68 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Dec 2023
    1. AbstractThe first description of avian influenza (AI) dates back to 1878 in northern Italy, when Perroncito [Perroncito E. Epizoozia tifoide nei gallinacei. Annali Accad Agri Torino 1878;21:87–126] described a contagious disease of poultry associated with high mortality. The disease, termed “fowl plague”, was initially confused with the acute septicemic form of fowl cholera. However, in 1880, soon after its first description, Rivolta and Delprato [as reported by Stubs EL. Fowl pest, In: Biester HE, Devries L, editors. Diseases of poultry. 1st ed. Ames, IO: Iowa State College Press; 1943. p. 493–502] showed it to be different from fowl cholera, based on clinical and pathological properties, and called it Typhus exudatious gallinarum. In 1901, Centanni and Savunzzi [Centanni E, Savonuzzi E, La peste aviaria I & II, Communicazione fatta all’accademia delle scienze mediche e naturali de Ferrara, 1901] determined that fowl plague was caused by a filterable virus; however, it was not until 1955 that the classical fowl plague virus was shown to be a type A influenza virus based on the presence of type A influenza virus type-specific ribonucleoprotein [Schäfer W. Vergleichender sero-immunologische Untersuchungen über die Viren der Influenza und klassischen Geflügelpest. Z Naturf 1955;10b:81–91]. The term fowl plague was substituted by the more appropriate term highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) at the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza [Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza. Beltsville, MD. 1981, Avian Dis 47 (Special Issue) 2003.] and will be used throughout this review when referring to any previously described fowl plague virus.RésuméLa première référence à la grippe aviaire remonte à 1878 dans le nord de l’Italie, lorsque Perroncito [1] décrit une maladie contagieuse et hautement mortelle affectant la volaille. Cette maladie, appelée « peste aviaire »

      Fowl plague vs. fowl plaque/pox

      In the abstract of this scientific paper on avian flu, there are 5 instances of "fowl plague". The word "plague" is also confirmed by the French abstract: "peste aviaire".

      The funny thing is, in the conclusion of the same research paper, the author says: 'We have come a long way since the first description of “fowl plaque” in 1878.' This time, "plague" became "plaque". I intuitively think it's a historical typo, but this "fowl plaque" has been propagated on the web, in some printed books too. Google Ngrams shows "fowl plague" outweighs "fowl plaque" 20:1. It's also picked up by a government health publication in Taiwan: see here.

      家禽瘟疫 vs. 家禽斑塊/痘

      在這篇有關禽流感的科學論文的摘要中,有5處提到了「fowl plague」。法文摘要也確認了「peste aviaire」,其中的「peste」意指瘟疫。有趣的是,在同一研究論文的結論部分,作者提到:「自1878年首次描述『fowl plaque』(禽斑塊)以來,我們已經取得了長足的進展。」這一次,「plague」變成了「plaque」。病毒的確可以造成明顯可見的斑塊,或 pox(痘),所以或許plague、plaque/pox都說的通,但意思不同。「fowl plaque」的用法在網路上和一些印刷書籍中也流傳下來。Google Ngrams 顯示「fowl plague」的使用頻率比「fowl plaque」高出20倍。台灣疾管局的某份出版物中也採用了plaque用法。(#gptTrgWithRevision)

    1. 台式英語: Could you kindly reply by Tuesday? (可以請你周二前回信給我嗎?) 道地英語: Could you reply by Tuesday? Or, if you want to be very polite: Would you be able to reply by Tuesday? 用法: 很多台灣人在書信往來中常常會寫 "please kindly" ,以為這樣更客氣,但其實kindly,一點也不kind。在英文的用法中,加上kindly代表一種警告,例如 “Please kindly refrain from smoking on the premises (請不要在這裡抽菸)”  若你想要禮貌一點,只需要用 "please" 或是用 "Could you 或 Would you be able to"


  3. Nov 2023
    1. Learning English American Way

      唉,一個教「道地」英文的粉專,英文名 Learning English American Way 大剌剌少了一個重要的定冠詞 THE (應作 Learning English the American Way,真的「道地」不起來啊。

  4. Oct 2023
    1. Usage seems to us peculiarly a matter of ear. Everyone has his own set of rules, his own list of horribles.
    2. "Usage is trendy, arbitrary, and above all, constantly changing, like all other fashions--in clothing, music, or automobiles. Grammar is the rationale of a language; usage is the etiquette."​ 
    3. In this book, grammar refers to the manner in which the language functions, the ways that the blocks of speech and writing are put together. Usage refers to using specific words in a manner that will be thought of as either acceptable or unacceptable. The question of whether or not to split an infinitive is a consideration of grammar; the question of whether one should use literally in a nonliteral sense is one of usage."
  5. Jun 2023
  6. May 2023
  7. Nov 2022
  8. Aug 2022
    1. Replace 'log' with 'clock'; do you think it should be "clockin" because you aren't "clocking" anything? Plus, if 'login' was a verb, you'd not be logging in, but logining. Eww. Or, you'd have just logined instead of logged in.
    2. I feel very happy about them indeed because they take me to the destinations they promise (they're all nouns). Login doesn't take me to my login, which makes me sad. It does take me to a place where I can log in, however.
    1. "you can verb any noun". :) Though, comparing "ssh into a workstation" to "login to host.com", where "log in" exists, it's a bit like saying "entrance the building" when "enter the building" already works
    2. Login is a noun, the same as breakup (suffer a breakup), backup (keep backups safe), spinoff (a Star Wars spinoff), makeup, letdown,
  9. Jul 2022
    1. Steer, of course, can also be a noun that refers to male cattle. This meaning is unrelated to the expression steer clear.
  10. May 2022
    1. Confusingly, if the police suspect you of a crime, you can be described as a “suspicious person” and if you constantly suspect others of crimes, you can also be called “suspicious.”
    2. It never makes sense to say “I am suspect that. . . .”
  11. Sep 2021
  12. Nov 2020
  13. Oct 2020
    1. Anti-Features

      I don't think this is what Anti-Features means. Here he's listing things that this tool lacks, some of them being good things, like the "Does not require updating every time a new Ruby version comes out". That's a feature, not an anti-feature!

      Check out how F-Droid uses the term. Anti-feature means things that are present that aren't wanted. Undesirable "features" that are present.

      Unless they are just implying (but not explicitly saying):

      Anti-features that are not included

    1. In agent-oriented programming the antonym is depender, though in general usage the common term dependent is used instead. There is no common language equivalent for dependee', however – other metaphors are used instead, such as parent/child. The circumlocutions “A depends on B” and “B is depended on by A” are much more common in general use than “A is the depender, B is the ' dependee ”.
  14. Sep 2020
  15. Aug 2020
    1. Here's what 20 seconds of googling turned up: University of Rochester Grammar Style Guide oh hey look, a stackoverflow thread The truth about grammar: bailout versus bail out and there are so many more...
  16. Jul 2020
    1. source | edit | rollback | link

      I can see (here) another reason people might incorrectly spell the verb roll back as "rollback": because they are including it in a list of other single-word words separated only by spaces. If one were to include the space in "roll back" as it should have, then it would "break" this meaningful-whitespace design/layout.

    1. set up

      This is the past participle of the verb "to set up".

      Also: do a web search for "be set up" vs "be setup".

    2. The verb set up, on the other hand, is usually found as an open compound (two words, no hyphen) in both American and British English.
  17. Jun 2020
    1. It’s a “bug” and you “fix” it - so properly, in English, it’s a “bug fix” - but very often it’s shortened to “bugfix”.
  18. May 2020
    1. except, as anticipated a little earlier, any custom services

      This seems like it might not be the correct way to use "anticipated". Seems like it is meaning "as mentioned earlier". Certainly an uncommon usage, anyway.

  19. Apr 2020
    1. the spelling "Web site" (and the less questionable "web site") is an anachronism from the 1990s that is still in use by the NYT and some other conservative print media in the US while most others (including the online sections of the NYT!) today use "website".
    2. Website is not a proper noun (as opposed to the Internet), hence not capitalized.
    3. English tends to build new compound nouns by simply writing them as separate words with a blank. Once the compound is established (and the original parts somewhat "forgotten"), it's often written as one word or hyphenated. (Examples: shoelaces, aircraft...)
    4. Web site / website seems to be somewhat in a transitional stage, being seen as an "entity" that web page hasn't reached yet. Depending on which dictionary you check you will find web site and website, but only web page, not webpage.
    1. The non-extension page, example.html

      Identifying something by what it is not: Thought it was interesting how they call it a "non-extension page" to clarify that it's not an extension page. I guess that might be the clearest way to clarify that.

  20. Mar 2020
  21. Nov 2019
    1. Because they're more integrated and try to serialize an incomplete system (e.g. one with some kind of side effects: from browser/library/runtime versions to environment to database/API changes), they will tend to have high false-negatives (failing test for which the production code is actually fine and the test just needs to be changed). False negatives quickly erode the team's trust in a test to actually find bugs and instead come to be seen as a chore on a checklist they need to satisfy before they can move on to the next thing.