75 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2022
    1. Documentazione

      Il problema di questa sezione è derubricare i modelli dati come documentazione. Le ontologie di ontopia (parlo di modelli non tanto di dati come i vocabolari controllati) sono machine-readable. Quindi non è solo una questione di documentare la sintassi o il contenuto del dato. È rendere il modello actionable, ossia leggibile e interpretabile dalle macchine stesse. Io potrei benissimo documentare dei dataset con una bella tabellina in Github o con tante tabelline in un bellissimo PDF (documentazione), ma non è la stessa cosa di rendere disponibile un'ontologia per dei dati. Rendere i modelli parte attiva della gestione del dato (come per le ontologie) significa abilitare l'inferenza che avete richiamato sopra in maniera impropria per me, ma anche utilizzarli per explainable AI e tanti altri usi. Questo è un concetto fondamentale che non può essere trattato così in linee guida nazionali. Dovrebbe anzi avere un capitolo suo dedicato, vista l'importanza anche in ottica data quality "compliance" caratteristica di qualità dello standard ISO/IEC 25012.

    2. Nel caso a), il soggetto ha tutti gli elementi per rappresentare il proprio modello dati; viceversa, nei casi b) e c), la stessa amministrazione, in accordo con AgID, valuta l’opportunità di estendere il modello dati a livello nazionale.

      Tutta la parte di modellazione dati, anche attraverso il catalogo nazionale delle ontologie e vocabolari controllati, sembra ora in mano a ISTAT, titolare, insieme al Dipartimento di Trasformazione Digitale di schema.gov.it. Qui però sembra AGID abbia il ruolo di definire i vari modelli. Secondo me questo crea confusione. bisognerebbe coordinarsi anche con le altre amministrazioni per capire bene chi fa cosa. AGID al momento di OntoPiA gestisce solo un'infrastruttura fisica.

    3. Utilizzando il framework RDF, si può costruire un grafo semantico, noto anche come grafo della conoscenza, che può essere percorso dalle macchine risolvendo, cioè dereferenziando, gli URI HTTP. Ciò significa che è possibile estrarre automaticamente informazione e derivare, quindi, contenuto informativo aggiuntivo (inferenza).

      Non è che fate inferenza perché dereferenziate gli URI. Vi suggerisco di leggere bene le linee guida per l'interoperablità semantica attraverso i linked open data che spiega cosìè l'inferenza (e questa sì fa parte di un processo di arricchimento nel mondo linked open data). L'inferenza è una cosa più complessa che si può fare con ragionatori automatici e query sparql. Si possono dedurre nuove informazioni dati dati esistenti e soprattutto dalle ontologie che sono oggetti machine readable!

  2. Jun 2022
    1. È importante notare che nella pratica si ritiene a volte necessario passare da modelli di rappresentazione tradizionali come quello relazionale per la modellazione dei dati operando opportune trasformazioni per poi renderli disponibili secondo i principi dei Linked Open Data. Tuttavia, tale pratica non è necessariamente quella più appropriata: esistono situazioni per cui può essere più conveniente partire da un’ontologia del dominio e che si intende modellare e dall’uso di standard del web semantico per poter governare i processi di gestione dei dati.

      Non trovo utilità in quanto qui scritto onestamente. Molti più sistemi sono ormai linked open data nativi, quindi oltre al fatto che parlare di linked open data in arricchimento è sbagliato, direi di lasciar perdere questo periodo.

    2. utilizzano diversi standard e tecniche, tra cui il framework RDF

      rifraserei in "si basano su diversi standard, tra cui RDF, e spesso usano vocabolari controllati RDF per rappresentare terminologia controllata del dominio applicativo di riferimento"

    3. a formati di dati a quattro stelle come le serializzazioni RDF o il JSON-LD

      JSON-LD è una serializzazione RDF nel mondo JSON. Occhio che qui la traduzione in italiano del documento del publications office non è venuta fuori bene (loro dicono data format such as RDF or JSON-LD che sarebbe anche impreciso. RDF è un modello di rappresentazione del dato nel Web. Le serializzazioni RDF sono tipo Ntriple, RDF/Turtle, RDF/XML, JSON-LD). Tra l'altro nell'allegato tecnico sui formati per i dati aperti, testo preso dalla precedente linee guida, JSON-LD è indicato come serializzazione RDF.

    4. linked data

      Sono open o no?

    5. il linking è una funzionalità molto importante e di fatto può essere considerata una forma particolare di arricchimento. La particolarità consiste nel fatto che l’arricchimento avviene grazie all’interlinking fra dataset di origine diversa, tipicamente fra amministrazioni o istituzioni diverse, ma anche, al limite, all’interno di una stessa amministrazione”

      Qui c'è un problema di fondo proprio concettuale. Il problema è che il paradigma dei Linked Open Data è stato derubricato come arricchimento, che nelle linee guida che si cita qui era solo una fase di un processo generale per la gestione dei dati linked open data. Fare linked open data non vuol solo dire arricchire i dati, ma è possibile gestire un dato fin dalla sua nascita in linked open data nativamente. Questo era lo spirito delle linee guida qui citate. Estrapolando solo una parte avete snaturato un po' tutto. Consiglio di trattare l'argomento com'era trattato nelle precedenti linee guida. Peccato anche che sia sparita la figura della metropolitana che aiutava molto.

    6. Come detto, il collegamento (linking) dei dati può aumentarne il valore creando nuove relazioni e consentendo così nuovi tipi di analisi.

      Comunque, farei uno sforzo in più, con tutto quello che l'italia ha scritto sui linked open data, per scrivere frasi che non siano proprio paro paro la traduzione in italiano del documento in inglese.

    1. Energy efficiency has never been more crucial! The time to unleashing its massive potential has come

      Will this conference debate rebound effects of efficiency? If not, it will not have the desirable net effect.

      My linked In comments were:

      Alessandro Blasi, will this conference address the rebound effect? In particular, Brockway et al. have done a 2021 meta-analysis of 33 research papers on rebound effects of energy efficiency efforts and conclude:

      "...economy-wide rebound effects may erode more than half of the expected energy savings from improved energy efficiency. We also find that many of the mechanisms driving rebound effects are overlooked by integrated assessment and global energy models. We therefore conclude that global energy scenarios may underestimate the future rate of growth of global energy demand."

      https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032121000769?via%3Dihub

      Unless psychological and sociological interventions are applied along with energy efficiency to mitigate rebound effects, you will likely and ironically lose huge efficiencies in the entire efficiency intervention itself.

      Also, as brought up by other commentators, there is a difference between efficiency and degrowth. Intelligent degrowth may work, especially applied to carbon intensive areas of the economy and can be offset by high growth in low carbon areas of the economy.

      Vaclav Smil is pessimistic about a green energy revolution replacing fossil fuels https://www.ft.com/content/71072c77-53b3-4efd-92ae-c92dc02f09ad, which opens up the door to serious consideration of degrowth, not just efficiency improvements. Perhaps the answer is in a combination of all of the above, including targeted degrowth.

      Technology moves quickly and unexpectedly. At the time of Smil's book release, there was no low carbon cement. Now there is a promising breakthrough: https://www.cnbc.com/2022/04/28/carbon-free-cement-breakthrough-dcvc-put-55-million-into-brimstone.html

      As researchers around the globe work feverishly to make low carbon breakthroughs, there is obviously no guarantee of when they will occur. In that case then, with only a few years to peak, it would seem the lowest risk pathway would be to prioritize the precautionary principle over a gambling pathway (such as relying on Negative Emissions Technology breakthroughs) and perhaps consider along with rebound effect conditioned efficiency improvements also include a strategy of at least trialing a temporary, intentional degrowth of high carbon industries / growth of low carbon industries.

    1. Perhaps one of the most important questions to be asked is “What are we not ‘seeing’?.” … “A collaborative project of the late botanists Erwin Lichtenegger and Lore Kutschera celebrates the power and beauty of these otherwise hidden systems through detailed drawings of agricultural crops, shrubs, trees, and weeds. Digitized by the Wageningen University & Research, the extensive archive is the culmination of 40 years of research in Austria that involved cultivating and carefully retrieving developed plant life from the soil for study. It now boasts more than 1,000 renderings of the winding, spindly roots, some of which branch multiple feet wide.”

      These drawings are metaphors for the human meaningverse of an individual and the visible and invisible aspects of our ideas that we present to the rest of the world.

      What is of greatest meaning lives in the individual's salience landscape. That salience landscape is the result of a lifetime of sense-making - all the books we've ever read, talks or presentations we've ever listened to, conversations we've had, courses we've studied. While the other person may have an idea of what is important to us, they are clueless of how that salience landscape came to be.

      This vast network of formative events is usually invisible to the OTHER.

      The public, open source Indyweb that is currently being designed will allow the individual user for the first time to consolidate all his or her digital learning in one place, the user's owned Indyhub. Since Indyweb also has built-in provenance, it will allow traceability of public ideas. This allows the individual to keep track of what would otherwise by invisible and lost - the history of his/her social interaction with ideas.

    1. What can we do with a shift in thinking backed by a total of $3.6 trillion in funds under management? I’m backing strategic circular initiatives to convert the highest return on value for anyone’s money. Stay tuned as we crack open new investment opportunities.

      Her diagram explicitly shows a synthesis of planetary boundaries and circular economy. This is a connection that many in this area are tacitly aware of but is good to explicate it in a diagram of this sort..

      If circular economy is about ultimate reuse and recirculating material flows to eliminate the concept of waste, then how does energy consumption fit into the picture? Obviously, CO2 emissions is a form of material waste that is an undesirable byproduct of carbon-based energy usage. Capturing CO2 and reusing it is one method, but not a very scalable solution presently.

    1. What happens in Indonesia when a textile manufacturer illegally dumps dye waste!

      This is an example of the manufacturer / consumer dualism created by the Industrial Revolution. Since manufacturers have become a separate layer that no longer exist as part of the community, as artisans once did, along with globalized capitalism, the consumer does not know the life history of the product being consumed. The sensory bubble limits what a consumer can directly know.

      One answer is to promote a trend back to local and artisan production. Relocalizing production can empower consumers to inspect producers of the products they consume, holding them accountable.

      Another answer is to develop globalized trust networks of producers who are truly ethical.

      Cosmolocal production has networks by the commons nature can promote such values.

  3. Apr 2022
  4. Mar 2022
    1. Linked data makes it possible to completely decouple computable information from the system that ordinarily houses it.
  5. Feb 2022
    1. Linked Data bezieht sich dabei auf die technische Aufbereitung der Daten, so dass eine Verknüpfung (Linking) der Daten möglich ist. Das dabei zum Einsatz kommende Datenmodell ist RDF, das ursprünglich für das Semantic Web entwickelt wurde.
    1. Wordle's spread on social media was enabled in part by its low-tech approach for e.g. sharing scores.

      One low-tech approach that could've been used here for data persistence would be to generate and prompt the user to save their latest scorecard in PDF or Word format—only it's not a PDF or Word format, but instead "wordlescore.html" file, albeit one that they are able to save to disk and double click to open all the same. When they need to update their scorecard with today's data, you use window.open to show a page that prompts the user to open their most recent scorecard (using either Ctrl+/Cmd+O, or by navigating to the place where they saved it on disk via bookmark). What's not apparent on sight alone is that their wordlescore.html also contains a JS payload as an inline script. When wordlescore.html is opened, it's able to communicate with the Wordle tab via postMessage to window.opener, request the newest data from the app, and then update wordlescore.html itself as appropriate.

    1. Sie helfen beispielsweise, die heterogenen Datensilos eines Unternehmens zu erschließen, sie intelligent zu verknüpfen, neu zu interpretieren und im Firmen-Intranet gezielt bereitzustellen.

      Potential von semantischen Technologien: Auflösung von heterogenen Daten-Silos Technologie: Linked Data

    1. Darüber hinaus ist ein wichtiger Trend Linked Data im Unternehmensumfeld zu etablieren, um eine neue Generation semantischer, vernetzter Daten-Anwendungen auf Basis des Linked Data Paradigmas zu entwickeln, zu etablieren und erfolgreich zu vermarkten. Im BMBF Wachstumskernprojekt „Linked Enterprise Data Services“ entsteht hierfür beispielsweise eine Technologieplattform, die es Unternehmen ermöglichen soll, neue Dienstleistungen im Web 3.0 zu etablieren.

      BMBF Wachstumskernprojekt „Linked Enterprise Data Services

    1. Eine wesentliche Idee von Linked Data ist es, dass Daten und Informationen un-terschiedlichster Herkunft und Struktur auf Basis von Standards interpretiert, (weiter-)verarbeitet, verknüpft und schließlich dem User in einer Form präsentiert werden können,sodass dieser seine Aufwände zur Informationsgewinnung und -aufbereitung verringernkann

      Leitidee von Linked Data

    2. bbil-dung 2.8 zeigt einen Überblick über die sogenannte „Linking Open Data Cloud“

      Abbildung

  6. Jan 2022
  7. Dec 2021
    1. I buy domains on a regular basis and often from more than one registrar because of a better deal or TLD availability. As a result, I tend to forget I have some domains! True story, I once ran a WHOIS search on a domain I own.

      The subtext here is, "that's why i created BeachfrontDigital". But this shows how "apps" (and systems) have poisoned how we conceptualize problems and their solutions.

      The simplest solution to the problem described is a document, not a never-finished/never-production-ready app. Bespoke apps have lots of cost overhead. Documents, on the other hand—even documents with rich structure—are cheap.

  8. Aug 2021
    1. One thing I'd like forward-looking hypertext toolmakers to keep in mind is the ability for the tools to help people answer questions like "What led to legalanthology.ch hosting a copy of this document? Given a URL from one organization, is it possible to look at the graph of internal backlinks (let me focus narrowly on incoming edges originating from the same host)?"

  9. Jun 2021
    1. some projects to add to the world of linked data

      I'm so excited to hear an update on this project!

    1. But here's the twist. That edit window is wired to your personal cloud. That's where your words land. Then you syndicate your words back to the site you're posting to.

      This is more or less how linked data notifications work. (And Solid, of course, goes beyond that.)

  10. May 2021
    1. a hypermedia server might use sensors to alert users to the arrival of new material: if a sensor were attached to a document, running a new link to the document would set off the sensor

      Linked data notifications?

      (I like the "sensor" imagery.)

    1. Surely RDF already has something like this...? I tried looking around briefly but couldn't find it.

    1. Draft notes, E-mail, plans, source code, to-do lists, what have you

      The personal nature of this information means that users need control of their information. Tim Berners-Lee's Solid (Social Linked Data) project) looks like it could do some of this stuff.

  11. Jan 2021
    1. Why is CORS important? Currently, client-side scripts (e.g., JavaScript) are prevented from accessing much of the Web of Linked Data due to "same origin" restrictions implemented in all major Web browsers. While enabling such access is important for all data, it is especially important for Linked Open Data and related services; without this, our data simply is not open to all clients. If you have public data which doesn't use require cookie or session based authentication to see, then please consider opening it up for universal JavaScript/browser access. For CORS access to anything other than simple, non auth protected resources
  12. Sep 2020
    1. The RDF model encodes data in the form ofsubject,predicate,objecttriples. The subjectand object of a triple are both URIs that each identify a resource, or a URI and a stringliteral respectively. The predicate specifies how the subject and object are related, and isalso represented by a URI.

      Basic description of Resource Description Framework

  13. Jul 2020
    1. Ruby has some really nice libraries for working with linked data. These libraries allow you to work with the data in both a graph and resource-oriented fashion, allowing a developer to use the techniques that best suit his or her use cases and skills.
  14. May 2020
    1. The goal of the W3C Semantic Web Education and Outreach group's Linking Open Data community project is to extend the Web with a data commons by publishing various open datasets as RDF on the Web and by setting RDF links between data items from different data sources.
    2. The above diagram shows which Linking Open Data datasets are connected, as of August 2014.
  15. Jan 2020
    1. Annotation extends that power to a web made not only of linked resources, but also of linked segments within them. If the web is a loom on which applications are woven, then annotation increases the thread count of the fabric. Annotation-powered applications exploit the denser weave by defining segments and attaching data or behavior to them.

      I remember the first time I truly understood what Jon meant when he said this. One web page can have an unlimited number of specific addresses pointing into its parts--and through annotation these parts can be connected to an unlimited number of parts of other things. Jon called it: Exploding the web! How far we've come from Vannevar Bush's musings...

  16. Nov 2019
  17. Sep 2019
  18. Aug 2019
    1. Context notes are used as a map to a series of notes. A context note that outlines a more complex concept or broader subject, using links to other notes in the process. For example, while I’m reading a book, I build an outline of the things I find relevant, based on my highlights and notes of the book. Each of the outline’s items links to a separate note explaining the idea in more detail, and usually contains the highlighted text of the book.
    2. The basic idea behind Zettelkasten is to build a repository of the knowledge you gain through the years. The idea is similar to what Paul Jun, of Creative Mastery, writes about keeping a Commonplace Book, or Ryan Holiday’s notecard system. Zettelkasten adds the powerful idea of linking notes to create a web of interlinked knowledge.
  19. Apr 2019
  20. Mar 2019
  21. www.archivogeneral.gov.co www.archivogeneral.gov.co
    1. Normalización de las entradas descriptivas: Personas, Lugares, Instituciones (utilización de Linked Open Data (LOD) cuando sea posible.

      ¿Qué sistema de organización de conocimiento se los posibilita? ¿Qué están usando para enlazar datos y en qué formato?

  22. Nov 2018
    1. n the Advanced Security Settings dialog box, make sure that SELF is listed under Permission entries. If SELF is not listed, click Add, and then add SELF.Under Permission entries, click SELF, and then click Edit.In the Permission Entry dialog box, click the Properties tab.On the Properties tab, click This object only in the Apply onto list, and then click to select the check boxes for the following permissions under Permissions:Read servicePrincipalNameWrite servicePrincipalName

      Permissions needed for AD account to write SPN name

    2. rant delegation permission to the SQL Server service account domain user account.

      Computer and SQL service accounts need to be grated delegation permissions in AD users and computers

    1. The client and server computers must be part of the same Windows domain, or in trusted domains. A Service Principal Name (SPN) must be registered with Active Directory, which assumes the role of the Key Distribution Center in a Windows domain. The SPN, after it is registered, maps to the Windows account that started the SQL Server instance service. If the SPN registration has not been performed or fails, the Windows security layer cannot determine the account associated with the SPN, and Kerberos authentication will not be used.

      2 main criteria for linked servers to pass through AD credentials

      1. be on the same domain
      2. have an SPN registered for the AD account running the SQL service
  23. Oct 2018
    1. The Linked General Transit Feed Specification (Linked GTFS) is a mapping of the GTFS in CSV reference towards RDF.
  24. Nov 2017
    1. Embracing an Entrepreneurial Culture on Campus go.nmc.org/uni(Tom Corr, University Affairs, 4 May 2016.) The Ontario Network of Entrepreneurs is gaining global recognition for its efforts to bolster students’ business skills through investing in multiple campus events and programs. For example, the success of Ontario Centres of Excellence has led to the establishment of similar innovation hubs throughout North America, the UK, Australia, and Asia.

      What’s fascinating here is that the province might be cutting a major part of the funding for the Ontario Centres of Excellence, particularly the part which has to do with Entrepreneurship Programs. (My current work is associated with Lead To Win, a Campus-Linked Accelerator out of Carleton University.)

    1. An institution has implemented a learning management system (LMS). The LMS contains a learning object repository (LOR) that in some aspects is populated by all users across the world  who use the same LMS.  Each user is able to align his/her learning objects to the academic standards appropriate to that jurisdiction. Using CASE 1.0, the LMS is able to present the same learning objects to users in other jurisdictions while displaying the academic standards alignment for the other jurisdictions (associations).

      Sounds like part of the problem Vitrine technologie-éducation has been tackling with Ceres, a Learning Object Repository with a Semantic core.

  25. Sep 2017
    1. Signposting is an approach to make the scholarly web more friendly to machines. It uses Typed Links as a means to clarify patterns that occur repeatedly in scholarly portals. For resources of any media type, these typed links are provided in HTTP Link headers. For HTML resources, they are additionally provided in HTML link elements. Throughout this site, examples use the former approach.

      A kind of light-weight linked data approach to connecting web pages?

  26. Feb 2017
  27. Jun 2016
  28. Apr 2016
  29. Mar 2016
    1. Open data

      Sadly, there may not be much work on opening up data in Higher Education. For instance, there was only one panel at last year’s international Open Data Conference. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUtQBC4SqTU

      Looking at the interoperability of competency profiles, been wondering if it could be enhanced through use of Linked Open Data.

  30. Dec 2015
    1. Among the most useful summaries I have found for Linked Data, generally, and in relationship to libraries, specifically. After first reading it, got to hear of the acronym LODLAM: “Linked Open Data for Libraries, Archives, and Museums”. Been finding uses for this tag, in no small part because it gets people to think about the connections between diverse knowledge-focused institutions, places where knowledge is constructed. Somewhat surprised academia, universities, colleges, institutes, or educational organisations like schools aren’t explicitly tied to those others. In fact, it’s quite remarkable that education tends to drive much development in #OpenData, as opposed to municipal or federal governments, for instance. But it’s still very interesting to think about Libraries and Museums as moving from a focus on (a Web of) documents to a focus on (a Web of) data.

  31. Nov 2015
  32. Oct 2015
    1. why not annotate, say, the Eiffel Tower itself

      As long as it has some URI, it can be annotated. Any object in the world can be described through the Semantic Web. Especially with Linked Open Data.

  33. Sep 2015
    1. In a nutshell, an ontology answers the question, “What things can we say exist in a domain, and how do we describe those things that relate to each other?”

    2. According to inventor of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee, there are four key principles of Linked Data (Berners-Lee, 2006): Use URIs to denote things. Use HTTP URIs so that these things can be referred to and looked up (dereferenced) by people and user agents. Provide useful information about the thing when its URI is dereferenced, leveraging standards such as RDF, SPARQL. Include links to other related things (using their URIs) when publishing data on the web.

    3. In section 4.1.3.2 of the xAPI specification, it states “Activity Providers SHOULD use a corresponding existing Verb whenever possible.”

  34. Aug 2015
    1. I feel that there is a great benefit to fixing this question at the spec level. Otherwise, what happens? I read a web page, I like it and I am going to annotate it as being a great one -- but first I have to find out whether the URI my browser is used, conceptually by the author of the page, to represent some abstract idea?
  35. May 2015
    1. periods have proven to work poorly with Linked Data principles, which require well-defined entities for linking.