1,262 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. RESEARCHGATE RIDICULOUS POLICIES AND DEEDS:

      Members are not FREE/allowed to write comments/reviews or replies (to projects, publications, Q&A) where they promote/mention their own publications. ResearchGate (RG) lock their accounts and threatens deleting their account if they continue that behavior. This happened to me several times and my account has just been locked:

      Dumb people make sad policies! If they (RG) were smart enough, they would implement an algorithm that would automatically remove those types of comments/replies they don´t tolerate (even though I consider it a ridiculous policy) without having to bother their members with warnings and threats.

    1. RIDICULOUS POLICIES AND DEEDS:

      Members are not FREE/allowed to write comments/reviews or replies (to projects, publications, Q&A) where they promote/mention their own publications. ResearchGate (RG) lock their accounts and threatens deleting their account if they continue that behavior. This happened to me several times and my account has just been locked:

      Dumb people make sad policies! If they (RG) were smart enough, they would implement an algorithm that would automatically remove those types of comments/replies they don´t tolerate (even though I consider it a ridiculous policy) without having to bother their members with warnings and threats.

    1. RIDICULOUS POLICIES AND DEEDS:

      Members are not FREE/allowed to write comments/reviews or replies (to projects, publications, Q&A) where they promote/mention their own publications. ResearchGate (RG) lock their accounts and threatens deleting their account if they continue that behavior. This happened to me several times and my account has just been locked:

      Dumb people make sad policies! If they (RG) were smart enough, they would implement an algorithm that would automatically remove those types of comments/replies they don´t tolerate (even though I consider it a ridiculous policy) without having to bother their members with warnings and threats.

  2. Oct 2019
    1. Liberal and Conservative Representations of the Good Society: A (Social) Structural Topic Modeling Approach

      I chose this article, because it is timely, relevant, easy-to-follow (because it is intuitive), and innovative (using data sources, Twitter, and an innovative method, textual analysis). I hope you enjoy the reading. Please follow my annotations (comments + questions) and respond to the questions I pose. Try to answer them in your own words.

    1. It is generally agreed that literature surveys and descriptive compilations do not meet the contribution-to-knowledge re-quirement for the dissertation

      What is not accepted.

    2. Positivist versus postpositivist.

      My research is postpositivist

    3. Experimental versus descriptive.

      My research is going to be descriptive.

    4. Quantitative versus qualitative.

      My research is qualitative.

    5. NEW OR IMPROVED ANALYSIS Analysis may be based on existing evidence or include new data.

      Maybe my research leads in this way, but I think is more the previous one.

    6. The evidence may be collected by an experiment, simulation, observations, questionnaire, interviews, or measurements.

      Maybe my research goes in this way: new or improved evidence.

    7. The additive contribution of a dissertation may arise from 1. new or improved evidence; 2. new or improved methodology; 3. new or improved analysis; 4. new or improved concepts or theories.

      Four kind of contributions

    8. The dissertation should be based on a significant question, problem, or hypothesis.

      The power of a good question. That's why we need to learn how and what to ask.

    9. Different approaches to testing of important results. If a researcher has reported interesting results with one research technique and a given research population, a doctoral student may consider replicating the experiment, altering either the research technique or the research population.

      Open science and reproductible science is key here.

    10. Writers of disserta-tions commonly describe further research that needs to be done.

      Work on the results of others.

    11. If there is likely to be a continuing interest, either academically or otherwise on the topic, then a student can continué to maintin scholarly capability in the área and continué to be a significant authority on the subject.

      This is like Bret Victor's Inventing on principle and the question is: what is your principle?

    12. A research project will typicaliy have more than one potential outcome. For example, a research experiment may fail to dis-prove the nuil hypothesis, it may disprove it, or it may be incon-clusive.

      A database of unsuccessful cases is a good thing to have too.

    13. The exploratory investigation, definition of problem, and writing normally take about half of the total time.

      I can use this to measure my time.

    14. If no theory base can be identified, the topic should be rejected

      Theory is mandatory

    15. Observations lead to theory to classify, explain, and predict the observations.

      Sounds like grounded theory, or at least the prediction is something very useful.

    16. Research needed and interesting

      Why my research is needed and interesting?

    17. In reading dissertations, the student should begin to formúlate a general understanding of the structure and scope of a disserta-tion, and the meaning of contribution to knowledge as applied to doctoral dissertations.

      Structure and scope.

    18. The Selection of a Dissertation Topic

      The selection of a dissertation topic

    1. The first is the way the natural scientific community operates.

      First Factor encouraging professional environmentalists in their denial of social collapse in the near term

    2. Especially in situations of shared powerlessness, it can be perceived as safer to hide one's views and do nothing if it goes against the status quo.
    1. He could have said yes and they would have been friends. The Chinese were like that too, only more so. He had heard how a Chinese from China by the name of Eng could go to Jacksonville, Florida, or any other place, and look up another Chinese family by the same name of Eng and be taken in like one of the family with no questions asked. There was nothing wrong with it. On the contrary, it was a fine thing in some ways. Still, how much finer it would be if Smith would do the same for Eng and Sato would do the same for Wotynski and Laverghetti would do likewise for whoever happened by. Eng for Eng, Jap for Jap, Pole for Pole, and like for like meant classes and distinctions and hatred and prejudice  and wars and misery, and that wasn't what Mr. Carrick would want at all, and he was on the right track.

      This to me is interesting because it shows the thought process of Ichiro. It illustrates what he believes would be the ideal America. An America without class and race. Without hatred and prejudice.

    1. new data provided by the Department of Human Services showed that almost half of all pension applications received last year were not processed within the timeframe set out in their Key Performance Measure standards

      Key Performance Measure for social security processing

    1. . To summarize: Your aim is to explain 1. what you are writing about —I am working on the topic of... 2. what you don't know about it—because / want tofind out... 3. why you want your reader to know and care about it—m order to help my reader understand better...

      Short and sweet.

    2. add a second indirect question that explains why you asked your first question.

      Here is the so what? in the sentence you are building.

    3. When you add that because I want tofind out how/why/whether clause, you state why you are pursuing your topic: to answer a question important to you.

      Back to the beginning: a question important to you.

    4. because I want to find out who/what/when/where/whether/ why/how .

      This is the flavour: the indirect question.

    5. start by naming your project:

      Put a name to that baby.

    6. SO WHAT?

      Miles Davis was right.

    7. If you are an experienced researcher, look for questions that other researchers ask but don't answer.

      Remember: the idea is to make it interesting. It can lead you where nobody else knows.

    8. How does your topic fit into the context of a larger structure or function as part of a larger system?

      Structure and composition.

    9. Ask about the History of Your Topic

      History of the topic

    10. So the best way to begin working on your focused topic is not to find all the information you can on it, but to formúlate questions that direct you to just that information you need to answer them

      What is my question to find information?

    11. If a writer asks no specific question worth asking, he can offer no specific answer worth supporting.

      The power of the questions.

    12. Caution: Don't narrow your topic so much that you can't find information on it

      Where to stop while you are narrowing.

    13. We narrowed those topics by adding words and phrases, but of a special kind: conflict, description, contribution, and developing. Those nouns are derived from verbs expressing actions or relation-ships: to conflict, to describe, to contribute, and to develop. Lacking such "action" words, your topic is a .static thing.

      Be careful: you need words that describes actions.

    14. A topic is probably too broad if you can state it in four or five words

      How to narrow a topic.

    15. Few experi-enced researchers trust Wikipedia, so under no circumstances cite it as a source of evidence (unless your topic is Wikipedia itself).

      Lucky me! I can cite Wikipedia.

    16. Google your topic,

      Or use DuckDuckGo if you care about your privacy.

    17. Once you have a list of topics, choose the one or two that inter-est you most and explore their research potential. Do this:

      Choose one or two topics.

    18. Start by listing as many interests as you can that you'd like to explore.

      Make a list

    19. But also ask yourself: What interests me about this tapie? What would interest others?

      I should answer this questions.

    20. Some questions raise problems; others do not.

      Question and problems are not the same.

    21. But other questions may intrigue only the researcher:

      Write an interesting question is key.

    22. A subject is a broad área of knowledge (e.g., climate change), while a topic is a specific interest within that área (e.g., the effect of climate change on migratory birds).

      The hierarchy is:

      • Subject
        • Topic
    23. As you begin a research project, you will want to distinguish a topic from a sub-ject.

      There is a difference between topic and subject.

    24. From Topics to Questions

      Lectura de Research Design in Social Sciences (GH)

  3. Sep 2019
    1. On social media, we are at the mercy of the platform. It crops our images the way it wants to. It puts our posts in the same, uniform grids. We are yet another profile contained in a platform with a million others, pushed around by the changing tides of a company's whims. Algorithms determine where our posts show up in people’s feeds and in what order, how someone swipes through our photos, where we can and can’t post a link. The company decides whether we're in violation of privacy laws for sharing content we created ourselves. It can ban or shut us down without notice or explanation. On social media, we are not in control.

      This is why I love personal web sites. They're your own, you do whatever you want with them, and you control them. Nothing is owned by others and you're completely free to do whatever you want.

      That's not the case with Facebook, Microsoft, Slack, Jira, whatever.

    1. I feel by far less distracted. My attention span feels more robust than it ever has. I also clocked in at 1000 consecutive days of meditation this past year so I’m not sure which can lay claim to more of these benefits, but my hunch is that getting rid of social media helped.

      No Facebook/Instagram/"social media" better concentration. I'm quite sure that this adheres to a lot of people.

  4. Aug 2019
    1. Running a small social network is like hosting a party. It requires social intelligence, empathy, and yes, technical skills.

      Testing out this Hypothesis thing

    1. Social media network TikTok is testing an advertising platform that will let advertisers target users across third-party apps, as well as within TikTok.

      As of 2018-08, TikTok has 500M users worldwide. 2/3 are under 30. In the US, more than half are 16-24.

    1. Social justice education does not merely examine difference or diversity but pays careful attention to the systems of power and privilege that give rise to social inequality, and encourages students to critically examine oppression on institutional, cultural, and individual levels in search of opportunities for social action in the service of social change.
    2. include student empowerment, the equitable distribution of resources and social responsibility, and her processes to include democracy, a student-centered focus, dialogue, and an analysis of power.

      social

    1. As such, we can read Yelp and similar review sites as curated collections of texts that provide annotators.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2) !important; }.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5) !important; }2Troy Hicks, Maha Bali with a public and networked opportunity to express their truth and author counternarratives.

      Here I'm reminded of Tom Standage's book Writing on the Wall: Social Media: The First 2,000 Years as potentially having some interesting examples that include the ideas of social media as an annotation layer on life.

    2. notes are tediously authored for the profit of multinational corporations.

      social media: live annotations on life itself

    1. There are important differences between social imaginaryand social theory. I adopt the term imaginary (i) because myfocus is on the way ordinary people ‘‘imagine’’ their socialsurroundings, and this is often not expressed in theoreticalterms, but is carried in images, stories, and legends. It is alsothe case that (ii) theory is often the possession of a small mi-nority, whereas what is interesting in the social imaginary isthat it is shared by large groups of people, if not the wholesociety.Which leads to a third difference: (iii) the social imagi-nary is that common understanding that makes possible com-mon practices and a widely shared sense of legitimacy.

      Theory is the formal abstraction of how a society works/social problem is caused. It is usually constructed by specialists such as sociologists on the basis of evidence and prior theoretical constructs (method and methodology). Social imaginary = how people in their everyday lives join the dots between themselves, others and the wider world. My questions: where do discourse, ideology and social institutions fit here?

  5. Jul 2019
    1. So the solution for the U.S.’s relatively high poverty rate will probably rely little on personal responsibility and moral rectitude. Instead, the U.S. should look to European countries, or to Australia and Canada, for ideas on how to reduce poverty. There’s just no substitute for a strong social safety net.

      Poverty is not due to individuals, especially when class mobility in the USA does not exist anymore.

    1. In October, Chetty’s institute released an interactive map of the United States called the Opportunity Atlas, revealing the terrain of opportunity down to the level of individual neighborhoods.
    1. Another solution might be to limit on the number of times a tweet can be retweeted.

      This isn't too dissimilar to an idea I've been mulling over and which Robin Sloan wrote about on the same day this story was released: https://platforms.fyi/

    2. Without a retweet button, Wetherell said, brands “would certainly be less inclined to have a financial relationship with [a platform]. And when you're Twitter and that's vastly your primary source of income, that might be a challenge.”
    3. As Gamergate unfolded, Wetherell noticed its participants were using the retweet to “brigade,” or coordinate their attacks against their targets, disseminating misinformation and outrage at a pace that made it difficult to fight back. The retweet button propelled Gamergate, according to an analysis by the technologist and blogger Andy Baio. In his study of 316,669 Gamergate tweets sent over 72 hours, 217,384 were retweets, or about 69%.

      brigade

    1. some parenting styles or early trauma, which can impair social and mental development, can contribute to creating the school bully. How about reaching out and asking the bully?

      The writer explain that bullying is a symptom of social impairment and mental development. Bullying have their own issues that need to be evaluated and possibly intervention. Writer suggest to reach out to bullies in order to find potential solutions for positive effects.

    1. In the absence of alternatives, activists would simply have to accept the negatives of CSM while trying to take advantage of them.

      Brid.gy is a potential example of this.

    2. Carol Nichols of the Twitter alternative rstat.us makes this explicit: Twitter is “actively ignoring the needs of their users in order to serve the needs of their advertisers and shareholders.” In contrast, she argues that rstat.us is more concerned with user expression.
    3. Refusing advertising is refusing to privilege moneyed speech. The increasing equation of money with speech—that is, those with the most money can be the loudest and most persistent voices in contemporary media—is denied when advertising is refused.
    4. We have to recognize that prior to Web 2.0 and social media, “the media” often connoted “mass media,” broadcast from the few to the many.

      One of the issues we're seeing is that mass media still exists within platforms like Facebook and Google, the problem is that the "gatekeepers" now have vastly different structure and motivation. The ostensible gatekeeper now is an algorithm that puts all it' emphasis on velocity, stickiness, shareability, and the power of anger (which pushes clicks, likes, and shares). Thus the edge content is distributed far and wide rather than the "richest" and most valuable content that a democracy relies on for survival. Mass media is still with us, we've just lost the value of the helmsperson controlling the direction of the rudder.

    5. The initial promise of Web 2.0—that gatekeepers have their power reduced and that “ordinary” users can make media—is still true, even for for-profit firms such as Facebook and Twitter.

      While this is generally true that everyone can now create, the real inequity is the fact that distribution is not equal for all players. We might also ask the question: Should distribution be equal for all?

      Robin Sloan has an "essay" on this topic that mirrors my own long held distribution questions/problems: https://platforms.fyi/

    6. Facebook allows users to sign in, authenticate, and identify themselves on a range of Web sites, feeding our data to Facebook as we move across the Web.

      If second and third tier services that are mono-tasking tools in the social space would allow for some of the IndieWeb building blocks, then this would not only help them significantly, but also help to break up the monopoly.

      Here I'm thinking about things like SoundCloud, Flickr, et al that do one piece really well, but which don't have the market clout. Instagram might have been included in the collection prior to it's buyout by Facebook. Huffduffer is an audio service that does a bit of this IndieWeb sort of model.

    7. In the years between 2004 and 2012, many media critics proclaimed a promising new mediascape of democratic production and thus democratic organization (Benkler, 2006; Bruns, 2008; Shirky, 2009)—precisely what alternative media theorists had been calling for in previous decades.

      I note here that they mention production and organization, but there is a missing piece of "distribution". In large part, part of the problem with current corporate social media is one of how their content is distributed and the advertising model that drives what sorts of content are distributed.

    8. If alternative media theory is correct in orienting us to production—the how of media, rather than the what—ASM, not CSM, offer a more fitting suite of tools for people to both make media and shape media distribution infrastructures.
    1. Digital texts embody the intersections between history and biography that Mills (1959) thought inherent to understanding social relations. Content from my blog is a ready example. I have access to the entire data set. I can track its macro discursive moments to action, space, and place. And I can consider it as a reflexive sociological practice. In this way, I have used my digital texts as methodologists use autoethnographies: reflexive, critical practices of social relationship.

      I wonder a bit about applying behavioral economics or areas like System 1/System 2 of D. Kahneman and A. Tversky to social media as well. Some (a majority?) use Twitter as an immediate knee-jerk reaction to content they're reading and interacting with in a very System 1 sense while others use longer form writing and analysis seen in the blogosphere to create System 2 sort of social thinking.

      This naturally needs to be cross referenced in peoples' time and abilities to consume these things and the reactions and dopamine responses they provoke. Most people are apt to read the shorter form writing because it's easier and takes less time and effort compared with longer form writing which requires far more cognitive load and time expenditure.

    2. The architecture of the platform where I published allowed authorial control of content but could not control context collapse or social interactions.

      These are pieces which the IndieWeb should endeavor to experiment in and attempt to fix. Though I will admit that pieces of the IndieWeb layers on top of platforms like WordPress can help to mitigate some context collapse and aggregate social interactions better. (eg: reply context and POSSE)

    3. But, whereas engaged scholarship has a political imperative, academic microcelebrity has a market imperative. Academic microcelebrity is ostentatiously apolitical, albeit falsely so because markets are always political. Academic microcelebrity encourages brand building as opposed to consciousness-raising; brand awareness as opposed to co-creation of knowledge. It creates perverse incentives for impact as opposed to valuing social change. Microcelebrity is the economics of attention in which academics are being encouraged, mostly through normative pressure, to brand their academic knowledge for mass consumption. However, the risks and rewards of presenting oneself “to others over the Web using tools typically associated with celebrity promotion” (Barone 2009) are not the same for all academics in the neo-liberal “public” square of private media.

      I'm reminded here of the huge number of academics who write/wrote for The Huffington Post for their "reach" despite the fact that they were generally writing for free. Non-academics were doing the same thing, but for the branding that doing so gave them.

      In my opinion, both of these groups were cheated in that they were really building THP's brand over their own.

    4. Microcelebrity refers to the affective capital engendered and commodified by various social and new media platforms where identity and brand are merged and measured in likes, shares, follows, comments and so on.
  6. Jun 2019
    1. I believe there is a place for public comments, but the amount of energy required to nurture a positive community is beyond the means or desires of most institutions. And so most comment sections simply don’t provide a healthy place for conversation.

      Craig Mod provides some interesting thoughts on comments and community.

    1. To put our toxic relationship with Big Tech into perspective, critics have compared social media to a lot of bad things. Tobacco. Crystal meth. Pollution. Cars before seat belts. Chemicals before Superfund sites. But the most enduring metaphor is junk food: convenient but empty; engineered to be addictive; makes humans unhealthy and corporations rich.
    1. That is to say: if the problem has not been the centralized, corporatized control of the individual voice, the individual’s data, but rather a deeper failure of sociality that precedes that control, then merely reclaiming ownership of our voices and our data isn’t enough. If the goal is creating more authentic, more productive forms of online sociality, we need to rethink our platforms, the ways they function, and our relationships to them from the ground up. It’s not just a matter of functionality, or privacy controls, or even of business models. It’s a matter of governance.
    2. So this is where some older paths-not-taken, such as Ted Nelson’s original many-to-many, multidirectional model for hypertext, and some more recent potential paths, such as Herbert van de Sompel’s decentralized, distributed vision for scholarly communication, might come in.
    1. That said, I personally can’t imagine handing over all of my labor to a centralized platform where it’s chopped up and shuffled together with content from countless other sources, only to be exploited at the current whims of the platform owners’ volatile business models. I know a lot of creators are successful in that context, but I also see a lot of stuff that gets rendered essentially indistinguishable from everything else, lost in the blizzard of “content.”
  7. May 2019
    1. Ah, Jane, I take your place now, and you must go lower, because I am a married woman

      Traditionally your rank in life stated where you sat at the dinner table. Since Lydia was the first Bennet daughter to be married, she took Jane's spot on her father's right. A married women came before the eldest daughters and the older daughter was superior than the younger children in rank. (John Trusler, The Honours of the Table, 4)

    2. — shire

      Throughout her books you will see that Austen redacts some peoples and places names with --. It was common during the 18th and 19th century for authors to do so to either avoid inaccuracies or avoid being accused of writing about real people and places. By not giving the name of the militia that Wickham was a part of, Austen is able to continue the realism of her novels by avoiding creating a fictitious place while also separating her characters from any real people who would not want to be affiliated with the actions of Wickham.<br> https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/9479/why-in-old-books-are-dates-often-given-with-the-years-redacted

    3. breakfast-room

      A breakfast room was designed to be in close proximity to the kitchen. This room was designed to offer a relaxing and comfortable space to have the first meal of the day.

      www.hunker.com/13413432/dining-room-vs-breakfast-room.

    4. carriage was sent to meet them at — , and they were to return in it by dinner-time.

      Hackneys, or public carriages for hire, made their first significant appearance in the early 17th century. By 1694, this method of transportation was very popular so the Hackney Coach Commission was established in London.

      https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/tag/regency-transportation/

    5. thousand pounds

      The buying power of a thousand pounds, is equivalent to the buying power of $87,093 US dollars today.

      https://www.uwyo.edu/numimage/currency.htm

    6. She sat intently at work

      "Work done with a needle; spec. the art or practice of sewing or embroidery. Also: sewn or embroidered items collectively" (OED).

      A lady can continue her light needlework during morning calls, but all other activities must be stopped at the entrance of guests.<br> http://www.mrsbeeton.com/01-chapter1.html

    7. Here, Sarah, come to Miss Bennet this moment, and help her on with her gown. Never mind Miss Lizzy’s hair.”

      The social and economic status of a family could be determined by the number of servants in a household. The Bennets could only afford the essential staff needed to maintain the home: a butler, housekeeper, cook, and two housemaids. Here, a Lady's Maid would usually perform the duties of dressing and fixing the hair of the ladies of the house. Sarah might be a maid-of-all-work, undertaking all the duties of the home that would usually be assigned to various hired maids.

      https://www.kristenkoster.com/a-primer-on-regency-era-servants/

      http://www.jasna.org/persuasions/on-line/vol35no1/walshe.html

    8. dressing-room

      A room primarily used during one's morning routine for dressing and washing. A woman's dressing room was made to be private and comfortable, and the intimacy of these small places allowed women to entertain small parties of other female guests. The wealthier the woman, the more luxurious her dressing room.

      https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/tag/18th-century-dressing-rooms/

    9. He is gone to my father already

      The Hardwicke Act for the Prevention of Clandestine Marriages passed in 1754, enforcing couples marrying in England to follow certain rules in order to be legally married. One of these rules was obtaining the consent of the father. Any couple under twenty-one needed the consent of a parent or guardian if the child was legitimate. If a couple married without consent, then by law their marriage was void.

      https://byuprideandprejudice.wordpress.com/2014/01/28/courtship-and-marriage-in-the-regency-period/

      http://www.regencyresearcher.com/pages/marriage.html

    10. a letter to write

      Letter writing was an imperative part of Regency social life. It was taken seriously as a real pastime and hobby, as letters were the only way to communicate with long distance friends and family. It was standard for letters to be written privately and it was preferred to write during the morning hours. Women were especially encouraged to become adept at letter writing as it was seen as a necessary accomplishment.

      http://randombitsoffascination.com/2014/10/07/touch-quill-ink-regency-letter-writing/

    11. sash

      Sashes were accessories that women could wear with any dress, for any occasion. It was fashionable for women to wear dresses that accentuated their waists and bodies, so sashes were wrapped around the waist and under the breasts.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1795%E2%80%931820_in_Western_fashion#Regency_(1815%E2%80%931820)_gallery

    1. “ungovernable” spaces
    2. alternate forms of governance and coercion
    3. proliferation of organized crime
    4. poverty
    5. overcrowding
    6. Feral Cities
    7. Mega Slums
    8. Large concentrated populations create very large vulnerabilities.
    9. greater opportunities for terrorists and other non-state actors
    10. Asymmetric Disruption and Destruction
    11. greater collaboration and information sharing between and among the various agencies tasked with the defense and security of the nation and the vast majority of the population
    12. power shifts to municipal/local rather than national government
    13. hallenge to the Legitimacy of Traditional Defense and Security Forces
    14. humanitarian, defense and security challenges
    15. non-state actors such as terrorists and revolutionaries
    16. Defense organizations will also be challenged
    17. higher level of interagency information-sharing and collaboration
    18. Providing adequate police and security for these areas will be costly
    19. growth of radicalization and alternative governance structures
    20. outpacegovernments ability to provide basicservices
    21. explosion in urbanization
    22. Megaprojects
    23. aggregate power will rival
    24. megacities grow
    25. cloud technology, mobile devices, data analytics, and social networks to automate and connect city departments and promote eco-friendly practices
    26. Smart Cities
    27. 150 cities strategy
    28. massive investments in smart infrastructure
    29. in emerging economies, new cities will rise rapidly
    30. In developed economies and older cities in the developing world, infrastructure will be strained to the utmost— and beyond—as populations expand
    31. Large scale migrations from rural areas
    32. growth in urban population will likely take place in Asia and Africa
    33. By 2050, the world’s urban population will have increased by some 44%
    34. By 2015, the United Nations (UN) estimated that there would be 22 mega-cities—those with populations of 10 million or more
    35. by 2030, the UN projects that some 4.9 billion people will be urban dwellers.
    1. curricle

      Unlike a carriage, which is four-wheeled; a curricle is two-wheeled. Both are drawn by horses and this picture showcases how lavish a curricle can be.

    2. livery

      This picture showcases that a livery is very fine and elegant. An emphasis is focused on the fancy standard that is within the uniform's conception.

    3. Her teeth are tolerable

      During the 1770's dentistry was becoming a popular subject and profession. The higher the class the more access to sweets that could cause cavities and decay in teeth. However, these classes also had access to tooth powders and picks (Jane Austen's England: Daily Life in Georgian and Regency Periods).

    4. — — shire

      "This is standard eighteenth- and nineteenth-century practice to create a sense of realism: the author leaves out the name of the country or person, thus pretending it is a real one and that he or she does not wish to intrude upon the privacy of real people" (The Victorian Web).

    1. Publishers of all sizes are trying to figure out how to leverage these new platforms as user behavior on each platform evolves. On top of all this, the platforms themselves are rapidly changing. It can often feel like no one is on steady ground.
    2. It could mean working closely with a platform itself to beta test new products and features. Companies like CNN, The New York Times and The Washington Post have signed on as Facebook media partners and have collectively produced hundreds of Facebook Live broadcasts, for instance. Other brands such as The Wall Street Journal, Cosmopolitan, ESPN and more have teamed up with Snapchat to produce content for Snapchat Discover, Snapchat’s media portal.

      It's been almost 2 1/2 years since this was published. I'm curious if the group has revisited this white paper to evaluate how these methods have worked over time.

      Prima fascia evidence would indicate that most major publications that have gone all-in on some of these experiments have only lost out on them following the pivots that social silos have made since. A good example is the large number of publishers that went in on Facebook video related products only to have Facebook completely abandon them. It's not a partnership if the publication has no recourse when the social platform abandons them.

      I seem to recall that several online pubflishers were essentially forced to completely shutter following social platforms pivoting unexpectedly.

    1. all meeting frequently at St. James’s

      The Palace of St. James was where the royals like King George III lived prior to Buckingham Palace. They would host balls in celebrations of "official nativities of the King and Queen" (Thompson) where people of Sir William's rank and higher attended. Sir William is referencing an earlier scene in chapter six asking Darcy if he ever danced at St. James's. (http://www.jasna.org/persuasions/on-line/vol33no1/thompson.html) (https://janeaustenslondon.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/st-jamess-palace-1-copy.jpg)

    2. properly sanctioned

      “Allowed by Authority” Marriages must be recognized by both law and God to be proper (OED).

    3. three or four hundred a year

      In 2019, 300 pounds would be equivalent to $30,372.96 while 400 pounds would be equivalent to $40,497.28. 1802 is the closest year to input the information because in the following paragraph, there is an indirect reference to the Treaty of Amiens which took place between 1802-1803. https://www.uwyo.edu/numimage/currency.htm

    1. barouche-box

      Similar in style to the modern day convertible, the barouche-box was a four-wheeled carriage with a falling top. It had two sets of double seats, positioned to face each other, and a seat for the driver, called the box, outside of the carriage. Due to its light, somewhat flimsy design, it was regarded as a summer carriage.

    2. Netherfield ball

      Ball that Mr. Bingley invites the Bennet family to. This ball was a way for Mr. Bingley to spend more time courting Jane. This was the proper way for men to court women in this time. It was also an opportunity for Elizabeth to spend time with Wickham but when he doesn't show up, Elizabeth spends time with Mr. Darcy, pushing their complicated love story further. Mr. Darcy also uses the ball as a proper way to court Elizabeth in his own way.

    3. Daughters are never of so much consequence to a father.

      In Austen's time, the importance of passing down a legacy to a male heir is heavily stressed. Oftentimes things like property and money are passed down to the nearest male heir, even if that means skipping any direct children for inheritance. It is very rare for a woman to inherit.

    4. Miss De Bourgh exerted herself so far as to curtsey and hold out her hand to both

      Curtsying is a sign of respect typically used by those of lower status to address those of higher status. In this case, Anne De Bourgh is showing deference to Elizabeth and Lady Catherine curtsying first, which is somewhat strange, considering she is of higher status. By holding her hands out, she is also expecting a similar show of respect back.

    1. I may suffer from the want of money. Younger sons cannot marry where they like.”

      In 18th century finances, typically, the oldest son is the one who usually inherits most of the family money and estates, leaving the younger sons to look for wealth through marriages to women of wealthy families. "Younger sons with no expectations of succeeding to any paternal property, might come to inherit the estates of much wealthier families to whose heiresses they could never have hoped to aspire."

      Clay, Christopher. “Marriage, Inheritance, and the Rise of Large Estates in England, 1660-1815.” The Economic History Review, vol. 21, no. 3, 1968, pp. 503–518. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/2592747.

    2. but fifteen

      The Marriage Act of 1753, or Lord Hardwicke's Act, prohibited marriages for those under 21 without a parent or guardian's consent (Marriage Act 1753, PERFAR https://www.perfar.eu/policies/marriage-act-1753)

    3. The envelope itself was likewise full.

      The cost of a letter was dependent on length and number of pages. Likewise, envelopes didn't come into common use until 1840 (Leslie Adkins, Jane Austen's England, 235-236).

    4. inferiority of your connexions? — to congratulate myself on the hope of relations, whose condition in life is so decidedly beneath my own?”

      Connexions - "Relationship by family ties, as marriage or distant consanguinity. Often with a and plural" (OED).

      Technically, Mr. Darcy and the Bennet family are from the same class, the gentry, but he has better connections. Mr. Darcy is related to Lady Catherine De Bourgh who holds the highest title a woman can have within the Gentry class. Comparatively, the Bennet's are related to the Gardiners, who are in a class below the gentry, the professional class.

    5. executors of my father’s will

      "Before 1858, the executor or executrix would register the will in the relevant ecclesiastical court to obtain a grant of probate, thereby allowing the bequests to be fulfilled" (BBC, https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/familyhistory/journey_life/research_tools_04.shtml).

    1. the government reported the discovery of large gold deposits in Lege Dimbi, also in Sidamo.

      This shows that there was gold in Ethiopia!

    1. Due to its electrical conductivity, copper is used in electronics, cars, and wires. This makes copper critical for highly developed countries.

      true stuuff

    2. Codelco is a state-owned Chilean mining company and the world’s largest copper producer. Based on their annual report and USGS statistics, they produced ~10% of the world’s copper in 2015 and own 8% of global reserves. They are also a large producer of greenhouse gas emissions. Last year, Codelco produced 3,2 t CO2e/millions tmf from both indirect and direct effects, and in 2011 it consumed 12% of the total national electricity supply.

      Goddamn they should start recylcling

    3. Copper is a key driver of growth and economic wealth for Chile.
    4. What can Codelco do, then? In addition to cost cutting, Codelco could consider entering the recycling copper industry, as energy prices are driving “virgin” copper costs up.

      thats good

    5. copper mining significantly contributes to climate change.
    1. The country’s economy is completely dependent on mining. Many poor families are completely dependent on their children working the mines. That $9/day is hard for a child to reject

      its weird how people are able to exploit these people legally, and if not legally than how have people not made an effort to stop them?

    2. Walt describes how the multibillion-dollar industry, that has made some people outside Africa really really rich, is not known to workers like Lukasa. He just sells his haul to Chinese traders who have seen their profits increase 400% over the last two years.

      I wonder if the people at the top of the company even know that this is going on with there "employees"

    3. Especially one child named Lukasa who gets up at 5 AM to work a 12-hour day for less than $9

      how is this allowed

    1. Xiamen Tungsten and Xiamen Sanhong Molybdenum would invest more than 2 billion yuan (US$314.13 million) in the surveying and subsequent exploitation of the tungsten ore mine.
    2. The proved reserve of the mine has exceeded Jiangxi's total amount of available tungsten reserves, and has a potential economic value of more than 300 billion yuan (US$47.13 billion).
    1. entail

      "Law. The action of entailing; the state of being entailed. The settlement of the succession of a landed estate, so that it cannot be bequeathed at pleasure by anyone possessor; the rule of descent settled for any estate; the fixed or prescribed line of devolution" (OED).

    2. fifty pounds

      Equivalent to about $3,627.75 as of 2019.

      https://www.uwyo.edu/numimage/currency.htm

  8. Apr 2019
    1. That so much social capital for the young comes in the form of followers, likes, and comments from peers and strangers shouldn't lessen its value.
    2. Maintenance of existing social capital stores is often a more efficient use of time than fighting to earn more on a new social network given the ease of just earning interest on your sizeable status reserves. That's just math, especially once you factor in loss aversion.
    3. A social network like Path attempted to limit your social graph size to the Dunbar number, capping your social capital accumulation potential and capping the distribution of your posts. The exchange, they hoped, was some greater transparency, more genuine self-expression. The anti-Facebook. Unfortunately, as social capital theory might predict, Path did indeed succeed in becoming the anti-Facebook: a network without enough users. Some businesses work best at scale, and if you believe that people want to accumulate social capital as efficiently as possible, putting a bound on how much they can earn is a challenging business model, as dark as that may be.

      An interesting thesis on why Path failed. Again it posits that social capital is the only reason to be there...

    4. Copying some network's feature often isn’t sufficient if you can’t also copy its graph, but if you can apply the feature to some unique graph that you earned some other way, it can be a defensible advantage.
    5. Most of these near clones have and will fail. The reason that matching the basic proof of work hurdle of an Status as a Service incumbent fails is that it generally duplicates the status game that already exists. By definition, if the proof of work is the same, you're not really creating a new status ladder game, and so there isn't a real compelling reason to switch when the new network really has no one in it.

      This presumes that status is the only reason why people would join such a network. It also underlines the fact that the platform needs to be easy and simple to use, otherwise no one enters it and uses it as the tool first before the network exists.

    6. The same way many social networks track keystone metrics like time to X followers, they should track the ROI on posts for new users. It's likely a leading metric that governs retention or churn. It’s useful as an investor, or even as a curious onlooker to test a social networks by posting varied content from test accounts to gauge the efficiency and fairness of the distribution algorithm.
    7. graph-based social capital allocation mechanisms can suffer from runaway winner-take-all effects. In essence, some networks reward those who gain a lot of followers early on with so much added exposure that they continue to gain more followers than other users, regardless of whether they've earned it through the quality of their posts. One hypothesis on why social networks tend to lose heat at scale is that this type of old money can't be cleared out, and new money loses the incentive to play the game.
    8. I can still remember posting the same photos to Flickr and Instagram for a while and seeing how quickly the latter passed the former in feedback. If I were an investor or even an employee, I might have something like a representative basket of content that I'd post from various test accounts on different social media networks just to track social capital interest rates and liquidity among the various services.
    9. Instagram, despite not having any official reshare option, allows near unlimited hashtag spamming, and that allows for more deterministic, self-generated distribution. Twitter also isn't as great for spreading visual memes because of its stubborn attachment to cropping photos to maintain a certain level of tweet density per phone screen.

      Some interesting UI clues here that either help or hamper social networks

    10. What changed Twitter, for me, was the launch of Favstar and Favrd (both now defunct, ruthlessly murdered by Twitter), these global leaderboards that suddenly turned the service into a competition to compose the most globally popular tweets.

      For the social status conscious these two services definitely created a layer of interesting discovery to the service that it hadn't had before.

    11. It's true that as more people join a network, more social capital is up for grabs in the aggregate. However, in general, if you come to a social network later, unless you bring incredible exogenous social capital (Taylor Swift can join any social network on the planet and collect a massive following immediately), the competition for attention is going to be more intense than it was in the beginning. Everyone has more of an understanding of how the game works so the competition is stiffer.

      Perhaps the IndieWeb is growing at such a much slower rate (in this thesis, there is a much higher level for "proof of work") that this sort of social capital is more akin to that of social capital in real life? Some of the value of IndieWeb is that all your "social capital" can be put in one place and better controlled by you.

      Why would one want to game their own sites in these ways? Are personal sites a better reflection of real life social capital? There's also lost personal time in learning and participating in dozens of social silos which is much better spent creating things of greater consequence.

      With respect to his mention of Paul Krugman's Instagram account, it's useful to be able to pick and choose what you might want to follow in Paul's life. If you're a close friend then his Instagram account is awesome, but if you're a young political science student then his bookmarks, reads, notes, and articles would be much more valuable to you.

    12. [An aside about exogenous social capital: you might complain that your tweets are more interesting and grammatical than those of, say, Donald Trump (you're probably right!). Or that your photos are better composed and more interesting at a deep level of photographic craft than those of Kim Kardashian. The difference is, they bring a massive supply of exogenous pre-existing social capital from another status game, the fame game, to every table, and some forms of social capital transfer quite well across platforms. Generalized fame is one of them. More specific forms of fame or talent might not retain their value as easily: you might follow Paul Krugman on Twitter, for example, but not have any interest in his Instagram account. I don't know if he has one, but I probably wouldn't follow it if he did, sorry Paul, it’s nothing personal.]

      In publishing circles, this has long been known as platform or author platform--ie that thing that made you famous in the first place that gives you the space to attempt to try to use that fame to sell books.

    13. Almost every social network of note had an early signature proof of work hurdle. For Facebook it was posting some witty text-based status update. For Instagram, it was posting an interesting square photo. For Vine, an entertaining 6-second video. For Twitter, it was writing an amusing bit of text of 140 characters or fewer. Pinterest? Pinning a compelling photo. You can likely derive the proof of work for other networks like Quora and Reddit and Twitch and so on. Successful social networks don't pose trick questions at the start, it’s usually clear what they want from you.

      And this is likely the reason that the longer form blogs never went out of style in areas of higher education where people are still posting long form content. This "proof of work" is something they ultimately end up using in other areas.

      Jessifer example of three part post written for a journal that was later put back into long form for publication.

    14. While you can outsource Bitcoin mining to a computer, people still mine for social capital on social networks largely through their own blood, sweat, and tears.

      The other portion of the problem is then turning this social capital into actual money. This gives way to the rise of influencers.

    15. The creation of a successful status game is so mysterious that it often smacks of alchemy. For that reason, entrepreneurs who succeed in this space are thought of us a sort of shaman, perhaps because most investors are middle-aged white men who are already so high status they haven't the first idea why people would seek virtual status
    16. Think of this essay as a series of strongly held hypotheses; without access to the types of data which i’m not even sure exists, it’s difficult to be definitive. As ever, my wise readers will add or push back as they always do.

      Push back, sure, but where? Where would we find this push back? The comments section only has a few tidbits. Perhaps the rest is on Twitter, Facebook, or some other social silo where the conversation is fraught-fully fragmented. Your own social capital is thus spread out and not easily compiled or compounded. As a result I wonder who may or may not have read this piece...

    17. Social capital is, in many ways, a leading indicator of financial capital, and so its nature bears greater scrutiny. Not only is it good investment or business practice, but analyzing social capital dynamics can help to explain all sorts of online behavior that would otherwise seem irrational.
    1. Tips to increase Your SEO With a Social Media Strategy

      If you aren't using SEO methods, make sure you have the advantages of SEO support for your business. Here are some tips to increase Your SEO you can use to kickstart your SEO with a Social Media Strategy.

    1. The conundrum isn’t just that videos questioning the moon landing or the efficacy of vaccines are on YouTube. The massive “library,” generated by users with little editorial oversight, is bound to have untrue nonsense. Instead, YouTube’s problem is that it allows the nonsense to flourish. And, in some cases, through its powerful artificial intelligence system, it even provides the fuel that lets it spread.#lazy-img-336042387:before{padding-top:66.68334167083543%;}

      This is a great summation of the issue.

    1. ​Technology is in constant motion. If we try to ignore the advances being made the world will move forward without us. Instead of trying to escape change, there needs to be an effort to incorporate technology into every aspect of our lives in the most beneficial way possible. If we look at the ways technology can improve our lives, we can see that technology specifically smartphones, have brought more benefits than harm to the academic and social aspects of teenagers lives, which is important because there is a constant pressure to move away from smart devices from older generations. The first aspect people tend to focus on is the effect that technology has on the academic life of a teen. Smartphones and other smart devices are a crucial part of interactive learning in a classroom and can be used as a tool in increasing student interest in a topic. For example, a popular interactive website, Kahoot, is used in many classrooms because it forces students to participate in the online quiz, while teachers can gauge how their students are doing in the class. Furthermore, these interactive tools are crucial for students that thrive under visual learning, since they can directly interact with the material. This can be extended to students with learning disabilities, such as Down Syndrome and Autism,​ research has shown that using specialized and interactive apps on a smart device aids learning more effectively than technology free learning. Picture Picture Another fear regarding technology is the impact it has on the social lives of young adults, but the benefits technology has brought to socializing outweighs any possible consequences. The obvious advantage smartphones have brought to social lives is the ability to easily communicate with people; with social media, texting, and calling all in one portable box there is no longer a struggle to be in contact with family and friends even if they are not in your area. Social media can also be used for much more In recent years, social media has been a key platform in spreading platforms and movements for social change. Because social media websites lower the barrier for communicating to large groups of people, it has been much easier to spread ideas of change across states, countries, or the world. For example, after Hurricane Sandy tore apart the northeastern United States, a movement called "Occupy Sandy" in which people gathered to provide relief for the areas affected was promoted and organized through social media. Other movements that have been possible because of social media include #MeToo, March for Our Lives, #BlackLivesMatter, and the 2017 Women's March. ​

    1. These are cues that can be tied to Social Presence (Affective). supports the case that these cues can be communicated via instructor video - foundation for non verbal cues as part of communication.

    1. Instead of encouraging more “data-sharing”, the focus should be the cultivation of “data infrastructure”,¹⁴ maintained for the public good by institutions with clear responsibilities and lines of accountability.

    1. The first week of class was pretty similar to most first weeks of a programs I have experienced. However, this program was a little more hectic due to the fact that we have so many programs trying to do so many different and connected things. The moment that stood out the most to me was how much work was accomplished in 8 short hours by the MTA changemakers, this was impressive and inspiring to me. I participated in a similar group last quarter. In that program we  had weeks to get the point that they got to in an afternoon.

      You know, upon reading the textbook Networks, Crowds, and Markets, I came to see that when networks are first formed, they tend to be hectic and that there is a scram for connections in order to get a project or anything started. However, as time goes by and the networks began to get familiarized with themselves, I found that they start to form groups that are more stable and cohesive with one another and will start building up momentum in order to build something great. However, this comes with the understanding of trust and mutual bonds and without it, it will not become a teampreneurship but instead it becomes just a regular classroom setting that is just doing a series of movements on various different projects. Thus, through reading your blog and other people's blogs, I came to see that there is a stage in which teampreneurship must go through in order to be called teampreneurship and this goes the same with any enterprises. Guess it is the key towards understanding sustainability.