main volumes but had been added in the Supplement, because the first known written reference in English ("non-fictional wares") occurred in a library journal in 1903. That is to say, "nonfiction" was evidently a term coined by a librarian trying to decide how to label all the works of narrative prose in her collection that weren't fiction, and rather than call them, say, "fact," had thoughtlessly exiled them into the Slough of Non.

      According to the Oxford English dictionary, 'non-fiction' was coined in 1903 in a library journal by a librarian attempting to define the opposite of fiction.

  20. Feb 2023
    1. One approach to avoiding this kind of problem is regression testing. A properly designed test plan aims at preventing this possibility

      The antecedent of "this possibility" is unclear. (Perhaps it used to be clear and then someone else made an edit and added a sentence in between?)

  21. Jan 2023
    1. Learning a New Language Can Help Us Escape Climate Catastrophe

      !- Title : Learning a New Language Can Help Us Escape Climate Catastrophe !- Author : Nylan Burton !- comment : summary - while I agree with the analysis, the futures-related question I ask is this: what does a desirable hybridized linguistic landscape look like that integrates English, evolved into a post-colonialist lingua franca and reconstituted indigenous languages with their rich bio-cultural heritage?

    1. Nice try, but it's still full of exceptions. To make the above jingle accurate, it'd need to be something like: I before e, except after c Or when sounded as 'a' as in 'neighbor' and 'weigh' Unless the 'c' is part of a 'sh' sound as in 'glacier' Or it appears in comparatives and superlatives like 'fancier' And also except when the vowels are sounded as 'e' as in 'seize' Or 'i' as in 'height' Or also in '-ing' inflections ending in '-e' as in 'cueing' Or in compound words as in 'albeit' Or occasionally in technical words with strong etymological links to their parent languages as in 'cuneiform' Or in other numerous and random exceptions such as 'science', 'forfeit', and 'weird'.
    1. If my goal as a teacher is to help students learn, then should I withhold access to the same information until the timing is convenient for me? Some teachers might look at this and ask if they’re even relevant anymore. I would suggest that the answer is yes, but our focus will shift on helping students develop even deeper critical thinking skills in English. Less motivated teachers who just want to teach grammar may be weeded out over time, but those who are ready to take deeper dives will get the opportunity to mentor students on their path to becoming confident and autonomous English users.
    2. ChatGPT can be used as a writing assistance tool. ELLs can use ChatGPT to generate ideas and receive feedback on their writing. ChatGPT can also provide grammar and spelling assistance, which can be particularly helpful for ELLs who are still learning the rules of the English language.
    3. you can use pretty much any device with a microphone to transcribe your spoken English into the prompt box. Once the responses are generated, students can use screen reading software to verbalize the response.
  22. Dec 2022
    1. 14% increase in sex-crime reporting during that initial three-month period, representing an additional 11,600 reported cases in countries with strong #MeToo movements, such as Canada and Sweden.


  23. Nov 2022