966 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2019
    1. There is no shortage of stories about legendary Japanese samurai warriors in modern pop culture; but most stories only feature the male ones.  

      Never knew this!

    1. It’s a refusal to accept that how we behave now is as good as we can expect from ourselves, from others and from the future. And it’s a reflection of the fact that most of us need help (regulations, laws, incentives, shame) getting to where we know we should be.

      This is a good point. I agree with it. I didn't give up my plastic shopping bags until the law said I had to.

  2. Jul 2019
    1. Europe’s oldest intact book has been discovered after being closed inside a hermit monk’s coffin for over 400 years. It will go on display at the British Library as part of an exhibition featuring prized manuscripts like the Lindisfarne Gospels and Beowulf. The show is a once in a lifetime opportunity to see how medieval Anglo-Saxons depicted their own culture through early writings.

      Excited that I got to see the exhibition!

  3. Jun 2019
    1. Some of these cities are pretty good-sized, too; Newark today has more people than Orlando. Modern New Jersey is the most densely populated state in the country: 47th in area, but 11th in population.

      Wow! Never knew that!

  4. May 2019
    1. I’m especially looking forward to session 5B: “Change It Up! Switching Departments, Changing Career Focus, Taking Risks — From Those Who Have Done It!” Knowing several of the brilliant and driven speakers on this panel, I look forward to learning from their chameleon experiences in adapting to diverse publishing sectors and new positions. I know a few who have written their own job descriptions, some more than once!

      Thanks for the shout out, Lettie!

    1. Numerous species, including some Ancylometes, Dolomedes, Megadolomedes, Pardosa, Pirata, Thalassius and others, live above water at the surface, but may actively submerge for a prolonged period of time, are strong swimmers and will catch underwater prey.[4][5][11]
    1. “With the B Team doing one thing & @realDonaldTrump saying another thing, it is apparently the U.S. that ‘doesn’t know what to think,’ ” Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif tweeted Friday in response to Trump. Zarif frequently refers to White House national security adviser John Bolton as the head of the “B team,” or simply, “the Moustache.”

      Would be funny and/or clever if it were not so deadly serious...

  5. Apr 2019
    1. And if a resurfaced tweet has an emotional resonance of x, than a passage in a book by which you were once moved must resonate at 100x.

      This is something that Altmetrics should move on...

    1. The people with the strongest networks are the ones who build real relationships because those are the ties that you can count on. Friends always ask me how I know so many people. My superpower is that I have a somewhat photographic memory for faces which helps me to remember people, although this has declined with age. I could remember someone I met only briefly over twenty years ago or see a photo of someone and remember the context (this has definitely freaked people out).

      I wonder how many super-networkers have time-space/calendar synesthesia?

    2. I hate “networking” as much as the next person.

      I happen to love networking... (This from the girl who never talked in high school... Who knew?)

    1. Boston Dynamics, a company whose main export appears to be unsettling videos of its robotic creations, has offered up one possible answer. Death sounds like 40 robot-dog legs, marching together in unison across a lifeless blacktop parking lot. 

      Future of transport after the zombie apocalypse?

    1. Everyone was striving to be a part of the legal profession (if you weren’t, what was wrong with you?). Everyone was applying for summer placement schemes, Legal Practice Course places, training contracts, all the next stages that you needed to tick off to succeed.

      This is interesting.

    1. Machine learning techniques were originally designed for stationary and benign environments in which the training and test data are assumed to be generated from the same statistical distribution.

      the best thing ever!

  6. Mar 2019
    1. Roth, now 67, gravitated to matching markets, where parties must choose one another, through applications, courtship and other means. In 1995, he wrote a mathematical algorithm that greatly improved the efficiency of the system for matching medical school graduates to hospitals for their residencies. That work led him to improve the matching models for law clerkships, the hiring of newly minted economists, Internet auctions and sororities. “I’m a market designer,” he says. “Currently, I’m focused on kidneys. We’re trying to match more donor kidneys to people globally.”

      Interesting for many, many fields.

    1. “Early on, Trump came to the conclusion that it is better to do business with crooks than with honest people. Crooks have two big advantages. First, they’re prepared to pay more money than honest people. And second, they will always lose if you sue them because they are known to be crooks.”

      This is amazing.

    1. This isn’t technically the last image the rover sent, though. As the fatal dust storm closed in, Opportunity sent one last thumbnail for an image that never went out: its last glimpse of the sun.

      Still sad about it.

    1. The Tohoku Regional Bureau (TRB) of theMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism(MLIT) performed various actions in response to the 2011Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. The total dis-aster recovery and reconstruction period is expected to lastfor 10 years,

      This is the PDF.

    2. Japan’s recovery and reconstruction plans consist ofnational, prefectural, municipal, and residential level plans(IRP et al.2013).

      Learn more.

  7. Feb 2019
    1. This isn’t the first time in recent memory that a group of authors has been unhappy that a journal they published in was later delisted. That happened with Oncotarget last year.

      To me, this doesn't seem to be a valid reason for retracting the articles. What does COPE say about a case like this? Should the publisher have to remove them?

    1. Indeed, Japan’s parenting attitudes, as reflected in the World Values Survey, are closer to those in culturally remote Germany and the Netherlands than to China’s.

      This has got to be a huge difference from thirty years ago. Japan's demographic problems have meant that every kid has a future now.

    1. The nomination has sparked criticism, however, over Mr Azar’s own track record at Eli Lilly, a pharmaceuticals giant that was one of several to repeatedly increased the price of insulin, a life-saving drug used to treat diabetes. 

      The man should be prosecuted. Evil!

    1. In VR systems, the main goals are to improve the optical performance and bring the price down.

      This is interesting.

    1. the flyby showed Pluto to be home to cryo- or ice volcanoes, soaring mountains, and flat plains. Its surface is dominated by volatile ices, with large variations in color and albedo. New Horizons also took a look at Charon, the largest of Pluto’s five moons. Charon appears to be loaded with just water ice, absent the other frozen gasses found on Pluto. The most striking feature on this moon is a 600-mile long rift, longer than the Grand Canyon.

      How did I not know that Pluto had 5 moons? Really, I'm slacking on my solar system knowledge!

    1. The bookmark also allows you to annotate any site, but requires an extra step.

      You need to switch it on, and that can take a second, depending on how busy the page is, but it works the same.

    2. either as a Chrome plug in

      Also in other browsers via a bookmarklet!

    1. I would be remiss in not mentioning Pres. Roosevelt’s great friend and ally Winston Churchill who not only helped end World War II but was a lover and companion to a number of parrots.

      I have never seen a picture with Winston Churchill and parrots. It raises him higher in my esteem. I bet they swore also.

    2. Pol was taught to swear and screamed curse words at his funeral. The African Grey had to be ejected from the funeral ceremony when he started cursing in both English and Spanish, all learned from the president!

      Seems like Jackson had the last laugh!

    3. she heroically rescued the parrot as the fire was engulfing the White House. 

      This should be the story that everyone knows!

    1. “My hometown of New Haven, Connecticut, has plenty of ugly and harsh, brutalist architecture, but the old Pirelli Tire building on Long Wharf, which was designed by Marcel Breuer, has always been my favorite. It’s fascinated me since I was a kid.” — jmang

      It's fascinated me, too!

    1. Here in the Jordanian capital, the 6,000 seats of a 2nd-century Roman amphitheater stand testament to the significance of what was then known as Philadelphia, or “the city of brotherly love.”

      So cool to have a picture in front of this amphitheater!

    1. But every single photo on the site has been created by using a special kind of artificial intelligence algorithm called generative adversarial networks (GANs).

      These could be actual people. How would we know?

    1. archaeologists announced they had uncovered a remarkably well-preserved fresco depicting his story: The hunter who fell in love with his reflection in a pool.

      Need to go back to Pompeii when it is less crowded so I can enjoy it more.

    1. Costume designer Romy McCloskey recently used the skills the precision work of her hand embroidery and embellishments to help save the life of an injured Monarch butterfly

      I wouldn't even think this would be possible. Amazing!

    1. incorporating community feedback and expert judgment

      Biomed Central and ResearchSquare have partnered on a project called InReview, which enables community feedback in parallel with traditional peer review. More on that project here.

    2. peer review reports are published, either anonymously or with attribution;

      American Society for Plant Biologists is using Hypothesis annotation to draw the reader's attention to Peer Review Reports, publications that were previously hidden in supplementary materials. An example can be found here. And a list of all articles where such annotations have been added can be found here.

    3. We believe that a “publish first, curate second” approach with the following features would be a strong alternative: authors decide when and what to publish; peer review reports are published, either anonymously or with attribution; and curation occurs after publication, incorporating community feedback and expert judgment to select articles for target audiences and to evaluate whether scientific work has stood the test of time. These proposed changes could optimize publishing practices for the digital age, emphasizing transparency, peer-mediated improvement, and post-publication appraisal of scientific articles.

      This seems like a great argument for open annotation.

    1. But on Wednesday, NASA announced that the rover is dead.

      RIP Opportunity, it's been great seeing Mars through your eyes. I hope we can retrieve you someday.

    1. Or helpful annotations anchored to places of interest.

      Absolutely! Think how useful (and how annoying) this could be. The ability for the user to choose will be key.

    1. Open to the public since 1965, the Derinkuyu underground city, along with nearby Kaymaklı, is a well-known tourist attraction in the region. While only 8 of the 18 levels are viewable, it’s an incredible opportunity to see man’s ability to adapt to their circumstances.

      Would love to go see this!

    1. "Every generation has the obligation to free men's minds for a look at new worlds ... to look out from a higher plateau than the last generation. Your vision is not limited by what your eye can see, but what your mind can imagine. If you accept these past accomplishments as commonplace, then think of the new horizons that you can explore. ... Make your life count, and the world will be a better place because you tried."

      Wow! I never knew this! Heartened.

    2. The ball spent 173 days in space on board the ISS. It orbited the earth nearly 3,000 times, passing auroras and constellations, wonders of the ancient world and sprawling cities of the modern. On April 10, 2017, it returned to Earth, its mission completed.

      Such a nice tribute. So tangible.

    1. One raven in the experiment figured out how to work their rock/box contraption first, then began teaching the method to other ravens, and finally invented its own way of doing it. Instead of dropping a rock to release a treat, the future Ruler of the Raven Kingdom constructed a layer of twigs in the tube, and pushed another stick down through the layer to force it open. The bird had to be removed from the experiment before it could teach any other birds how to do it.

      This is so cool! (Until they take over the world, that is...)

    1. Dissecting Flavivirus Biology in Salivary Gland Cultures from Fed and Unfed Ixodes scapularis (Black-Legged Tick)

      Data worth viewing: a tick trachea with viral infection in its salivary glands.

    1. The term “Metaverse” stems from Neal Stephenson’s 1992 novel Snow Crash, and describes a collective virtual shared space that’s created by the convergence of virtually enhanced physical reality and persistent virtual space.

      Cool to see how this is developing, as Snow Crash imagined this before online environments were becoming ore fully fleshed.

    1. Office-based devices that permit multiple automated measurements after a pre-programmed rest period produce blood pressure readings that are independent of digit preference bias and the “white coat” phenomenon (where blood pressure is elevated in the clinic but normal at home)

      This is a great recommendation.

    1. Princess Langwidere and her collection of heads for every moment; The Nome King and the horror of being turned into decorative tchotchkes, unable to tell your friends who you are; and the Wheelers.

      Come to mention it, this book really freaked me out also. I guess I suppressed it. Especially the tchotchkes bit (more than the heads, oddly).

  8. Jan 2019
    1. utilitarianism
    2. provides only very general guidelines

      A quizlet on the Patient's Bill of Rights can be accessed here.

    3. A Patient's Bill of Rights did not arise from the U.S. government but from the medical community itself—it is the medical community that defined its own set of obligations.

      Why is this significant?

    4. convergence of several societal factors

      Discuss what these societal factors may have included.

    5. A Patient's Bill of Rights

      Learn more about A Patient's Bill of Rights here.

    1. Architect and graphic designer Mahmoud Tammam has translated his love of word manipulation into a delightful series celebrating language.

      Love these!

    1. One sculpture that perfectly illustrates both of these instances is The Veiled Virgin, a 19th-century work by Italian sculptor Giovanni Strazza.

      Incredibly beautiful! Veiled Lady here. But my favorite is the Veiled Nun.

    1. Global burden & epidemiology of adolescent nutrition: issues and risk factors

      Learn more about this topic in this Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism article by Parul Christian. More about the journal here.

    1. Academics will be able to give feedback at the same time the research is actively taking place; and it will be as though scholars are directly connected to each other in the same lab or institution.

      Annotation is a great way for folks at a range of institutions to provide public or private collaborative feedback. Get your free account here: https://web.hypothes.is/start/

    2. Web annotation, for example, is catching on as a new mode of collaboration, peer review, and other research functions.

      And the combination of community feedback on preprints with traditional and post-publication peer review through collaborative annotation is catching on with a variety of publishers. See InReview by BMC and ResearchSquare. Also COS preprint servers such as SocArXiv and Psyarxiv.

    3. Most progress will instead occur as annotations on the article text. Articles already contain live links to referenced articles, and future annotations could, for example, indicate the level of support for a particular point, or flag citations to retracted articles.

      Wonderful to see thinking in this direction. I'm thinking many layers of annotations for different purposes--both human and machine readable.

    1. This is probably where Google Glass failed as there wasn’t much to do with it other than to spy on others…

      This is completely untrue and shows the lack of awareness of the Glass applications--and also how Glass continues to be useful in workflow scenarios. Martijn should know better.

    1. Although intraoperative factors, including heart rate, body temperature, lactate level, base excess, and transfusion, were reported to associate with postoperative CRP elevation after cardiac surgery [8], no intraoperative parameters have been evaluated well for the association with postoperative CRP levels after non-cardiac surgery.

      Interesting.

    1. The cost of illegal drugs exceeds $500 billion a year, vastly more than the $5.7 billion we have requested from Congress.

      This seems to be suggesting that we could sell the illegal drugs to fund the wall?

    1. You can login to your Genius account to check your annotations and therein, you can also use the "Share" button to share an annotation via link or via Twitter or Facebook.

      In spring of 2017, Genius announced a pivot back to music video. While you can still create an account, you can no longer get access to the plug in to use it on sites where it is not supported.

    1. At Kudos, we wanted to measure the impact authors using Kudos can have on downloads.

      If you aren't familiar with Kudos, check out this brief video: https://youtu.be/SoQE4exULhM

    2. D. Sommer

      Perspectives:

      As a former physicist and publisher, communicating research has always been important to me. In my role as a co-founder of Kudos, I have the opportunity to help research achieve its full potential by providing tools to help authors maximize the reach and impact of their work. What drives me is the idea that one day a horrible disease may be cured or a transformative technology developed as a result of the guidance and tools we have provided. Learn more on Kudos.

    3. The case for authors taking responsibility for maximizing the impact of their research has never been stronger. With over $1 trillion invested in research every year it is surprising to find some studies showing that 50% of articles are never read, and a much higher percentage are never cited. With researchers under increasing pressure from institutions and funders to demonstrate that their research will have impact and be applied, it is critical that researchers do all they can to make sure the right people find, understand and use their work.

      Making the case for maximizing impact.

    4. There is a shift towards a culture of discovery.
    5. Discoverability is no longer just about technology
    1. We found that a plain language summary gives readers an instant overview of an article, making it easier to understand and also easier to find.

      Here is an example Plain Language Summary created for one of David Sommer's own articles.

      Maximize publication impact by all stakeholders coordinating their efforts

      What is it about?

      In this paper I explore the idea that in order to maximize a publication's impact, everybody needs to play their part - authors, co-authors, publishers, institutions, societies and funders. The author is the common factor that links all of these organizations and groups, so their thinking must shift towards creating a culture of discoverability, encouraging the organizations they work with to help generate impact. The author becomes the conductor, leading the orchestra of players. Why is it important?

      The case for authors taking responsibility for maximizing the impact of their research has never been stronger. With over $1 trillion invested in research every year it is surprising to find some studies showing that 50% of articles are never read, and a much higher percentage are never cited. With researchers under increasing pressure from institutions and funders to demonstrate that their research will have impact and be applied, it is critical that researchers do all they can to make sure the right people find, understand and use their work.

      See it on Kudos.

    1. The Impact of Social Media on the Dissemination of Research: Results of an Experiment
    2. I wanted to tell the stories behind the research — the things that don’t get into the published versions. I also set about methodically tweeting about these research papers, as they went live, going through my back catalogue in reverse chronological order.

      Stories can also be told on top of the papers themselves in the form of annotations.

    1. Street View imagery

      Examples of what Google Street view has captured around the world.

    2. housed in a former palace,

      More on the history of the museum can be found here.

    3. zingpogandeme

      It was a replica of the throne of the seventh king of Dahomey, Kpengla. It was given as a gift by ambassadors of the king Adandozan for the, at that time, prince John VI de Portugal in 1810 or 1811 and integrated to the Royal Museum, former name of the National Museum, in 1818. More here.

    4. Sha-Amun-en-su

      More on Sha-Amun-en-su

    5. Marajoara culture,

      More on the Marajoara people.

    6. Maurilio Oliveira, a paleoartist at the museum

      Video of works by Maurilio Oliveira. https://youtu.be/QO3ZlG2MmOo

    7. In October, researchers sifting through the wreckage found portions of the bones belonging to the 11,500-year-old skeleton known as “Luzia,” one of the oldest known human fossils in the Americas

      Recovered fragments: Here displayed before the tragedy:

    8. The Bendegó meteorite—a five-ton behemoth discovered by a boy in Bahia in 1784—continued to crown its pedestal, less susceptible to flames than the materials scattered below it, many of which were crushed and charred beyond recognition.

      The Bendego meteorite in better times.

    1. It was a replica of the throne of the seventh king of Dahomey, Kpengla. It was given as a gift by ambassadors of the king Adandozan for the, at that time, prince John VI de Portugal in 1810 or 1811 and integrated to the Royal Museum, former name of the National Museum, in 1818.

      The story of the Zinkpo.

    1. Up-Sizing: The Tale of The Polyploid Giants

      Read more about this in The Plant Cell!

    2. Plants are far less conservative about chromosome number and tolerate extra sets of chromosomes quite well.

      Plant Factoid!

    1. Ploidy and Size at Multiple Scales in the Arabidopsis Sepal

      Check out this Extra article! Plus this interesting factoid!

    2. The usage of these terms is complicated by total or partial polyteny (synapsis of endoreduplicated chromosomes), as is discussed below.

      Learn more about this.

    1. Umarah Mubeen

      Brief Bio: During my masters I was fascinated by the upcoming research and developments in the field of micro-algal biotechnology. As an outcome of the preliminary studies to explore sustainable use of microalgae, I was among the 25 young scientists, recognized as Green Talents in 2013 by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Germany. To extend my skills in the field I pursued a PhD at MPIMP in the experimental systems biology group headed by Dr. Patrick Giavalisco. More here.

    1. The Receptor-like Pseudokinase GHR1 Is Required for Stomatal Closure

      Please find a Peer Review Report here.

      The report shows the major requests for revision and author responses. Minor comments for revision and miscellaneous correspondence are not included. The original format may not be reflected in this compilation, but the reviewer comments and author responses are not edited, except to correct minor typographical or spelling errors that could be a source of ambiguity.

    1. The image showcases a lounging caiman with a vibrant crown of butterflies. Biologically, the winged creatures need salt to survive, and the water that collects on the caiman’s skin is a key provider of those minerals.

      So beautiful!

    1. If the open source community really wants to make a difference, then the some focus should be directed toward back-end, e-commerce billing systems. The regulatory conditions of the market have reached a point where it is incredibly inefficient for them to be tracked and applied by hand.

      This is an incredibly important point.

  9. Dec 2018
    1. he remnants of a stable attached to a sumptuous suburban villa in Civita Giuliana, outside the walls of what remains of Pompeii, the Archaeological Park of Pompeii said in a statement on Monday.

      Wow, still such amazing finds

    1. wall-bounded workspaces

      I love how ominous this sounds. Is my car a wall bounded transportation mechanism?

    2. In the most physically salient and concrete example, ‘spatial boundaries’ [11] at work—such as office or cubicle walls—are being removed to create open ‘unbounded’ offices in order to stimulate greater collaboration and collective intelligence. Does it work?

      This type of office plan saves money. Small start ups have this type of office because it is cheaper and more flexible for a growing company. Increases collaboration? Most of our jobs are not collaborative.

    3. Contrary to common belief, the volume of face-to-face interaction decreased significantly (approx. 70%) in both cases, with an associated increase in electronic interaction.

      This fits with my observances and the anecdotal information I've gotten from others.

    1. “vanishing point” geometry

      More here.

    2. Taurid stream

      More on the Taurid stream here.

    3. He noted that the asteroid Bennu — currently under scrutiny by NASA’s Osiris-REx space probe — has a very small chance of hitting Earth a couple of hundred years from now.

    4. proposed Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOcam)

      More on this project here.

    5. Chelyabinsk
    6. when seismometers left on the moon by Apollo astronauts recorded a spike in impacts during the Taurid swarm.

      More on the impact of Taurid meteors on the moon in 1975 here.

    7. Boslough and physicist Peter Brown of Western University in London, Ontario, gave a presentation at the American Geophysical Union fall meeting in Washington this month in which they called for a special observation campaign this June to search for Tunguska-class or larger objects embedded in the Taurids.

      Here is a link to the description of the AGU presentation.

    8. But the Tunguska airburst stands as the most powerful impact event in recorded human history, and it remains enigmatic, as scientists don’t know the origin of the object or whether it was an asteroid or a comet.

      More on the Tunguska Event here.

    9. Tunguska event

  10. neocam.ipac.caltech.edu neocam.ipac.caltech.edu
    1. The Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) is a new mission that is designed to discover and characterize most of the potentially hazardous asteroids that are near the Earth. NEOCam consists of an infrared telescope and a wide-field camera operating at thermal infrared wavelengths.

      Interesting project!

    1. "During Christmas, there's a log that you feed scraps of food, and then he poops presents when you hit him with a stick and sing a song!"

      I heard about this when I was in Barcelona last spring!

    1. High-priority missions will continue, including a close encounter with a distant object called Ultima Thule, scheduled for 33 minutes past midnight on New Year’s Eve.

      Learn more about Ultima Thule here--the farthest object to be explored by the New Horizons spacecraft.

    2. Frank Borman

    3. When the photo was republished on the cover of Life magazine, and beamed out on America’s color TVs, billions of others had to same chance to look back at Earth in all its cerulean glory.

      I remember having "space photos" available in elementary school. I may have even had a copy of this to take home...

    4. Apollo 8 astronauts

      Most of the factoids I know about the Apollo missions come from a book I acquired: Apollo Moon Missions: The Unsung Heroes by Billy Watkins. It was published later as a paperback. by Bison Books and is still available on Amazon. Learn about the frogman who retrieved the astronauts from the sea or the man who decided that they should even have cameras on their voyage (weight was an issue).

    5. The first color image of the earth, taken by the Apollo 8 astronauts in 1968

      It's impossible (for me) to conceive of the distance between the earth and the moon. Three days journey. We're so spoiled by our "fast" travel.

    1. On January 1, the New Horizons spacecraft, the one famous for flying by Pluto, will pass by Ultima Thule to explore this strange rock and try to learn more about the very formation of our solar system.

      So far away!

    1. This survey of Hilma af Klint’s work will be the first major solo exhibition in the United States devoted to the artist, offering an unprecedented opportunity to experience af Klint’s long-underrecognized artistic achievements.

      Really hope to make it in to see this exhibit!

    2. The Paintings for the Temple

    3. Hilma af Klint

    4. During these years she also became deeply involved in spiritualism and Theosophy. These modes of spiritual engagement were widely popular across Europe and the United States—especially in literary and artistic circles—as people sought to reconcile long-held religious beliefs with scientific advances and a new awareness of the global plurality of religions.

      More on Theosophy here).

    5. When Hilma af Klint began creating radically abstract paintings in 1906, they were like little that had been seen before: bold, colorful, and untethered from any recognizable references to the physical world

      I heard a fascinating story about her on NPR today.

    1. Theosophy is an esoteric religious movement established in the United States during the late nineteenth century. It was founded largely by the Russian émigrée Helena Blavatsky and draws its beliefs predominantly from Blavatsky's writings. Categorised by scholars of religion as part of the occultist current of Western esotericism, it draws upon both older European philosophies like Neoplatonism and Asian religions like Hinduism and Buddhism.
    1. An analysis of two fossils would push back the origins of feathers by about 70 million years, but more specimens may be needed for confirmation.

      My mind is continually blown by these incredible discoveries in paleontology. Again, wish I could time travel to tell this to my 8 yo self!

    1. giant tortoises

      More info on the giant tortoises.

    2. fire ant

      The fire ant also threatens endangered birds.

    3. Fowler’s snouted tree frog

      Charles Darwin Foundation site on the Fowler's snouted tree frog.

    4. invasive blackberry

      Galapagos Conservation Trust site on the invasive blackberry.

    5. Forests of the Scalesia

      More on the adaptive radiation of the Scalesia here.

    6. Flightless cormorants

      Galapagos Conservation Trust site on the flightless cormorant.

    7. fur seals
    8. Sea lions

      Galapagos Conservation Trust site about the Galapagos sea lion.

    9. Galápagos penguins

      World Wildlife Foundation info on the Galapagos penguin.

    10. Scientists say they believe that the reptiles may reabsorb parts of their skeleton in order to decrease their size and increase their chances of survival on a smaller diet.

      This is one of the strangest things I have come across! It is thought to be the only adult vertebrate able to do this. More at this site.

    11. coral ecosystems in the Galápagos,

      Read about the Reefscape project which studied the corals in 2017 here.

    12. It is the start of El Niño, Spanish for “the boy child,” a reference coined by Peruvian fisherman because the changes can occur around Christmas.
    13. A fish the length of a pencil, the Galápagos damsel, was never seen again.

      Wikipedia lists this fish as "possibly extinct."

    14. El Niño,

      More on precisely how El Nino affects these islands here.

    15. the intersection of three ocean currents

      Details on the currents here.

    16. Finches

      These finches are not related to "true finches" at all. More here.

    17. marine iguanas, the only lizard that scours the ocean for food.

      This four minute BBB Video about marine iguanas is crazy--they cliff dive, then go down thirty feet, and stay there for ten minutes grazing on algae! https://youtu.be/tO_9zm9tsCs

    18. island of Santiago

      You can learn more about Santiago and tips for exploring it here.

    1. These trees typically grow in dense stands of the same species and age. They die around the same time, and then a new generation of seedlings grows up in the same place.

      Adaptive radiation of the Scalesia

    1. The iguanas are hugely affected as a result, but quite remarkably the iguana’s body reacts by shrinking in size until food sources increase, as smaller bodies require less energy. There is no other known case in the world in which an adult vertebrate is able to shrink, particularly in which it does so repeatedly. Scientists believe that the iguana actually consumes its bones to stay alive, resulting in a reduced skeleton.

      A strange and wonderful adaptation!

    1. An irregular phenomenon called El Nino occurs once in 5-6 years. The water temperature rises, which raises air temperature and bring plentiful precipitation along the continental coast of South America and the equator. The Galapagos lie right in the middle of El Nino.

      Another influence on Galapagos climate.

    2. The Galapagos Islands are influenced by three ocean currents. The cold South Equatorial Current flows westward into Galapagos waters, which comes from the Peruvian Current (the Humboldt Current) that runs north along the continent of South America and turns west near the equator. The warm Panama Current runs in from north. In addition, the deep sea Cromwell Current runs from the west and is a source of upwelling when it hits the islands to bring nutrients from the bottom up to the surface layer.

      One of the reasons the islands are the way they are today.

    1. I wanted to stick my 10-cent eulogy between those lines for others to read, and to read what those others had thought. Purchasing a book is one of the strongest self-selections of community, and damn it, I wanted to engage.

      With Hypothesis, you could engage like this.