- Jun 2022
Jesse Stommel and I wrote once that, In the room with our students, we can know if they’re engaged and participating, even as each of them participates in his or her own unique fashion. In an online discussion forum, it’s difficult to observe such nuance, and impossible to quantitatively evaluate it.
The answer shouldn't necessarily be to figure out how to quantify the online unseen portions of the learning process.
Similarly how might one assess the end results of things which are non-literate?
- Apr 2021
Korman, Maria, Vadim Tkachev, Cátia Reis, Yoko Komada, Shingo Kitamura, Denis Gubin, Vinod Kumar, and Till Roenneberg. ‘COVID-19-Mandated Social Restrictions Unveil the Impact of Social Time Pressure on Sleep and Body Clock’. Scientific Reports 10, no. 1 (17 December 2020): 22225. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79299-7.
- social jetlag
- young adults
- alarm clock
- work-free days
- sleep deficit
- Global Chrono Corona Survey
- Aug 2020
Couture, V., Dingel, J. I., Green, A. E., Handbury, J., & Williams, K. R. (2020). Measuring Movement and Social Contact with Smartphone Data: A Real-Time Application to COVID-19 (Working Paper No. 27560; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27560
Now it is much clearer that id is really a family of infinitely many functions. It is fair to say that it is an abstract function (as opposed to a concrete one), because its type abstracts over the type variable a. The common and proper mathematical wording is that the type is universally quantified (or often just quantified) over a.
This was very neatly put, and
forallabove is also spot on.
My main issue with this book is that the difficulty is exponentially increasing, and by "keeping it simple" (i.e., trying to use simple terms) it is even harder to do a proper research.
1. The name of this chapter
This chapter should have been called Explicitly quantified type or Explicit universal quantification as it is too general as is, and doing a search to get to know more when someone has no formal/previous functional programming background, makes very hard.
Most importantly though, even if Haskell not mentioned, the word "explicit" would have been important.
It is also more about generic parameters than about quantification itself, and
forallis kind of introduced but it is totally misleading.
The post “forall” is the type-level “lambda” (saved) is the best, most succinct explanation of
forallthat I ever found. Unfortunately not before going down the rabbit hole.. (See links below.) One still needs to know about
- generic parameters
- what pragmas are but after that, it is straightforward.
(Jordan's Reference section on
forallalso doesn't help much.)
forallis also mandatory in PureScript (which is also not mentioned when introducing it), and I believe a comparison (the way the above post did) with Haskell is important, but at the right time. At least Jordan's Reference tries to put it off until later, but still before explaining concepts required to understand it.
3. The "rabbit hole" links
These are all good resources, but not for uninitiated mortals, and at a lower level (such as where I am now) they raise more questions than answers.
(Started here initially, but the single sentence there prompted a search for scoped type variables and rank-n types (or Rank N types).)
Peterson, David, and Aaron Panofsky. ‘Metascience as a Scientific Social Movement’. Preprint. SocArXiv, 4 August 2020. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/4dsqa.
- improve efficiency
- data repositories
- science policy
- strategy statements
- reproducibility crisis
- Big Science
- science governance
- open science
- Jul 2020
Rosati, G., Domenech, L., Chazarreta, A., & Maguire, T. (2020). Capturing and analyzing social representations. A first application of Natural Language Processing techniques to reader’s comments in COVID-19 news. Argentina, 2020 [Preprint]. SocArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/3pcdu
- Jan 2020
The concentration of GFP in the sample had been measured using a nanodrop and was ~120μM
How was the protein quantified? I assume UV absorption or Bradford assay was used.
- Oct 2017