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  1. Last 7 days
    1. (d) All calculations shown in this appendix shall be implemented on a site-level basis. Site level concentration data shall be processed as follows: (1) The default dataset for PM2.5 mass concentrations for a site shall consist of the measured concentrations recorded from the designated primary monitor(s). All daily values produced by the primary monitor are considered part of the site record; this includes all creditable samples and all extra samples. (2) Data for the primary monitors shall be augmented as much as possible with data from collocated monitors. If a valid daily value is not produced by the primary monitor for a particular day (scheduled or otherwise), but a value is available from a collocated monitor, then that collocated value shall be considered part of the combined site data record. If more than one collocated daily value is available, the average of those valid collocated values shall be used as the daily value. The data record resulting from this procedure is referred to as the “combined site data record.”
      1. Calculate mean of all collocated NON-primary monitors' values per day
      2. Coalesce primary monitor value with this calculated mean
  2. Oct 2020
    1. ​Institutions that were primarily online before the pandemic are also doing well. At colleges where more than 90 percent of students took courses solely online pre-pandemic, enrollments are growing for both undergraduate (6.8 percent) and graduate students (7.2 percent).
    1. If you define a variable outside of your form, you can then set the value of that variable to the handleSubmit function that 🏁 React Final Form gives you, and then you can call that function from outside of the form.
    1. We could freeze the objects in the model but don't for efficiency. (The benefits of an immutable-equivalent data structure will be documented in vtree or blog post at some point)

      first sighting: "immutable-equivalent data"

    2. A VTree is designed to be equivalent to an immutable data structure. While it's not actually immutable, you can reuse the nodes in multiple places and the functions we have exposed that take VTrees as arguments never mutate the trees.
    1. We don't know if the passed in props is a user created object that can be mutated so we must always clone it once.
    1. With Alphabet Inc.’s Google, and Facebook Inc. and its WhatsApp messaging service used by hundreds of millions of Indians, India is examining methods China has used to protect domestic startups and take control of citizens’ data.

      Governments owning citizens' data directly?? Why not have the government empower citizens to own their own data?

    1. I tried very hard in that book, when it came to social media, to be platform agnostic, to emphasize that social media sites come and go, and to always invest first and foremost in your own media. (Website, blog, mailing list, etc.)
    1. Legislation to stem the tide of Big Tech companies' abuses, and laws—such as a national consumer privacy bill, an interoperability bill, or a bill making firms liable for data-breaches—would go a long way toward improving the lives of the Internet users held hostage inside the companies' walled gardens. But far more important than fixing Big Tech is fixing the Internet: restoring the kind of dynamism that made tech firms responsive to their users for fear of losing them, restoring the dynamic that let tinkerers, co-ops, and nonprofits give every person the power of technological self-determination.
    1. (Roose, who has since deleted his tweet as part of a routine purge of tweets older than 30 days, told me it was intended simply as an observation, not a full analysis of the trends.)

      Another example of someone regularly deleting their tweets at regular intervals. I've seem a few examples of this in academia.

    1. More conspicuously, since Trump’s election, the RNC — at his campaign’s direction — has excluded critical “voter scores” on the president from the analytics it routinely provides to GOP candidates and committees nationwide, with the aim of electing down-ballot Republicans. Republican consultants say the Trump information is being withheld for two reasons: to discourage candidates from distancing themselves from the president, and to avoid embarrassing him with poor results that might leak. But they say its concealment harms other Republicans, forcing them to campaign without it or pay to get the information elsewhere.
    1. We believe that Facebook is also actively encouraging people to use tools like Buffer Publish for their business or organization, rather than personal use. They are continuing to support the use of Facebook Pages, rather than personal Profiles, for things like scheduling and analytics.

      Of course they're encouraging people to do this. Pushing them to the business side is where they're making all the money.

    1. A statistician is the exact same thing as a data scientist or machine learning researcher with the differences that there are qualifications needed to be a statistician, and that we are snarkier.
    1. you can then use “Sign In with Google” to access the publisher’s products, but Google does the billing, keeps your payment method secure, and makes it easy for you to manage your subscriptions all in one place.  

      I immediately wonder who owns my related subscription data? Is the publisher only seeing me as a lumped Google proxy or do they get may name, email address, credit card information, and other details?

      How will publishers be able (or not) to contact me? What effect will this have on potential customer retention?

    1. Third, the post-LMS world should protect the pedagogical prerogatives and intellectual property rights of faculty members at all levels of employment. This means, for example, that contingent faculty should be free to take the online courses they develop wherever they happen to be teaching. Similarly, professors who choose to tape their own lectures should retain exclusive rights to those tapes. After all, it’s not as if you have to turn over your lecture notes to your old university whenever you change jobs.

      Own your pedagogy. Send just like anything else out there...

    1. For example, the idea of “data ownership” is often championed as a solution. But what is the point of owning data that should not exist in the first place? All that does is further institutionalise and legitimate data capture. It’s like negotiating how many hours a day a seven-year-old should be allowed to work, rather than contesting the fundamental legitimacy of child labour. Data ownership also fails to reckon with the realities of behavioural surplus. Surveillance capitalists extract predictive value from the exclamation points in your post, not merely the content of what you write, or from how you walk and not merely where you walk. Users might get “ownership” of the data that they give to surveillance capitalists in the first place, but they will not get ownership of the surplus or the predictions gleaned from it – not without new legal concepts built on an understanding of these operations.
    1. First, Manton's business model is for users to not own their content. You might be able to own your domain name, but if you have a hosted Micro.blog blog, the content itself is hosted on Micro.blog servers, not yours. You can export your data, or use an RSS feed to auto-post it to somewhere you control directly, but if you're not hosting the content yourself, how does having a custom domain equal self-hosting your content and truly owning it? Compared to hosting your own blog and auto-posting it to Micro.blog, which won't cost you and won't make Micro.blog any revenue, posting for a hosted blog seems to decrease your ownership.

      I'm not sure that this is the problem that micro.blog is trying to solve. It's trying to solve the problem of how to be online as simply and easily as possible without maintaining the overhead of hosting and managing your own website.

      As long as one can easily export their data at will and redirect their domain to another host, one should be fine. In some sense micro.blog makes it easier than changing phone carriers, which in most cases will abandon one's text messages without jumping through lots of hoops. .

      One step that micro.blog could set up is providing a download dump of all content every six months to a year so that people have it backed up in an accessible fashion. Presently, to my knowledge, one could request this at any time and move when they wished.

    2. Manton says owning your domain so you can move your content without breaking URLs is owning your content, whereas I believe if your content still lives on someone else's server, and requires them to run the server and run their code so you can access your content, it's not really yours at all, as they could remove your access at any time.

      This is a slippery slope problem, but people are certainly capable of taking positions along a broad spectrum here.

      The one thing I might worry about--particularly given micro.blog's--size is the relative bus factor of one represented by Manton himself. If something were to happen to him, what recourse has he built into make sure that people could export their data easily and leave the service if the worst were to come to happen? Is that documented somewhere?

      Aside from this the service has one of the most reasonable turn-key solutions for domain and data ownership I've seen out there without running all of your own infrastructure.

    1. The main thing Smith has learned over the past seven years is “the importance of ownership.” He admitted that Tumblr initially helped him “build a community around the idea of digital news.” However, it soon became clear that Tumblr was the only one reaping the rewards of its growing community. As he aptly put it, “Tumblr wasn’t seriously thinking about the importance of revenue or business opportunities for their creators.”
    1. Methodology To determine the link between heat and income in U.S. cities, NPR used NASA satellite imagery and U.S. Census American Community Survey data. An open-source computer program developed by NPR downloaded median household income data for census tracts in the 100 most populated American cities, as well as geographic boundaries for census tracts. NPR combined these data with TIGER/Line shapefiles of the cities.

      This is an excellent example of data journalism.

    1. Note that interacting with these <input> elements will mutate the array. If you prefer to work with immutable data, you should avoid these bindings and use event handlers instead.
    1. use-methods is built on immer, which allows you to write your methods in an imperative, mutating style, even though the actual state managed behind the scenes is immutable.
    1. 1.1. Monitors For the purposes of AQS, a monitor does not refer to a specific piece of equipment. Instead, it reflects that a given pollutant (or other parameter) is being measured at a given site. Identified by: The site (state + county + site number) where the monitor is located AND The pollutant code AND POC – Parameter Occurrence Code. Used to uniquely identify a monitor if there is more than one device measuring the same pollutant at the same site. For example monitor IDs are usually written in the following way: SS-CCC-NNNN-PPPPP-Q where SS is the State FIPS code, CCC is the County FIPS code, and NNNN is the Site Number within the county (leading zeroes are always included for these fields), PPPPP is the AQS 5-digit parameter code, and Q is the POC. For example: 01-089-0014-44201-2 is Alabama, Madison County, Site Number 14, ozone monitor, POC 2.

      How monitors (specific measures of specific criteria) are identified in AQS data.

  3. Sep 2020
    1. "The Data Visualisation Catalogue is a project developed by Severino Ribecca to create a library of different information visualisation types." I like the explanations of when one might use a particular type of data visualization to highlight - or obscure! - what the data is saying.

    1. The RDF model encodes data in the form ofsubject,predicate,objecttriples. The subjectand object of a triple are both URIs that each identify a resource, or a URI and a stringliteral respectively. The predicate specifies how the subject and object are related, and isalso represented by a URI.

      Basic description of Resource Description Framework

    1. Facebook ignored or was slow to act on evidence that fake accounts on its platform have been undermining elections and political affairs around the world, according to an explosive memo sent by a recently fired Facebook employee and obtained by BuzzFeed News.The 6,600-word memo, written by former Facebook data scientist Sophie Zhang, is filled with concrete examples of heads of government and political parties in Azerbaijan and Honduras using fake accounts or misrepresenting themselves to sway public opinion. In countries including India, Ukraine, Spain, Brazil, Bolivia, and Ecuador, she found evidence of coordinated campaigns of varying sizes to boost or hinder political candidates or outcomes, though she did not always conclude who was behind them.
    1. Provides state management for tree-like components. Handles building a collection of items from props, item expanded state, and manages multiple selection state.
    1. Nic Fildes in London and Javier Espinoza in Brussels April 8 2020 Jump to comments section Print this page Be the first to know about every new Coronavirus story Get instant email alerts When the World Health Organization launched a 2007 initiative to eliminate malaria on Zanzibar, it turned to an unusual source to track the spread of the disease between the island and mainland Africa: mobile phones sold by Tanzania’s telecoms groups including Vodafone, the UK mobile operator.Working together with researchers at Southampton university, Vodafone began compiling sets of location data from mobile phones in the areas where cases of the disease had been recorded. Mapping how populations move between locations has proved invaluable in tracking and responding to epidemics. The Zanzibar project has been replicated by academics across the continent to monitor other deadly diseases, including Ebola in west Africa.“Diseases don’t respect national borders,” says Andy Tatem, an epidemiologist at Southampton who has worked with Vodafone in Africa. “Understanding how diseases and pathogens flow through populations using mobile phone data is vital.”
      the best way to track the spread of the pandemic is to use heatmaps built on data of multiple phones which, if overlaid with medical data, can predict how the virus will spread and determine whether government measures are working.
      
    1. Svelte offers an immutable way — but it’s just a mask to hide “assignment”, because assignment triggers an update, but not immutability. So it’s enough to write todos=todos, after that Svelte triggers an update.
    1. How to Export Your Content If you log into Graphite before August 15th, you can download each file in any of the available formats offered. If you'd like a bulk download, I recommend (for the technically inclined) using the exporter tool I created. For those less technically inclined, Blockstack may have some options for you. Remember, Graphite never owned your content. Never had control of your content. And that was the real power of its offering.